Whats The Matter With Matter


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Whats The Matter With Matter

  1. 1. What’s the matter with Matter? Matter, its properties, and the changes it undergoes
  2. 2. Definitions Chemical Properties those which the substance shows as it interacts with, or transforms into, other substances such as flammability, corrosiveness Physical Properties those which the substance shows by itself without interacting with another substance such as color, melting point, boiling point, density Matter anything that has mass and volume -the “stuff” of the universe: books, planets, trees, professors, students Composition the types and amounts of simpler substances that make up a sample of matter Properties the characteristics that give each substance a unique identity
  3. 3. What is matter? <ul><li>The physical material of the universe, anything that has mass and takes up space. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass = measure of the QUANTITY of matter a thing contains </li></ul>
  4. 4. MASS: tennis balls and cannons <ul><li>Sample consequence of mass: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more mass, more momentum (the more matter, the harder to change its velocity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* It is harder to stop a speeding cannonball than a tennis ball </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. From here to outer space <ul><li>Mass is not Weight </li></ul><ul><li>MASS does not vary with location </li></ul><ul><li>WEIGHT measures a force, so if gravitation is lower, you can expect to have lower weight. </li></ul>Ex. Wt on moon = 1/6 Wt. on Earth Weightlessness
  6. 6. Classifying Matter <ul><li>Matter can be classified according to its </li></ul>PHYSICAL STATE : Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma, BEC, etc. COMPOSITION: Element, Compound, Mixture
  7. 7. The physical states of matter.
  8. 8. STATES OF MATTER: SOLIDS <ul><li>Has a definite shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>True solids have very rigid, ordered structures </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules held tightly together ; in definite arrangements ; Molecules “wiggle” </li></ul>
  9. 9. STATES OF MATTER: LIQUIDS <ul><li>Has a definite volume independent of container ; follows the shape of its container </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are packed more closely ; move rapidly enough to slide over one another </li></ul>
  10. 10. STATES OF MATTER: GASES <ul><li>Also known as VAPOR (for those usually liquid) </li></ul><ul><li>No fixed volume or shape ; Conforms to the volume and shape of its container </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules far apart, moving at high speeds, colliding with container </li></ul>
  11. 11. STATES OF MATTER: PLASMA <ul><li>A lot like gases but made up of free electrons and ions of the element </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ion soup” </li></ul>http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_plasma.html
  13. 13. BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES <ul><li>Created in 1995; Predicted by Bose and Einstein in 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Unexcited and cold: opposite of plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Near absolute zero, atoms begin to clump. (A few billionths of a degree) The result of this clumping is the BEC. A group of atoms takes up the same place, creating a &quot;super atom.&quot; There are no longer thousands of separate atoms. They all take on the same qualities and for our purposes become one blob. </li></ul>http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_plasma.html
  14. 14. TEST YOURSELF Steam Milk Diamonds Fluorescent Light Glass AMORPHOUS -looks solid, but can flow GAS PLASMA SOLID LIQUID Mercury (rm temp) LIQUID SOLID Not a TRUE solid
  15. 15. CHANGES IN STATE: A brief overview
  16. 16. Energy Changes Accompanying Phase Changes Solid Liquid Gas Melting Freezing Deposition Condensation Vaporization Sublimation Energy of system Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Chemistry  2000, page 405
  17. 17. The distinction between physical and chemical change. A Physical change B Chemical change
  18. 18. CHANGES IN MATTER <ul><li>PHYSICAL CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>Does not entail any change in chemical composition </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a change in chemical structure </li></ul>
  20. 20. FLOWCHART ALL MATTER Homogeneous Mixture (SOLUTION) Can it be separated by physical means? PURE SUBSTANCE Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Can it be decomposed into other substances by chemical processes? Element Compound Is it uniform throughout? YES YES YES NO NO NO
  21. 21. PURE SUBSTANCES <ul><li>ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ATOM is the smallest characteristic part </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COMPOUNDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of two or more elements; contains two or more kinds of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The MOLECULE is the smallest characteristic part </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. MIXTURES <ul><li>COMBINATION OF TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES IN WHICH EACH SUBSTANCE RETAINS ITS OWN CHEMICAL IDENTITY </li></ul>HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES : Non-uniform HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES: Uniform throughout ; may also be called solutions ALLOYS : Mixtures of metals eg. YELLOW BRASS (Cu, Zn) STAINLESS STEEL (Fe, Cr, Ni, C) PLUMBER’S SOLDER (Pb, Sn) STERLING SILVER (Ag, Cu) GOLD ALLOYS AMALGAMS : Metal mixtures with mercury COLLOIDS: Intermediate dispersions or suspensions (Borderline)
  24. 24. PROPERTIES OF MATTER <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS that allow us to RECOGNIZE and DISTINGUISH a substance from other substances </li></ul>PHYSICAL PROPERTIES - Measurable without changing the identity and composition of the substance CHEMICAL PROPERTIES - Describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances <ul><li>INTENSIVE PROPERTIES </li></ul><ul><li>Do not depend on the amount of sample being examined. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in identification Eg. Temp., Melting point, Density </li></ul>EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES - Depend on the amount of sample being examined. Eg. Mass, Volume
  25. 25. SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Odor </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling Point </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing Point </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul>
  26. 26. SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Oxidation Properties (as seen in Rusting & Tarnishing) </li></ul><ul><li>Flammability </li></ul><ul><li>Explosiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Inertness </li></ul>
  27. 27. WHAT KIND?