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Teaching Teachers to Use Tablet Computers: Creating an Effective Faculty Development Program

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Teaching Teachers to Use Tablet Computers: Creating an Effective Faculty Development Program

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The purpose of this information session is to describe an implementation of an effective iPad faculty development program, currently being offered at the University of Ottawa Department of Family Medicine. The presentation begins will an overview of the theoretical foundations of the program, and then talks about the practical considerations when creating a program within a specific context. Finally, the presentation describes the details of the current program, with examples of effective workshop activities.

The purpose of this information session is to describe an implementation of an effective iPad faculty development program, currently being offered at the University of Ottawa Department of Family Medicine. The presentation begins will an overview of the theoretical foundations of the program, and then talks about the practical considerations when creating a program within a specific context. Finally, the presentation describes the details of the current program, with examples of effective workshop activities.

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Teaching Teachers to Use Tablet Computers: Creating an Effective Faculty Development Program

  1. 1. Rebecca J. Hogue PhD Candidate Faculty of Education University of Ottawa Twitter: @rjhogue,#et4online56049
  2. 2. This study is supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  3. 3. © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049 Term Definition Technology Adoption An individual's acceptance of a technology Teaching practice All activities performed by teachers in the administration, preparation, delivery, and evaluation of instruction iPDP iPad Professional Development Program Pre-Adoption Learner Teachers who do not yet use the iPad to support teaching practice Post-Adoption Learner Teachers who use the iPad to support teaching practice
  4. 4. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Technology Time Individual Beliefs Organizational Structures © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  5. 5. • Quantitative measure that predicts whether an individual will adopt a new technology • Two key variables - ease-of-use and perceived usefulness • To increase adoption, increase the learner's: – Perception on how easy the device is to use – Perception of how useful the device is © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  6. 6. Product technology: The hardware and software aspects (e.g. built-in apps) Idea technology: The usefulness aspect - specifically the workflows that describe how the product is used Introducing the learner’s to idea technologies (contextualized ways in which the product is used) increases adoption © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  7. 7. • Two aspects of time: individual workshop duration & program duration • Calendar time is requires for learners to absorb the information about the new technology and reflect upon how that technology can be adapted to their workflow • An iPDP needs activities that are spread out over time © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  8. 8. • Compatibility with individuals beliefs is important • Avoid associating the technology with a specific teaching strategy or pedagogy • Begin by using technology to support common tasks (like checking email), before introducing ideas that require a change in beliefs • Beliefs are more likely to be changed if peers socialize the ideas © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  9. 9. • Organizational policies and practices will either help or hinder adoption • In higher education, change will be faster if it is initiated by professors • Requirements to score high on teaching, lead to a lack of innovation • Identify stakeholders and idea leaders - those who have influence over how peers adapt new ideas © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  10. 10. • Benefit both pre-adoption and post-adoption learners • Include a learning intervention (e.g. workshop) that aims to increase pre-adoption learner's perceptions on usefulness and ease-of-use • Integrate both product technology and idea technology • Demonstrate useful apps with workflow in a context that learners understand • Begin with familiar activity before challenging beliefs • Seek out stakeholders and idea leaders to provide context and champion the program © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  11. 11. • Provide ways to share new idea technology (that is, workflows) at regular intervals • Provide multiple training interventions spread out over time • Use post-adoption learners (peers) to encourage change in beliefs of pre-adoption learners © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  12. 12. University of Ottawa, Department of Family Medicine – >81 preceptors in academic teaching setting – >21 preceptors in community teaching setting Preceptor: practicing physician & clinical teacher Academic practice: – Clinical supervision, team teaching, academic ½ days © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  13. 13. • TOH Deployment of iPads (30% of preceptors) • iPad pilot study (30% of preceptors) • Little or no formal training as part of the deployments • Voluntary adoption of iPads • Most participants have iPad2 • Many participants also have iPhones © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  14. 14. Participants: • Strong preference for face- to-face professional development • Varying level of skill of the participants • Willingness to pay for apps Organization/Logistics: • Internet access Facilitators: • SME Time (for prep and presenting) • SME Skill at presenting Technology: • Mobile apps are constantly changing © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  15. 15. Three components to each 90-minute workshop: 1. Icebreaker activity 2. Skills lab activities 3. Case vignette demonstrations Resources to support workshop: 1. App list handout (maybe) 2. Skills lab checklist handout 3. eBook for iPad (created with iBooks Author) 4. Website resource: http://ipad-fm.ca © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  16. 16. Email participants asking them to: • Know their Apple ID and password • Download any free apps that would be used in the workshop • If needed, update their iPad to latest iOS • Download the eBook for iPad resource Best Practice: Give participants 1 week to do the above. © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  17. 17. • Give participants “permission to play” • Choose free apps (downloaded in advance) • Give quick demonstration • Roll play activity in small groups (3-people) • Goal: build confidence Example: – DrawMD OB/GYN – Educreations – Prezi © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  18. 18. • Use language familiar to the audience • Have beginner participants do the skills lab first • Problem-based activities • Support activities with iBook resource • Work in groups of 2 (one iPad with iBook, the other to do the activity © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  19. 19. • Close open apps on your iPad • Organize your icons on your iPad home screen into two or three folders. Rename the folders to align with your categorization • Use iBooks to annotate an eBook and email your annotated notes to your partner • Configure your iPad for the iCloud > Find My iPad service. Using a laptop, activate Play Sound and Lost Mode. • Have a Facetime conversation with your partner © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  20. 20. Constraints: – SME time – Hands on teaching skills Responsibility: – 30 minute demos repeated Benefit: – Each SME brings a new perspective (keeps content fresh) Tips: – Practice with another peer while you observe – Record the session – Ask a given SME to present at 2-3 workshops © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  21. 21. • eBook for iPad (available in iBooks Store) – Self-contained screencasts & video clips • Paper handouts – Checklist of activities – Short app list • Website: http://ipad-fm.ca – Participant resources – Administration resources © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  22. 22. Professional development program: – Works around the organizational constraints – Adapts to the changing technology Does it work? – High satisfaction scores – Outcomes ??? – time will tell © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049
  23. 23. Rebecca J. Hogue PhD Candidate Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa Rebecca.Hogue@uOttawa.ca Twitter: @rjhogue,#et4online56049 © 2014 Rebecca J. Hogue April 1, 2014 Twitter: @rjhogue #et4online56049

Editor's Notes

  • To begin, I’m going to define a few terms so that we are using common terminology.When I talk about technology adoption, I’m talking about in individuals acceptance of the technology.By teaching practice I mean all activities performed by teachers in the administration, preparation, delivery, and evaluation of instruction. For example, this includes things like checking email, communicating with students, and scheduling events, as well as using the iPad in the delivery of a lesson.
  • These are the five components of the theoretical foundation I’m to talk about each of these in the following sections.
  • The technology acceptance model or TAM, is a well-established quantitative measure that predicts whether an individual will adopt a new technology. The TAM has two key variables ease-of-use and perceived usefulness. That is, if the user believes the technology is easy to use and they believe that the technology is useful than they are more likely to adopt that technology. From an iPDP perspective this means that to increase a learner’s adoption of the technology, we need to include components in our program that increase the learner’s perception of how easy the devices to use and how useful the device is.
  • Technology can be broken down into two separate areas, that of product technology and idea technology. Product technology refers to the hardware and software aspects of technology. In this case that is, the iPad iOS operating system, and the apps associated with the device. In disarray poses an interesting challenge in iPad professional development programs, because the capabilities of the iPad him and the apps are changing so quickly. Any program needs to have built into it the ability to adapt to the newer capabilities.Idea technology on the other hand is the usefulness focus of the technology. Here we look at describing actual use-cases or workflows. That is, processes that demonstrate how to use the device within a given context. For example, within higher education I may describe workflows on how to mark papers using the iPad.Because idea technology is directly associated with usefulness, introducing learners to idea technologies that is contextual ways in which the product is used, increases adoption.
  • Another consideration when developing a program, it is the need for calendar time to support adoption. I’m sure most of you and this ran can relate to a time when you attended a single two or three hour workshop that was intended to introduce you to need technology, where all the workshop succeeded in doing was providing you with information overload. Learners need time to absorb I need technology and adapt to it. This process is not instantaneous, and time needs to be allowed to pass as part of the adoption process.As a result of successful iPad adoption program should involve activities that occur spread out over a calendar interval. For example, activities that are once a month or once every two or three months. Time also poses an interesting challenge, in that as time passes the capabilities of the device changes. So not only does the program need to span an amount of time, it also needs to adapt as time passes.
  • Individual believes plays a role in adoption of any learning technology. Specifically if the technology is associated with a specific learning style, or teaching strategy, then teachers that don’t ascribe to those strategies will be less likely believe that the technology is useful.To help avoid this pitfall, professional development program should avoid associating the technology with a specific teaching strategies were pedagogy.Program should begin by introducing learners to common tasks on the new device for example checking email, before introducing new ideas that require them to change their beliefs and how they teach.Also believes are more likely to be changed if peers socialize the ideas. It is much better to have a peer presents new teaching strategies or new teaching ideas than it is to have a technologist do it. For example, I work with family medicine physicians, I will have a family medicine physician present ways in which to use the device in teaching, rather than presenting it myself.
  • Introduction of new technology does not happen in a vacuum. Organizational policies and practices will either help or hinder adoption. With the iPad, one of the biggest considerations is Wi-Fi infrastructure. Working with family physicians, the devices are less useful if the clinics don’t have wireless access.In higher education another considerations is the structure of academic institutions themselves. Often change will be faster if it’s initiated by professors rather than seen as a change being pushed by administration.A fundamental hindrance to technology adoption in university education, is the need for early career professors to score high on teaching. That means that those who are more likely to be innovative in their teaching practices, are not encouraged to do so, for they don’t wish to risk lowering their teaching scores.One way to mitigate for organizational structures which you may not be able to influence, is to identify stakeholders or idea leaders that is those who have influence over how their peers adapt to new ideas. If you can have an idea leader champion your program, it will be more likely to surmount the organizational structure barriers.
  • When designing a program, the program should benefit both pre-adoption and post adoption learners.The focus of at least one component of the program should be to increase pre-adoption learners perception of how easy the devices to use, and how useful the device is within their teaching practice.The program should involve both product technology, that is explaining how to actually use the device for example iPad 101, and idea technology, that is explaining how to use the device within the learners particular context.The program should begin with familiar activities before challenging existing teaching beliefs, and idea leader should be recruited to present contextual portions of the program. So that peers are teaching the context specific aspects.
  • When delivering an iPad professional development program, you need to provide ways for learners to share at regular intervals new idea technology, that is, workflow or process descriptions. The technology changes quickly, and programs need to adapt to those changes.The program should involve the delivery of multiple training interventions spread out over time calendar time intervals. For example, a lunch and learn session every three months where learners are in courage to share how they have use the device in practice over the previous three months. When delivering the program, Post adoption learners, that is, the peers of the pre-adoption learners, should be recruited to present some of the workflows or process description. As learning this information from peers is more effective for changing learner beliefs.
  • Most participants have iPad2, which means we cannot count on Siri and other iPad3 related features.
  • Need to plan ahead in case Internet access is flaky. In general, I say that Internet access is required for facilitators and participants. As a facilitator, I ensure we have a backup plan for the physician demonstrations … most skills lab stuff can work without Internet (not all)
  • In my experience, one week is usually enough time for most participants to figure out how to do all the pre-workshop activities. This is especially the case for downloading the eBook for iPad, which if they are not already using iBooks will require that they update their iBooks app. One week allows people find the support they need to get the tasks complete (e.g. many of the physicians will ask their kids for help!). 48 or 72-hours is not enough lead time.
  • Icebreaker activities are designed to use various methods of interfacing with the iPad. Free apps are chosen so there is no barrier to entry. Learners work in groups (3 people is ideal) to explore the app and roll play a teaching scenario with the app. Limited direction is provided (only enough to get them into the app and get them started – then let them explore). The limited instructions demonstrate one or two key pieces of functionality (e.g. DrawMD – adding a stamp to a drawing).Adults need permission to play. Making the ‘permission to play’ explicit, helps set the tone for the activity.One reason for the icebreaker is to help workshop participants better self-identify their current skill level. In the second part of the workshop where the group is divided in two, I will ask those who feel more beginner to begin with the skills lab. This is done so that they are better prepared to hear / see what is presented in the case vignettes. Good apps for this:Medicine – the DrawMD suite of apps (e.g. DrawMD OBGYN) is used to roll play teaching a clerk (3rd year medical student) how to do a pap smear, or roll play teaching a patient what an ectopic pregnancy is what the issues are.Teachers/Educators – Prezi. The new Prezi interface makes it relatively easy to create presentations on the iPad. I gave my M. Education students a group challenge – they had 30 minutes to create a presentation on mobile learning using only mobile devices. Even the group that borrowed my iPad cause they didn’t have one was able to use it to create a Prezi … Biggest issue with Prezi is that it needs an account on the server (can be a problem if no one has signed up for Prezi, as doing sign-ups on the iPad isn’t always possible)What works:Apps must be freeApps must be easy to useApps should not be flaky
  • When defining the components of this program, specifically the skills lab and the case vignettes – the terms were chosen because they specifically align with medical education. The language is automatically familiar to the audience, so the have a sense of what to expect in each section of the workshop.After the icebreaker activity, the workshop participants are divided into two groups. I ask the group to self-identify – and those who feel more like beginners begin with the skills lab activity. The icebreaker activity will have given people a chance to figure out where they self-identify within the larger group.Feedback from earlier workshops is to not present too much theory. Learners can read about theory – they want hands on activities during the skills lab. In reality, they will learn more by doing something than they will by being told something. So, the skills lab consists of a checklist of problem-based learning activities. Learners are given the list and asked to work in pairs to complete the challenges. The tutorials needed to complete the challenges are available in the eBook for iPad. In addition, the technologist facilitator is available to answer any questions or help anyone who is gets stuck.
  • Earlier I mentioned the constraints relating to physician (subject matter expert) availability for workshop preparation, as well as the subject matter experts skills in teaching hands-on activity. Of course this is contrasted with the theory which talks about the importance of having peers present new technologies. At the workshop, the physician facilitator is responsible for giving 30-minutes worth of demonstrations. I prepare the physicians for this, by asking them to demonstrate to me what they will be presenting. Unfortunately, I’m not the greatest audience. It is better if they can explain to one or two of their peers while I’m there to observe (and record) the explanation. Their peers will ask them questions when they are skipping steps or not being clear. This additional detail is useful when writing descriptions of the case vignettes.If possible, create a list of the apps involved in the case vignettes prior to the workshop. This can be provided as a handout to participants. In reality, what I do is video record the first workshop a given physician leads. Since the physician gives the same demonstration twice within a workshop, I can watch them deliver the demonstration twice – often with new insights each time. Based up on the recordings, I can then write up the case vignettes in detail for the eBook / participant guide.The overall benefit in this model is that the physician doing the demonstration is not asked to do too much preparation work, making it less difficult to find volunteers. Also, each physician brings their own perspective, and their own recommendations. This also creates the self-adapting component of the program. As time goes by, the physicians doing the demonstrations will be drawing upon new apps – adapting to the changing functionality of the technology itself.During the skills lab presentation, the physician doing the demonstration is asked to spend some time allowing the workshop participants to share their stories / vignettes. This is especially true for the first group, as the first group will be those who identify as more experienced iPad users. The more experienced iPad users are likely to have some of their own stories to share. An additional benefit to video taping the case vignettes, is that if anyone shares interesting vignettes, you will have the information to include in the resource. This may also help you identify additional physicians to facilitate future workshops!
  • The eBook for iPad contains a linear flow through the workshop resources, where the website provides more of an indexed flow through the content. The goal is to have all the content in both places.The eBook for iPad includes self-contained video clips (screencast) demonstration. This makes it possible for learners to watch the video clips even when the Internet is not working. The linear flow of a book makes it easier for learners who want to be guided through the learning process.
  • I have shown you a design for an iPad professional development program (iPDP), that works around the organizational constraints and adapts to the changing technology.Does the program work? So far, the workshops have received high satisfaction scores (positive feedback). As far as longer term outcomes – time will tell. This is a study in progress. We will be measuring the 3- and 6- month impact of the workshops.
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