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Bloom's Taxonomy

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Bloom's Taxonomy

  1. 1. Bloom‘s Taxonomy learning objectives and a map for designing effective student outcomes Choose a level from the pyramid to learn more about it… Introducti …or start with the on Additional When you have completed this module, check out the for more. Resources ? navigation map
  2. 2. The Basics Summarized nicely by Mary Forehand (2005): Bloom's Taxonomy is a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. Throughout the years, the levels have often been depicted as a stairway, leading many teachers to encourage their students to "climb to a higher (level of) thought." The lowest three levels are: knowledge, comprehension, and application. The highest three levels are: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. "The taxonomy is hierarchical; [in that] each level is subsumed by the higher levels. In other words, a student functioning at the 'application' level has also mastered the material at the 'knowledge' and 'comprehension' levels." (UW Teaching Academy, 2003). One can easily see how this arrangement led to natural divisions of lower and higher level thinking. Clearly, Bloom's Taxonomy has stood the test of time. Due to its long history and popularity, it has been condensed, expanded, and reinterpreted in a variety of ways. 3D Model Expert Video Who was Benjamin Research findings have led to the discovery of a veritable smorgasbord of Bloom? interpretations and applications falling on a continuum ranging from tight overviews back to expanded explanations. Most recently, Bloom's six major categories were star t changed from noun to verb forms to reflect the active nature of the cognitive ? ove r processes in the learner.
  3. 3. Screen capture of architecture by Kevin Jarrett in Second Life (2008). 3D Model back next expert video star t ove r ?
  4. 4. Expert Video back next Who was star t ove r ?
  5. 5. Who was Benjamin Bloom? Dr. Bloom was an educational psychologist who studied the development of talent, achievement, and learning. His work remains some of the most influential in educational theory and the psychology of teaching and learning. In 1956, as a result of a result of discussions with colleagues in the American Psychological Association, he edited the first volume of Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals in which he outlined the hierarchical levels of learning view the 3D which became known as Bloom‘s Taxonomy. model back star t ove r ?
  6. 6. Remembering, aka Knowledge Recall of facts, terms, basic concepts of specifics: Knowledge • • • • terminology methodology conventions principles Rote memory is classified as the lowest level of learning in Bloom’s Taxonomy Click to view examples of activities utilizing the Remembering cognitive process: Example 1 Example 2 back star t ove r ?
  7. 7. Remembering: Example 1 Ask your students to write out the quadratic formula… Negative b plus or minus the square root of b-squared plus four ac, all divided by 2a …and you get a standard, right-or-wrong answer. That‘s Remembering. back next star t ove r ?
  8. 8. Remembering: Example 2 Ask your students to recite Hamlet‘s soliloquy… To be or not to be--that is the Whether ‗tis nobler in the mind question: The slings and arrows of to suffer Or to take arms against a sea of And byoutrageous them. To die—to opposing end fortune troubles No more—and by a sleep to say we end… sleep, …and you get a standard, right-or-wrong answer. That‘s Remembering. back next section star t ove r ?
  9. 9. Understanding, aka Comprehension Ability to interpret and relate information and concepts Demonstrated by: • • • • • description comparison extrapolation organization interpretation Click to view examples of activities utilizing the Understanding cognitive process: Example 1 Example 2 back star t ove r ?
  10. 10. Understanding: Example 1 You ask: What is the main idea of the essay you read for class yesterday? I think the main idea of the essay was… …and you get the student‘s interpretation as an answer. That‘s Understanding. back next star t ove r ?
  11. 11. Understanding: Example 2 Ask your students to summarize a concept… My understanding of that idea is… …and you get an individual take on the answer. That‘s Understanding. back next section star t ove r ?
  12. 12. Applying Using new knowledge for problem solving. by: Demonstrated • Utilizing acquired information or skills in novel ways or contexts Click to view examples of activities designed to develop the Applying cognitive process: Example 1 Example 2 back star t ove r ?
  13. 13. Applying: Example 1 ―Based on what you know about this system, what would happen if you eliminated feedback loop A?‖ Removing feedback loop A would cause changes to… …the response will demonstrate the student‘s ability to Apply acquired knowledge in novel situations. back next star t ove r ?
  14. 14. Applying: Example 2 ―How would you treat a patient displaying the following symptoms…?‖ Based on these symptoms, I would suggest a treatment consisting of… …the response will demonstrate the student‘s ability to Apply acquired knowledge in novel situations. back next section star t ove r ?
  15. 15. Analyzing Examination and dissection of information to determine underlying causes; making and supporting Exploration of: • components inferences. • relationships • organizing principles Click to view examples of activities utilizing the Analyzing cognitive process: Example 1 Example 2 back star t ove r ?
  16. 16. Analyzing: Example 1 Ask your students to describe the relationship between two elements of a concept. The depth of color in a finch‘s beak is an indicator of immune system function due to increased levels of carotinoids in the diet… …and the response will display their ability to Analyze information. back next star t ove r ?
  17. 17. Analyzing: Example 2 ―What were the societal motives behind accusing women of witchcraft in the 1690s?‖ The context of the Salem witch trials was a cluster of tension related to both social and political… …and the response will display their ability to Analyze information (and situations). back next section star t ove r ?
  18. 18. Evaluating Making and defending judgments based on evidence and/or criteria. Evaluation of : • information • ideas • proficiency Click to view examples of activities which demonstration the Evaluating cognitive process: Example 1 Example 2 back star t ove r ?
  19. 19. Evaluating: Example 1 Ask ―What are the priorities in this case and how would you rank them?‖ Most importantly, we should pay attention to… …and the response will induce students to Evaluate the information. back next star t ove r ?
  20. 20. Evaluating: Example 2 Ask students to make a decision and defend their choice… I believe the best option is to implement a prescribed fire to control the invasive species… …and the response will induce students to Evaluate the information. back next section star t ove r ?
  21. 21. Creating, aka Synthesis Formation of original ideas or concepts; reinterpretation of existing information in new ways. Demonstrated through: • • • • design production adaptation derivation Creating or synthesizing is classified as the highest level of learning in Bloom’s Taxonomy Click to view examples of activities utilizing the Creating cognitive process: Example 1 Example 2 back star t ove r ?
  22. 22. Creating: Example 1 Ask your students to formulate a novel solution to a problem… One way to address global climate change might be to cultivate plants on the sides of all high-rise buildings… …and they will Create new ideas and synthesize learning in the process. back next star t ove r ?
  23. 23. Creating: Example 2 Have students write a research paper defending a thesis and include references… My theory is that… and the research shows… therefore… …and they will Create new ideas and synthesize learning in the process. back next section star t ove r ?
  24. 24. Additional Resources New World Encyclopedia – Benjamin Bloom Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom's taxonomy: Original and revised. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology. Seddon, G. M. (1978). The properties of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives for the cognitive domain. Review of Educational Research, 48(2), 303-323. Noble, T. (2004). Integrating the revised Bloom's taxonomy with multiple intelligences: A planning tool for curriculum differentiation. The Teachers College Record, 106(1), 193-211. back credits star t ove r ?
  25. 25. Credits • • • • • • • • • • http://www.flickr.com/photos/21847073@N05/5857112597/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/kjarrett/2562263662/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Kqc-7gNKFI Human memory google search via cc http://www.flickr.com/photos/horiavarlan/4519955517/ Frank B. Gilbreth Motion Study Photographs (1913-1917) via Flickr at http://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5279231847/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnifying_glass http://www.flickr.com/photos/billsophoto/4175299981/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/caveman_92223/3346906435/ http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/images/2/28/Bloom.png back star t ove r ?
  26. 26. Navigation Map Start Introduction Expert Video Who was Benjamin Bloom? back Remembering 3D Model Example 1 Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating Example 2 Additional Resources Credits star t ove r Navigation Map

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