Media Timeline: History of horror and thriller

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Media Timeline: History of horror and thriller

  1. 1. MEDIA TIMELINE Rhiannon Jenkins
  2. 2. History Of Film
  3. 3. History Of Film • Inventors began thinking that motion picture photography could be possible in the late 1800’s after Eadweard Muybridge set up 24 cameras to take images of a horse in order to prove that at some point all four of the horses feet are off of the ground. What they had to figure out was how to use one camera to take all of the images. In the late 19th century, many researchers realised films as they are now could be a reality; they just had to design a suitable apparatus.
  4. 4. History Of Film • In 1889 Dickinson discovered the key was to use the flexible photographic film that had been invented by George Eastman (founder of Kodak). The photographer would move the film in front of the lens at a constant speed, the result being several slightly different photographs when moved quickly in front of the eye gives an illusion of a moving object. Edison invented the kinetoscope which moved the film around in a motion that allowed the images to move, however the kinetoscope only allowed one person at a time to view the moving pictures.
  5. 5. History Of Film • In 1895 Edison invented the Kinetophone which could initially still only be viewed as a ‘peep show’ but after much work, created a second model in 1913 which could be projected to an audience. By the1930’s, synchronous sound was the norm as a device that was derived from radio was invented, which could effectively amplify sound in the theatre. Technological advances later allowed sound to be an integral part of filmmaking.
  6. 6. History Of Film • When film became more than just a novelty, companies such as Fox Studios, Paramount and Warner Bros were created to consolidate their power and wealth within the filmmaking industry. They monopolised the studios and commanded every part of the production of a film until the US government found them to be an illegal monopoly. Around the same time, films were beginning to be produced in colour by use of the Technicolor system, which used a special camera that ran three separate strips of film which were red, yellow and blue and when combined, created a full colour image.
  7. 7. History Of Film • The 1970’s brought the birth of the “blockbuster” as we know it, the first film that started it all being ‘Jaws’. ‘Jaws’ broke the typical blockbuster mould in several ways by using a virtually unknown cast and a giant mechanical shark, which introduced a whole new level of realism to the audience. ‘Star Wars’ also captivated the audience by way of special effects which created an atmosphere of verisimilitude. The popularity of film continued to grow alongside technological breakthroughs such as special effects and new ideas surrounding the production and post-production of film.
  8. 8. History Of Film • In 1978, a device named the Steadicam could be attached to the cameraman rather than a dolly, allowing for new ideas from filmmakers to become reality. • With the 1990’s came the arrival of the Digital Age; where CD’s are replacing vinyls, DVD’s taking over the likes of videos, and cameras and video cameras becoming faster and more impressive. • George Lucas released Star Wars: Episode 1 completely on a digital format, not using any film reel at all and prepared to film the next 2 films using completely digital cameras and to be released in digital theatres.
  9. 9. History Of Film • CGI and computer animation is improving with leaps and bounds from the 1990’s until the present day, with films such as Avatar being created using 3D cameras and motion capture, something that would have seemed impossible just 150 or so years ago.
  10. 10. History Of Horror
  11. 11. History Of Horror • The origins of the Horror genre lie in the tradition of storytelling itself, with stories being told of the ‘unknown’ and the supernatural all throughout time. • Classical mythology talks of realms that are not of this physical world and is heavily riddled with monsters such as Medusa, the Minotaur and Cyclops to name just a few. • The genre of horror within literature started with Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764), which although quite stiff and unnaturally written, sparked a craze, subsequently creating the now-recognised genre of gothic horror. The first great horror classic was Frankenstein written by Mary Shelley in 1818.
  12. 12. History Of Horror Films
  13. 13. History Of Horror Films • The first recognised horror film is Nosferatu, which is a silent film • • • • based on the story Dracula. Other literary monsters such as Frankenstein, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and the Hunchback of Notre Dame were soon turned into films in the 1910’s and 20’s. It wasn’t until the 30’s when companies such as Universal released versions of films such as Dracula and Frankenstein, that horror films began to reach larger audiences. After WWII horror films were quite unpopular as technology had not improved impressively and films were becoming shoddy and boring. It was Hammer Film Productions that bought horror films back into the mainstream, using big actors in films such as The Mummy.
  14. 14. History Of Horror Films • The “Hammer Horror” style of film used new technology but still stuck to low budgets and managed to entertain audience for a fair few years. • However, it was the 70’s that marked the start of horrorblockbusters with films like The Exorcist and The Omen which both used large budgets and high end production companies. • At the same time Romero and Polanski’s early films demonstrated a new angle by using their horror movies (the original Texas Chainsaw Massacre, The Hills Have Eyes) to broadcast social and political messages that were relevant to the movements in the 60’s. • The 70’s saw the genre branch out into categories such as sci-fi, supernatural, slasher and gore, many of which have remained the same until the current day.
  15. 15. History Of Horror Films • The 70’s also saw the birth of the blockbuster, meaning that larger budget films were on the table. Within the horror genre these include films such as; The Exorcist, Carrie, The Omen, Halloween and Jaws. • Horror films continued to evolve through the 1980’s when the use of special effects became more accessible as seen in the original versions of A Nightmare on Elm Street and The Evil Dead. • In the 90’s psycho killers were a big focus in horror films, but this died down in the beginning of the 21st Century. • Horror films are now often made using influences from other genres such as thriller, gore, psychological and monsters as well as the conventions of horror itself.
  16. 16. History Of Thriller
  17. 17. History Of Thriller • The Three Apples, is the earliest known murder mystery and suspense thriller with multiple plot twists and detective fiction elements. In this tale, a fisherman discovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, who then has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman who was cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murderer within three days. This whodunit mystery may be considered an archetype for detective fiction. • Thrillers of the 20th century include; The Thirty-Nine Steps, The Bourne Identity and The Riddle of the Sands.
  18. 18. History Of Thriller Films
  19. 19. History Of Thriller Films • Alfred Hitchcock is notably the main pioneer of the thriller genre within film, which started in the 1920’s when he created his silent film “The Lodger” which was a suspense-filled Jack the Ripper story. The next thriller he made, “Blackmail”, was not only his but Britain's first film that incorporated sound. Hitchcock’s early British thriller films were The Man Who Knew Too Much, The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes. • Around the same time as Hitchcock’s thrillers began to make a name for themselves, Fritz Lang created one of the first spy films which made for the basis of the James Bond films in the future.
  20. 20. History Of Thriller Films • Thriller films became more and more popular with many of them focused on storylines such as murder-mysteries, serial killers and people who go mad. A lot of the time the sadistic individual or people behind the mysteries are very close to home. • Alfred Hitchcock continued to make films throughout the 40’s, 50’s and 60’s where he introduced technicolour so that his films were no longer black and white. One of the most famous thrillers of all time was his work: Pyscho which includes the famous shower scene which is hailed as one of the best scenes in cinematic history.
  21. 21. History Of Thriller Films • Thrillers in the 70’s and 80’s became much more focused on psychological issues such as obsession and paranoia, as well as including much more explicit murder scenes. • Current thriller films are again, hybridized in conjunction with other genres such as horror and crime. An example of this is The Last House on the Left which uses conventions of horror such as – isolated setting, insanity, madness and gore. However there is also elements of the thriller genre which include – violence, injustice in society, and a rational explanation of the puzzle rather than supernatural.

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