In Concert:
An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach
by Kathleen T. McWhorter

Part Two:
Reading, Writing, and Organizin...
Chapter 7: Organization: Basic Patterns

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Patterns of organization are ways to organize a
paragraph or essay.
Common Patterns of Organization:
1. Chronological orde...
Time sequence is when events are presented in
order of their occurrences.
Patterns of Organization that Utilize Time Seque...
Descriptive writing means using words and
phrases that appeal to the senses:
sight, touch, taste, sound, and smell.

Featu...
Strategies for Using Description:
1. Use verbs that describe action
2. Use exact names

3. Use adjectives to describe
4. U...
An example is a specific instance or situation
that explains a general idea or statement.
General Idea

Statements

Our be...
Strategies for Choosing Good Examples:
1. Choose clear examples
2. Use a sufficient number of examples
3. Use familiar exa...
Why choose a particular pattern of
organization?
1. Time Sequence
2. Process
3. Description
4. Example

Copyright 2014 by ...
Goal 1: Identify Patterns of Organization
Review Questions
Which of the following is NOT a pattern of
organization?
A. Pro...
Goal 1: Identify Patterns of Organization
Review Questions
Which of the following is NOT a pattern of
organization?
A. Pro...
Goal 2: Read and Write Using Time Sequence
Review Questions
Which pattern of organization does NOT utilize time
sequence?
...
Goal 2: Read and Write Using Time Sequence
Review Questions
Which pattern of organization does NOT utilize time
sequence?
...
Goal 3: Read and Write Using Description
Review Questions
True or False:
Descriptive writing appeals to personal emotions....
Goal 3: Read and Write Using Description
Review Questions
True or False:
False: Descriptive writing appeals to personal
em...
Goal 4: Read and Write Using Example
Review Questions
Which of the following is NOT a strategy for using
example?
A. Clear...
Goal 4: Read and Write Using Example
Review Questions
Which of the following is NOT a strategy for using
example?
A. Clear...
Goal 5: Think Critically About
Patterns of Organization
Review Questions
True or False:
Examining the author’s examples to...
Goal 5: ThinkCritically About
Patterns of Organization
Review Questions
True or False:
True: Examining the author’s exampl...
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IRW Chapter 7

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  • The pattern of organization you use should be based on what you want to accomplish in your writing.Patterns of organization pull together ideas and present them in a clear and logical manner. They enable readers to see how information is presented, making it easier to understand and remember. See the chart on page 209 for a description of how the common patterns of organization work.Chronological order: explains events in the order they occurProcess: explains how something is done or how something worksNarration: tells a story that makes a pointDescription: uses sensory details to help the reader visualize the topicExample: explains a concept by giving concrete instances that demonstrate what it is
  • Chronological order is when an author presents a story or event, beginning with the first event and moving to the second, third, etc.Process explains how something works, so it is presented in steps, starting with the first and moving sequentially.Narration also tells a story in a sequence of events.Time sequences have their own transitional words and phrases. See the chart on page 211 for examples such as: after, before, first, during, next, as soon as, also, after, meanwhile, finally, in addition, etc.Activity:Exercise 7-1 (Understanding Chronological Order and Process) on pages 211–212. Students may do the activity individually, or questions can be assigned to groups to put the events in chronological order. Be sure that students explain WHY they put the events in the order chosen.
  • As a writer, description should allow the reader to visualize or imagine an object, person, place, event, or experience. As a reader, one must pay attention to descriptive details to see what they reveal, and one must take away an overall feeling of what is being described (see paragraph and visual examples on pages 218–219).Overall impression: the one central idea a piece of writing represents—the main point that all the details should prove.Sensory details: these details create the overall impression; skipping them may take away from the meaning of the writing.Descriptive language: words that create a visual or image of the topic, bringing it to life.Descriptive writing tends to use spatial and least/most transitions. See the chart on page 220 for some common examples of these transitions such as above, below, beside, across, in front of, to the left, primarily, first, also important, etc.Activity:Exercise 7-8 (Reading Descriptive Paragraphs) on pages 220-221. Students must select the topic sentence and descriptive terms/phrases within paragraphs.
  • Make sure the reader can visualize the actionUse exact names of people, places, brands, animals, stores, streets, flowers, products—anything that makes the description specific.Adjectives are words that describe nouns and pronouns. Use them to add detail. Instead of saying “the flower,” say “the bright red flower just beginning to bloom.”Using words and phrases that appeal to the senses allows people to relate to the experience.
  • In the chart, the general idea is that we had a terrible time on our vacation. The examples that support this statement give specific reasons and occurrences as to why our vacation was such an awful trip.Providing examples is the clearest way to explain something, especially if the reader is unfamiliar with the topic. When organizing paragraphs, the author states the main (or general) idea first, then supports it with one or more detailed examples. Writers may use several examples in a paragraph, or, in a longer essay, a separate paragraph may be used for some examples.See the paragraph and visuals provided on pages 225–226 for more insight on using examples.Examples also utilize transitional phrases and words. Some common terms are listed in a chart on page 226.
  • Do not choose examples that are overly complicated or have too many parts.Use a sufficient number of examples to make your point understandable. The number of examples should vary based on how complex the topic is and how well the reader already knows it. The more unfamiliar the reader, the more examples you need.Make sure your example is within the reader’s realm of understanding or he or she\ won’t understand the main point.When using several examples choose from a wide range of people, places, times, and events.Avoid examples that are too extreme or exaggerated.Include as much detail as possible in your examples so the reader understands the main point.Making this connection is necessary. If your connection is unclear, you may need to revise it or add more explanation.Activity:Exercise 7-13 (Brainstorming Examples) on page 229. Students must brainstorm a topic sentence and possible examples for a given topic. This may be done individually or in groups. If using groups, assign each group one of the six topics and ask them to present their results to the class (via face to face or online discussion).
  • Patterns of organization allow writers to choose the types of details they include or exclude in their writing. It is important to think critically about how or why a writer chooses a specific pattern of organization.Time Sequence: Writers can choose which events to include and which to omit in order to make their point. This allows the writer to shape a reader’s overall impression of an event.Process: Writers can provide cautionary measures and helpful tips, or they can omit information that may make a process easier. Think about instruction manuals.The descriptive details an author chooses to include or omit can shape the reader’s attitude towards the subject. Think about whether the author has given you a complete picture of the subject or if he or she is omitting details.Example: Pay attention to the examples an author chooses to use. If all the examples are negative, the author may be showing bias. Does the author look at various perspectives of the subject? Does he or she use typical or extreme examples? How might that shape your view? Did the author generate an emotional response from the reader (did the reader agree/disagree/become swayed/experience strong feelings)?
  • Answer: B—Listing events in chronological order is a pattern of organization.
  • Answer: B—Listing events in chronological order is a pattern of organization.
  • Answer: A—Description does not necessarily utilize time sequence.
  • Answer: A—Description does not necessarily utilize time sequence.
  • Answers:1. False2. True
  • Answers:1. False2. True
  • Answer: B—You should use typical examples, not obscure examples that may confuse the reader or complicate the material.
  • Answer: B—You should use typical examples, not obscure examples that may confuse the reader or complicate the material.
  • Answer:1. True2. True
  • Answer:1. True2. True
  • IRW Chapter 7

    1. 1. In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter Part Two: Reading, Writing, and Organizing Paragraphs Chapter 7: Organization: Basic Patterns PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of English Mountain Empire Community College
    2. 2. Chapter 7: Organization: Basic Patterns Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. Patterns of organization are ways to organize a paragraph or essay. Common Patterns of Organization: 1. Chronological order 2. Process 3. Narration 4. Description 5. Example Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. Time sequence is when events are presented in order of their occurrences. Patterns of Organization that Utilize Time Sequence: • Chronological Order • Process • Narration Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Descriptive writing means using words and phrases that appeal to the senses: sight, touch, taste, sound, and smell. Features of Descriptive Writing: 1. Overall Impression 2. Sensory Details 3. Descriptive Language Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. Strategies for Using Description: 1. Use verbs that describe action 2. Use exact names 3. Use adjectives to describe 4. Use words that appeal to the senses Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. An example is a specific instance or situation that explains a general idea or statement. General Idea Statements Our beach vacation was terrible. • It rained almost every day. • I ruined my phone in the hotel pool. • My husband got food poisoning at a seafood restaurant. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. Strategies for Choosing Good Examples: 1. Choose clear examples 2. Use a sufficient number of examples 3. Use familiar examples the reader will understand 4. Vary your examples 5. Choose typical examples 6. Use vivid, specific examples 7. Make a clear connection between your main point and the example Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. Why choose a particular pattern of organization? 1. Time Sequence 2. Process 3. Description 4. Example Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Goal 1: Identify Patterns of Organization Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a pattern of organization? A. Process B. Listing events in random order C. Narration D. Description Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Goal 1: Identify Patterns of Organization Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a pattern of organization? A. Process B. Listing events in random order C. Narration D. Description Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Goal 2: Read and Write Using Time Sequence Review Questions Which pattern of organization does NOT utilize time sequence? A. Description B. Narration C. Process D. Chronological Order Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Goal 2: Read and Write Using Time Sequence Review Questions Which pattern of organization does NOT utilize time sequence? A. Description B. Narration C. Process D. Chronological Order Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Goal 3: Read and Write Using Description Review Questions True or False: Descriptive writing appeals to personal emotions. True or False: Descriptive writing appeals to the five senses. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. Goal 3: Read and Write Using Description Review Questions True or False: False: Descriptive writing appeals to personal emotions. True or False: True: Descriptive writing appeals to the five senses. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. Goal 4: Read and Write Using Example Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a strategy for using example? A. Clearly connecting the main idea and the example B. Using extreme examples C. Using a sufficient number of examples D. Varying the types of examples Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. Goal 4: Read and Write Using Example Review Questions Which of the following is NOT a strategy for using example? A. Clearly connecting the main idea and the example B. Using extreme examples C. Using a sufficient number of examples D. Varying the types of examples Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. Goal 5: Think Critically About Patterns of Organization Review Questions True or False: Examining the author’s examples to see if he or she shows bias is critical thinking. True or False: The author can use time sequence to choose which events to include or omit, shaping the reader’s impression. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Goal 5: ThinkCritically About Patterns of Organization Review Questions True or False: True: Examining the author’s examples to see if he or she shows bias is critical thinking. True or False: True: The author can use time sequence to choose which events to include or omit, shaping the reader’s impression. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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