Cerebral Palsy Thomas B. King, M. Ed. Hospital Education Program VCU Health Systems
What is Cerebral Palsy? <ul><li>One of many types of neurological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Appears in infancy or early ...
General Characteristics <ul><li>Faulty development or damage to motor areas in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>The results are...
Causes <ul><li>Head trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul>
Types of CP <ul><li>Spastic CP </li></ul><ul><li>Athetoid CP </li></ul><ul><li>Ataxic CP </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed CP </li><...
Spastic CP Person is stiff, with permanently contracted muscles.  Spasticity accounts for about 50% to 75% of all CP
Terms associated with Spastic CP <ul><li>Spastic hemiplegia – muscles on one side of the body are affected </li></ul><ul><...
Athetoid CP Slow, uncontrolled, writhing movements (AKA dysknetic CP).  Accounts for about 10% to 20% of cases.
Athetoid CP <ul><li>Choreoathetoid CP </li></ul><ul><li>Dyskinetic CP </li></ul>
Athetoid CP <ul><li>Poor coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>Drooling </li></ul><ul><li>May be...
Ataxic CP Poor coordination, and balance difficulties.  May also have problems with depth perception.  Accounts for 5% to ...
Ataxic CP <ul><li>Loss of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Poor muscle coordination or unsteady gait </li></ul><ul><li>Person...
Mixed CP Two or more types present.  This accounts for around 10% of CP.
Mixed CP <ul><li>Not a separate type, but just a combination of the other types already mentioned </li></ul><ul><li>The mo...
Incidence <ul><li>About 1,000,000 people in the US have CP </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in the survivability of prematur...
Acquired <ul><li>About 10% to 20% of children acquire CP after birth </li></ul><ul><li>These are typically within the firs...
Congenital <ul><li>Occur at birth or are present at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Can be undetected for months after birth </li>...
Other considerations for causes <ul><li>Infections during pregnancy such as German measles or cytomegalovirus or toxoplasm...
Comorbid conditions <ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental delays </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul...
Treatment <ul><li>Medications (especially for Athetoid CP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trihexyphenidyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Treatment <ul><li>Medications to treat comorbidity such as epilepsy (AED’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery such as heal chord r...
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Cerebral Palsy

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Brief Overview of CP for General Education Teachers

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Cerebral Palsy

  1. 1. Cerebral Palsy Thomas B. King, M. Ed. Hospital Education Program VCU Health Systems
  2. 2. What is Cerebral Palsy? <ul><li>One of many types of neurological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Appears in infancy or early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Permanently affects body movement and muscle coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Generally does not worsen over time </li></ul>
  3. 3. General Characteristics <ul><li>Faulty development or damage to motor areas in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>The results are of a number of potential chronic neurological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Usually associated with events that occur before or during birth, but may be acquired during the first few months or years of life </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes <ul><li>Head trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of CP <ul><li>Spastic CP </li></ul><ul><li>Athetoid CP </li></ul><ul><li>Ataxic CP </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed CP </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spastic CP Person is stiff, with permanently contracted muscles. Spasticity accounts for about 50% to 75% of all CP
  7. 7. Terms associated with Spastic CP <ul><li>Spastic hemiplegia – muscles on one side of the body are affected </li></ul><ul><li>Spastic triplegia – affects muscles of three limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Spastic diplegia – affects either both arms or both legs </li></ul><ul><li>Spastic quadraplegia – all extremities are affected and there are many complications </li></ul>
  8. 8. Athetoid CP Slow, uncontrolled, writhing movements (AKA dysknetic CP). Accounts for about 10% to 20% of cases.
  9. 9. Athetoid CP <ul><li>Choreoathetoid CP </li></ul><ul><li>Dyskinetic CP </li></ul>
  10. 10. Athetoid CP <ul><li>Poor coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>Drooling </li></ul><ul><li>May be adversely affected by emotions. Symptoms will exacerbate when the child is upset </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ataxic CP Poor coordination, and balance difficulties. May also have problems with depth perception. Accounts for 5% to 10% of cases
  12. 12. Ataxic CP <ul><li>Loss of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Poor muscle coordination or unsteady gait </li></ul><ul><li>Person appears intoxicated </li></ul><ul><li>It is caused by damage to the cerebellum </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mixed CP Two or more types present. This accounts for around 10% of CP.
  14. 14. Mixed CP <ul><li>Not a separate type, but just a combination of the other types already mentioned </li></ul><ul><li>The most common type of mixed CP is spastic CP with athetoid CP </li></ul>
  15. 15. Incidence <ul><li>About 1,000,000 people in the US have CP </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in the survivability of premature and difficult births actually contribute to a rise in the incidence of CP and other neurological disorders </li></ul>
  16. 16. Acquired <ul><li>About 10% to 20% of children acquire CP after birth </li></ul><ul><li>These are typically within the first few months to years of life </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired CP is the result of infection (such as meningitis) or.. </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma (such as shaken baby syndrome) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Congenital <ul><li>Occur at birth or are present at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Can be undetected for months after birth </li></ul><ul><li>Complications from birth accidents or birth trauma account for about 3% to 13% of congenital CP </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other considerations for causes <ul><li>Infections during pregnancy such as German measles or cytomegalovirus or toxoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperbillirubinemia (untreated jaundice) </li></ul><ul><li>Asphyxia </li></ul><ul><li>Brain hemorrhage </li></ul>
  19. 19. Comorbid conditions <ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental delays </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities </li></ul>
  20. 20. Treatment <ul><li>Medications (especially for Athetoid CP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trihexyphenidyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benztropine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procyclidine hydrocholoride </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Treatment <ul><li>Medications to treat comorbidity such as epilepsy (AED’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery such as heal chord release </li></ul><ul><li>Special education services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MR placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LD placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech and language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OT and PT </li></ul></ul>

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