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  1. 1. GOOD AFTERNOON EVERYONE!!!!!!!! !!!
  3. 3. MODERN SHORT STORY -a brief fictional prose narrative usually presents a single significant episode creates a single, dynamic effect involves a limited number of characters and situations . -characters disclosed in action and dramatic encounter but seldom fully developed. may concentrate on the creation of mood rather than the telling of a story. encourages economy of setting and concise narration. usually has between 2,000 and 10,000 words.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF SHORT STORIES -Short stories date back to oral story-telling traditions which originally produced epics such as Homers Iliad and Odyssey. Oral narratives were often told in the form of rhyming or rhythmic verse, often including recurring sections or, in the case of Homer, Homeric epithets. Such stylistic devices often acted as mnemonics for easier recall, rendition and adaptation of the story. Short sections of verse might focus on individual narratives that could be told at one sitting. The overall arc of the tale would emerge only through the telling of multiple such sections.
  5. 5. -In the latter 19th century, the growth of print magazines and journals created a strong demand for short fiction of between 3,000 and 15,000 words -In the United Kingdom periodicals like The Strand Magazine, The Sketch, Harpers Magazine and Story- Teller contributed to the popularity of the short story. -The period following World War II saw a great flowering of literary short fiction in the United States. The New Yorker continued to publish the works of the form’s leading mid-century practitioners, including Shirley Jackson, whose story, The Lottery, published in 1948, elicited the strongest response in the magazine’s history to that time.
  6. 6. Tillie Olsen’s I Stand Here Ironing (1961) adopted a consciously feminist perspective. James Baldwin’s collection Going to Meet the Man (1965) told stories of African- American life. Frank O’Connor’s The Lonely Voice, an exploration of the short story, appeared in 1963. Wallace Stegners short stories are primarily set in the American West. Stephen King published a lot of short stories in mens magazines in the 1960s and after. The 1970s saw the rise of the post-modern short story in the works of Donald Barthelme and John Barth. Traditionalists including John Updike and Joyce Carol Oates maintained significant influence on the form. Minimalism gained widespread influence in the 1980s, most notably in the work of Raymond Carver and Ann Beattie.
  8. 8. 1.Setting -tells where and when a story takes place. -One purpose of setting is to provide background - a place for the characters to live and act in. In some stories, setting provides the conflict. Places where people live and make their homes can reveal a great deal about their characters. -can also provide atmosphere or mood - it affects the way a reader feels. One of the oldest story plots in the world is the one in which a person fights against something in the physical world - a drought, a horde of ants, the heat of the desert, etc.
  9. 9. 2.CHARACTER -a person or an animal that takes part in the action of a literary work.Types of characters are: a. Protagonist- main character in a literary work. The most important character. b. Antagonist- A major character who opposes the protagonist
  10. 10. 3.PLOT -The chain of related events that take place in a story. -A series of events through which the writer reveals what is happening, to whom, and why. -is the sequence of events.
  11. 11. PARTS OF THE PLOT a. Exposition - Opening of the story. Provides the background information needed to properly understand the story such as the protagonist, the antagonist, the basic conflict, and the setting. The exposition ends with the inciting moment, which is incident without which there would be no story. The inciting moment sets the reminder of the story in motion beginning with the second act, the rising action.
  12. 12. 2.RISING ACTION -is the Action leading up to the Climax of a plot. -These events build the tension. As the reader is reading, he or she is able to feel and sense the tension as it builds. -Is a problem in the story that needs to be resolved.
  13. 13. C.CLIMAX -the turning point, the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or the suspense in a narrative. -It is normally the peak of emotional response from a reader and follows or overlaps the crisis in the story. -the problem is starting to be solved.
  14. 14. d. FALLING ACTION -also called the resolution. -leading to the ending -the moment of reversal after the climax, the conflict between the protagonist and antagonist unravels ,with the protagonist winning or losing against the antagonist. -May contain a moment of final suspense.
  15. 15. e. RESOLUTION -the conclusion of the story. -problem of the story is resolved or worked out. This occurs after the falling action and is typically where the story ends.
  16. 16. 4.POINT OF VIEW -depends of who is telling the story -the writer tells what happens without stating more than can be inferred from the story's action and dialogue. The narrator never discloses anything about what the characters think or feel, remaining a detached observer.
  17. 17. Types of Point of View a. First Person Point of View In the first person point of view, the narrator does participate in the action of the story. When reading stories in the first person, we need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective truth. We should question the trustworthiness of the accounting.
  18. 18. Second Person POV The second person is almost never used in literature.The second person is when the narrator says “You” and puts the reader directly into the story. -Third Person Point of View In the third person point of view the narrator does not participate in the action of the story as one of the characters, but lets us know exactly how the characters think and feel. We learn about the characters through this outside voice. There are two different types of point of view; limited and Omniscient.
  19. 19. a. Third Person Limited A third person - narrator whose knowledge is limited to one character, either major or minor, has a limited point of view. It is limited to the one character with whom the story is being told through. b.Third Person Omniscient- A third person narrator who knows everything about all the characters is all- knowing, or omniscient. The reader knows about the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story.
  20. 20. Theme -It is the main idea explored in the story by the writer. -The theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight. It is the author's underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey. The theme may be the author's thoughts about a topic or view of human nature. The title of the short story usually points to what the writer is saying and he may use various figures of speech to emphasize his theme, such as: symbol, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or irony.