PRESENTATION IN DEVELOPMENTAL
ENTITLED: (READING MODERN SHORT STORY AND IT’S
REPORTED BY: RIZA
SUBMITTED TO: MRS EDNA R. BANGCOLENG
DATE:AUGUST 10, 2013
MODERN SHORT STORY
-a brief fictional prose narrative usually presents a
single significant episode creates a single, dynamic
effect involves a limited number of characters and
-characters disclosed in action and dramatic
encounter but seldom fully developed. may
concentrate on the creation of mood rather than
the telling of a story. encourages economy of
setting and concise narration. usually has between
2,000 and 10,000 words.
HISTORY OF SHORT STORIES
-Short stories date back to oral story-telling
traditions which originally produced epics such as
Homers Iliad and Odyssey. Oral narratives were
often told in the form of rhyming or rhythmic
verse, often including recurring sections or, in the
case of Homer, Homeric epithets. Such stylistic
devices often acted as mnemonics for easier
recall, rendition and adaptation of the story. Short
sections of verse might focus on individual
narratives that could be told at one sitting. The
overall arc of the tale would emerge only through
the telling of multiple such sections.
-In the latter 19th century, the growth of print
magazines and journals created a strong demand for
short fiction of between 3,000 and 15,000 words
-In the United Kingdom periodicals like The Strand
Magazine, The Sketch, Harpers Magazine and Story-
Teller contributed to the popularity of the short
-The period following World War II saw a great
flowering of literary short fiction in the United
States. The New Yorker continued to publish the
works of the form’s leading mid-century
practitioners, including Shirley Jackson, whose
story, The Lottery, published in 1948, elicited the
strongest response in the magazine’s history to that
Tillie Olsen’s I Stand Here Ironing (1961) adopted a
consciously feminist perspective. James Baldwin’s collection
Going to Meet the Man (1965) told stories of African-
American life. Frank O’Connor’s The Lonely Voice, an
exploration of the short story, appeared in 1963. Wallace
Stegners short stories are primarily set in the American West.
Stephen King published a lot of short stories in mens
magazines in the 1960s and after. The 1970s saw the rise of
the post-modern short story in the works of Donald
Barthelme and John Barth. Traditionalists including John
Updike and Joyce Carol Oates maintained significant
influence on the form. Minimalism gained widespread
influence in the 1980s, most notably in the work of Raymond
Carver and Ann Beattie.
ELEMENTS OF SHORT STORY
•POINT OF VIEW
-tells where and when a story takes place.
-One purpose of setting is to provide background - a
place for the characters to live and act in. In some
stories, setting provides the conflict. Places where
people live and make their homes can reveal a great
deal about their characters.
-can also provide atmosphere or mood - it affects
the way a reader feels. One of the oldest story plots
in the world is the one in which a person fights
against something in the physical world - a
drought, a horde of ants, the heat of the desert, etc.
-a person or an animal that takes part in the
action of a literary work.Types of characters
a. Protagonist- main character in a literary
work. The most important character.
b. Antagonist- A major character who opposes
-The chain of related events
that take place in a story.
-A series of events through
which the writer reveals what
is happening, to whom, and
-is the sequence of events.
PARTS OF THE PLOT
- Opening of the story. Provides the background
information needed to properly understand the
story such as the protagonist, the antagonist, the
basic conflict, and the setting. The exposition ends
with the inciting moment, which is incident without
which there would be no story. The inciting moment
sets the reminder of the story in motion beginning
with the second act, the rising action.
-is the Action leading up to the
Climax of a plot.
-These events build the tension. As
the reader is reading, he or she is
able to feel and sense the tension as
-Is a problem in the story that needs
to be resolved.
-the turning point, the point of greatest
emotional intensity, interest, or the
suspense in a narrative.
-It is normally the peak of emotional
response from a reader and follows or
overlaps the crisis in the story.
-the problem is starting to be solved.
d. FALLING ACTION
-also called the resolution.
-leading to the ending
-the moment of reversal after the
climax, the conflict between the
protagonist and antagonist unravels
,with the protagonist winning or
losing against the antagonist. -May
contain a moment of final suspense.
-the conclusion of the story.
-problem of the story is resolved or
worked out. This occurs after the falling
action and is typically where the story
4.POINT OF VIEW
-depends of who is telling the story
-the writer tells what happens
without stating more than can be
inferred from the story's action and
dialogue. The narrator never
discloses anything about what the
characters think or feel, remaining a
Types of Point of View
a. First Person Point of View
In the first person point of view, the
narrator does participate in the action of
the story. When reading stories in the
first person, we need to realize that what
the narrator is recounting might not be
the objective truth. We should question
the trustworthiness of the accounting.
Second Person POV The second person is
almost never used in literature.The second
person is when the narrator says “You” and
puts the reader directly into the story.
-Third Person Point of View In the third person
point of view the narrator does not
participate in the action of the story as one of
the characters, but lets us know exactly how
the characters think and feel. We learn about
the characters through this outside voice.
There are two different types of point of view;
limited and Omniscient.
a. Third Person Limited A third person -
narrator whose knowledge is limited to one
character, either major or minor, has a
limited point of view. It is limited to the
one character with whom the story is being
b.Third Person Omniscient- A third person
narrator who knows everything about all
the characters is all- knowing, or
omniscient. The reader knows about the
thoughts and feelings of all the characters
in the story.
-It is the main idea explored in the story by the
-The theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling
idea or its central insight. It is the author's
underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying
to convey. The theme may be the author's
thoughts about a topic or view of human
nature. The title of the short story usually points
to what the writer is saying and he may use various
figures of speech to emphasize his theme, such as:
symbol, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or