Section 1.1
Observation: a piece of information we gather using our senses (sight, hearing, smell and touch)   Science usually begins...
   Quantitative – measureable or countable    ◦   3 meters long    ◦   4 marbles    ◦   50 kilograms    ◦   35 degrees Ce...
Inference: A conclusion reached on the basis  of evidence and reasoning.   We don’t observe an inference. We use    obser...
   Conclusions or deductions based on    observations.   The process of drawing a conclusion from    given evidence.Prac...
   Look at these two sets of         animal tracks.       List 3 OBSERVATIONS           Make an INFERENCE
Make 3 OBSERVATIONS      Make an INFERENCE
Make 3 OBSERVATIONS   Make an INFERENCE
   Observations almost always lead to more    questions.Scientists form a hypothesis for their observations.Hypothesis: ...
   Scientists perform experiments to test a    hypothesis under controlled conditions.    ◦ Experiments pinpoint cause-an...
   Independent variable: The variable you    purposely change or manipulate.   The independent variable is the CAUSE of ...
   The variable that responds. Also called the    responding variable. The variable that you    will measure after the ex...
   The number of times a specific experiment is    repeated.   A good experiment will have more than 1    trial.
   All other variables that remain the same for    all the trials.
   A group that does NOT contain the    independent variable. The NO TREATMENT    group or NORMAL TREATMENT group. Gives ...
   1. Nick wanted to see how high an ice cube    would float in different temperatures of    water. Identify the dependen...
 #1.   Height of the Ice           Cube
   #2. Mario studied how far room temperature    water would spurt out of a plastic milk carton    when 3mm holes were pu...
 #2.   Distance Water Traveled           Out of Carton
   #3. Mr. McNiece wanted to see how different    types of music affected students pulse rates.    he played different ty...
 #3.   Amount of Time the        Music was Played
   #4 Tiffany was investigating how fast it took    Hayden to react to different sounds. Identify    the dependent variab...
 #4.How much time it took Hayden to react
   #5. Mario studied how far room temperature    water would spurt out of a plastic milk carton    when 3mm holes were pu...
 #5.   3 mm holes
   #6. Mario studied how far room temperature    water would spurt out of a plastic milk carton    when 3mm holes were pu...
 #6.Different heights of    holes in container
   #7. Mr. McNiece wanted to see how different    types of music affected students pulse rates. He    played different ty...
 #7.   Types of music
   #8. Tiffany was investigating how fast it took    Hayden to react to different sounds. Identify    the independent var...
 #8.   Different sounds
   #9. Nick wanted to see how high an ice cube    would float in different temperatures of    water. Identify the indepen...
#9. Temperature of water
   #10. Justin usually blows his nose using    Kleenex tissues. His snot keeps leaking    through the tissue. He decided ...
   #10. Amount of tissue
   #11. Mr. McNiece wanted to see how different    types of music affected students pulse rates. He    played different t...
 #11.   Pulse rate
   #12. Justin usually blows his nose using Kleenex    tissues. His snot keeps leaking through the    tissue. He decided ...
 #12.Mass of the snots   the tissue can hold
   #13. Justin usually blows his nose using Kleenex    tissues. His snot keeps leaking through the    tissue. He decided ...
 #13.   Type of tissue
   #14. Justin usually blows his nose using    Kleenex tissues. His snot keeps leaking    through the tissue. He decided ...
 #14.   Kleenex
Scientific method
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Scientific method

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Scientific method

  1. 1. Section 1.1
  2. 2. Observation: a piece of information we gather using our senses (sight, hearing, smell and touch) Science usually begins with observations ◦ Qualitative observations ◦ Quantitative observations
  3. 3.  Quantitative – measureable or countable ◦ 3 meters long ◦ 4 marbles ◦ 50 kilograms ◦ 35 degrees Celsius Qualitative – describable, not measureable ◦ I see red flowers. ◦ It smells like fresh baked cookies in here. ◦ This feels cold! ◦ This sounds really loud.
  4. 4. Inference: A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning. We don’t observe an inference. We use observations to create inferences.
  5. 5.  Conclusions or deductions based on observations. The process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence.Practice!! Observations: • I hear people screaming • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers • I see a lot of people Inference = ?
  6. 6.  Look at these two sets of animal tracks.  List 3 OBSERVATIONS  Make an INFERENCE
  7. 7. Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE
  8. 8. Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE
  9. 9.  Observations almost always lead to more questions.Scientists form a hypothesis for their observations.Hypothesis: a tentative explanation for an observation. ◦ A hypothesis is NOT a guess. It should make logical sense and build on knowledge about an observation.
  10. 10.  Scientists perform experiments to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions. ◦ Experiments pinpoint cause-and-effect relationships. A good experiment should have: ◦ An independent variable ◦ A dependent variable ◦ Other variables held constant ◦ Most experiments will have a control
  11. 11.  Independent variable: The variable you purposely change or manipulate. The independent variable is the CAUSE of the changes you measure. What is causing a change in this investigation?
  12. 12.  The variable that responds. Also called the responding variable. The variable that you will measure after the experiment is set up.
  13. 13.  The number of times a specific experiment is repeated. A good experiment will have more than 1 trial.
  14. 14.  All other variables that remain the same for all the trials.
  15. 15.  A group that does NOT contain the independent variable. The NO TREATMENT group or NORMAL TREATMENT group. Gives you a way to detect hidden variables.
  16. 16.  1. Nick wanted to see how high an ice cube would float in different temperatures of water. Identify the dependent variable. Amount of Water Height of Ice Cube Temperature the ice cube was at its highest height Temperature of the water Size of the Ice Cube
  17. 17.  #1. Height of the Ice Cube
  18. 18.  #2. Mario studied how far room temperature water would spurt out of a plastic milk carton when 3mm holes were punched at different heights from the bottom of the container. Identify the dependent variable. 3mm Holes Distance Water Traveled Out Of Carton Different Heights of the Holes in the Container Ice Water From Iceland
  19. 19.  #2. Distance Water Traveled Out of Carton
  20. 20.  #3. Mr. McNiece wanted to see how different types of music affected students pulse rates. he played different types of music: heavy metal, rap, R&B, alternative, pop, country, an d classical music. What constant should be considered when doing this experiment? Amount of time the music was played Use all dead people Using a different student for each music type Types of music
  21. 21.  #3. Amount of Time the Music was Played
  22. 22.  #4 Tiffany was investigating how fast it took Hayden to react to different sounds. Identify the dependent variable. Hayden How fast Hayden reacted How much time it took Hayden to react Different sounds
  23. 23.  #4.How much time it took Hayden to react
  24. 24.  #5. Mario studied how far room temperature water would spurt out of a plastic milk carton when 3mm holes were punched at different heights from the bottom of the container. Identify a constant. Ice water from Iceland 3 mm holes Different heights of holes in container Distance water traveled out of carton
  25. 25.  #5. 3 mm holes
  26. 26.  #6. Mario studied how far room temperature water would spurt out of a plastic milk carton when 3mm holes were punched at different heights from the bottom of the container. Identify the independent variable. 3 mm holes Distance water traveled out of carton Different heights of holes in container Ice water from Iceland
  27. 27.  #6.Different heights of holes in container
  28. 28.  #7. Mr. McNiece wanted to see how different types of music affected students pulse rates. He played different types of music: heavy metal, rap, R&B, alternative, pop, country, and classical music. Identify the independent variable. Mr. McNiece Classical music resulted in the highest pulse rate High pulse rate Types of music Pulse rate
  29. 29.  #7. Types of music
  30. 30.  #8. Tiffany was investigating how fast it took Hayden to react to different sounds. Identify the independent variable. How much time it took Hayden to react Hayden How fast Hayden reacted Different sounds Playing the trumpet over and over
  31. 31.  #8. Different sounds
  32. 32.  #9. Nick wanted to see how high an ice cube would float in different temperatures of water. Identify the independent variable. Temperature of water Temperature the ice cube was at its highest height Height of ice cube Size of ice cube Amount of water
  33. 33. #9. Temperature of water
  34. 34.  #10. Justin usually blows his nose using Kleenex tissues. His snot keeps leaking through the tissue. He decided he is going to create an experiment to find out if there is something better. What is a constant? Type of tissue Justin Amount of tissue Mass of the snots the tissue can hold Kleenex
  35. 35.  #10. Amount of tissue
  36. 36.  #11. Mr. McNiece wanted to see how different types of music affected students pulse rates. He played different types of music: heavy metal, rap, R&B, alternative, pop, country, and classical music. Identify the dependent variable. Mr. McNiece High pulse rate Pulse rate Classical music resulted in the highest pulse rate Types of music
  37. 37.  #11. Pulse rate
  38. 38.  #12. Justin usually blows his nose using Kleenex tissues. His snot keeps leaking through the tissue. He decided he is going to create an experiment to find out if there is something better. What is his dependent variable? Type of tissue Mass of the snots the tissue can hold Kleenex Amount of tissue Justin
  39. 39.  #12.Mass of the snots the tissue can hold
  40. 40.  #13. Justin usually blows his nose using Kleenex tissues. His snot keeps leaking through the tissue. He decided he is going to create an experiment to find out if there is something better. What is his independent variable? Kleenex Justin Amount of tissue Mass of the snots the tissue can hold Type of tissue
  41. 41.  #13. Type of tissue
  42. 42.  #14. Justin usually blows his nose using Kleenex tissues. His snot keeps leaking through the tissue. He decided he is going to create an experiment to find out if there is something better. What is his control group? Type of tissue Justin Amount of tissue Mass of the snots the tissue can hold Kleenex
  43. 43.  #14. Kleenex

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