Music and development


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Music and development

  1. 1. MUSIC and DEVELOPMENT Prenatal, Birth and Infancy
  2. 3. To be Human is to be Musical <ul><li>Music is universal. All cultures have music . </li></ul><ul><li>Field of Biomusicology suggests we may have music because musical males were more likely to reproduce than males that were not. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical Intelligence has to do with rhythm, music, and hearing and such people display greater sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music [Howard Gardner,1983] </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology in music help educators to understand children’s musical cognition, emotions, experiences, engagement in music, and the learning process. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Womb – The First Concert Hall
  4. 5. Musical Womb <ul><li>Young children and even infants are known to have surprisingly complex abilities to perceive and respond to basic components of music. This musical competency, evident long before the development of speech or the ability to play a musical instrument, raises the question of the earliest age at which the nervous system and brain can adequately process, learn and remember music. Increasing evidence suggests that the answer is &quot;well before birth&quot;. In short, the womb appears to be the first concert hall. </li></ul>
  5. 6. What is that Sound .. ? <ul><li>Ear starts to develop after a few weeks of conception; auditory system of brain at 26 th week. </li></ul><ul><li>Altered sound reaches the womb </li></ul><ul><li>Response generally includes change in heart rate and body movements – most sounds slowing the heart rate; very loud noise, increasing it. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Evidence of Pre-natal Learning <ul><li>Habituation - During the last trimester of pregnancy, the fetus is clearly capable of habituating to a repeated stimulus applied to the mother's abdomen, and also responding again when the stimulus is changed. </li></ul><ul><li>In one study, the abdomen received a gentle vibratory stimulus that did not itself produce fetal responses; this was followed by a loud sound that did provoke movement. After several paired presentations, the subjects responded to the gentle vibration, showing that they anticipated receiving the loud sound. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Prenatal Stimulation <ul><li>Prenatal stimulation is a method that uses stimuli such as sounds (mother's voice and musical ones), movement, pressure, vibrations and light to communicate with a developing baby prior to birth </li></ul><ul><li>While in the womb, Baby learns to recognize and respond to different stimuli, which leads to encouragement of physical, mental and sensory development. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation exercises will allow Baby to communicate through her movement in the womb, establish a relationship between specific stimuli (such as mother’s voice) and, most importantly, help develop her memory. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Music – Balm to the Soul <ul><li>Bonding through music is a very special and profound experience for the parents and baby. </li></ul><ul><li>The language of music is non-verbal, easily accessible to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can directly convey their feelings of love through their chosen music </li></ul><ul><li>Lullabies, traditional as well as newly composed, in addition to the womb-song, are personal musical expressions of love from the parents to their babies </li></ul><ul><li>These are remembered for a lifetime and help comfort the baby who has colic or cries a lot. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Music encompasses all of life [Abraham maslow] Music tapes continues to promote good sleeping patterns+ have a calming effect on baby Future sessions provide socializing and enjoyment First language lessons begin in the womb Bonding through music forms first intimate r/s; based on which future r/s are based Creativity leads to self discovery And self empowerment
  10. 11. Benefits of Prenatal Music <ul><li>- Stress relief and these babies were also calmer </li></ul><ul><li>- Early bonding and strengthening the attachment to the baby - Nurturing an early communication - Supporting physical, emotional, mental and spiritual well being - Stimulating a holistic development of the baby in the womb - Promoting creativity and imagination, qualities needed for parenting - Creating a transition from the baby's inner environment of    the womb to the outer world through lullabies and the womb-song - Individual preparation for labor and delivery during the birth of your baby - Parental support - prenatal stimulated babies showed better visual, linguistic, and motor development than those who were not. </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal stimulation heightens musical ability, language skills and overall cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>It gives the brain more opportunity to make use of more brain cells before birth, thus giving the baby a greater total brain capacity and a true “head-start” in life, also influencing their musical talent. </li></ul>
  11. 12. What Kind of Music ??
  12. 13. Babies enjoy a mix variety of music <ul><li>Most pediatric specialists agree that almost any type of music is suitable for the parent and Baby to enjoy. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of different kinds of music are essential and can be useful for the baby's future writing, reading and language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Peppy music may excite the fetus while peaceful music may soothe the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Mozart’s playful and happy style appears to have a universal appeal with children. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that music which is personally enjoyable to the mother would have positive effects on the fetus. </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Research <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Firstart prenatal stimulation method, which attempts to &quot;advance the intellectual and physical development of the fetus by means of musical stimuli&quot; (Lafuente et al., 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>- One-hundred-seventy-two maternity patients who were enrolled in a birth preparation course participated in this study. The mothers were separated into experimental and control groups. For an average of seventy hours from about twenty-eight weeks to the end of pregnancy, the mothers in the experimental group wore small speakers attached to a waistband and connected to a tape player that played a series of eight tapes of violin sounds. After the births of their babies, all of the mothers charted the onset of their infants' behaviors from zero to six months utilizing the Observational Scale of Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: The behaviors of the experimental-group babies were significantly advanced compared to the behaviors of the control-group babies. The experimental-group babies were superior in gross and fine motor activities, linguistic development, some aspects of body-sensory coordination, and certain cognitive behaviors. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Research <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of daily listening of music on fetuses and newborns Wilkin, P. E. (1993) Experimental Group: N = 32 Control Group: N = 34 </li></ul><ul><li>The test-group fetuses were monitored for fetal movements and heart rate at thirty-two and thirty-eight weeks gestation. Following ten minutes of monitoring with no stimulus, headphones were secured to the mother's abdomen and covered with a pillow, and a tape [ White noise </li></ul><ul><li>Piano solo, Choral (a cappella), Rock (instrumental): was played]. The control group was given no specific listening tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>A high percentage of test-group fetuses had heart-rate decelerations greater than or equal to five seconds duration during the playing of the audio test tape at thirty-eight weeks gestation. This was highly significant in comparison with the test group, indicating that the daily playing of the music influenced fetal responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest deceleration effect and also the highest number of fetal movements was accrued during the playing of the Beethoven sonata. </li></ul><ul><li>The babies in the test group were more ready to listen, more receptive and alert, and more active in response to the music than the control group babies were. They were less disturbed than the control group by the rock music (though both groups demonstrated anxiety through facial and body tension). A number of the test babies appeared to recognize the sound of the piano within the rock music, relaxing the body and facial tension during the several bars in which it appeared; the tension quickly returned when the other instruments resumed. </li></ul>
  15. 16. However,.. <ul><li>Many experts say the jury's still out on whether it's in-utero interventions -- or simply genetics and a nurturing environment after birth -- that make your baby smarter, more musically inclined or better adjusted. </li></ul><ul><li>If over stimulation occurs it is stressful for the fetus and they are unable to organize the information.  Over stimulation can actually undue whatever good you may have already done.  It is important to create a low stress, warm, loving environment for the fetus while in-utero.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, experts suggest moderation and mild volume when it comes to sonic stimulation. Perhaps the best suggestion is to simply relax and enjoy music the way you normally do - and chances are your baby will relax along with you. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Music and Childbirth
  17. 18. Music Therapy <ul><li>It has been suggested that high anxiety or psychological stress in the mother can result in a higher number of fetal abnormalities and maternal obstetrical complications. </li></ul><ul><li>Women given music therapy sessions experienced significantly more personal control during their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>They also showed more positive perception of their childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Music therapy teaches new parents the necessity of stimulation and how to use music as a way to stimulate and to soothe. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Benefits of Music Therapy <ul><li>Act as an attention focusing stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a distraction stimulus to divert attention from pain </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a conditioned stimulus for relaxation. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease tension and anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Be used as a structural aid to breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a stimulus for pleasurable response </li></ul><ul><li>Both stimulate and pacify newborns. </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, there are individual differences. There maybe some women who may find music inconvenient during these hours. </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Research <ul><li>This study appeared in the June 2003 issue of Pain Management Nursing, finding that music can reduce the sensation of labor pain and decrease and delay the emotional distress that accompanies it. </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups of laboring women were studied, age 20-30, who were all having their first baby. One group chose from among five types of calming music and listened to it for the first three hours in the hospital after active labor began. The comparison group had the standard care during labor. The study started when they were 3-4cm. dilated. </li></ul><ul><li>During the next three hours and at each hourly measure, the music group had significantly less sensation and distress pain than the control group. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Indian Context <ul><li>Music and sound is interwoven in the form of chants, mantras and prayers, still being practiced today, an integral part of the culture of India . </li></ul><ul><li>Swami Vijnananand’s Prenatal Project of India focuses on the spiritual aspect of pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Gayatri Mantra, one of the oldest Sanskrit mantras has a healing dimension and has been shown to reduce the stress level of cardiac patients. The mantra brings not only neurological changes but also psychological ones. Reciting the mantra results in the release of endorphins, thereby bringing a feeling of serenity and wellbeing </li></ul>
  21. 22. Music and Infancy [0-2 years]
  22. 23. Introduction <ul><li>According to latest research, 2-3 day old infants can detect the beat and rhythm in music. </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that beat perception in innate or learnt in the womb itself. </li></ul><ul><li>For infants, musical patterns must bear considerable similarity to the prosody of speech [notably in intonation, rhythm and stress] </li></ul><ul><li>Universally, lullabies are regularly sung to soothe infants and to induce sleep. </li></ul>
  23. 24. How Babies Respond to Music <ul><li>Birth to Six Months: At this young age most babies respond to music playing that they enjoy with full body movements and wiggles. They will turn their heads towards sounds that catch their attentions and cry in response to unpleasant noises. Babies show a preference for songs sung by familiar voices so it is better for parents to rock and sing to their babies rather than putting in a CD with a stranger singing the lullabies instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Six Months to One Year: As an infant's eye-hand coordination develops and they become more mobile, babies will grasp and manipulate objects. This means that a baby can shake a rattle and understands that the shaking causes the noise to occur. Babies begin to clap their hands in response to music and this should be encouraged and demonstrated by the adults around them. By the time she turns a year a baby will understand the purpose of an instrument such as a drum or keyboard and understand how to produce the music and sound. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Music in Infant and Pediatric Care <ul><li>Music therapy supports the infants' behavior - these infants maintained the same levels of irritability and crying that they had at admission, meanwhile, those babies in the Neonatal Unit who did not have music therapy deteriorated in their irritability and crying behavior - coping less with their hospitalization as time went on. </li></ul><ul><li>If a baby is less irritable and cries less, this has implications for rate of healing and weight gain, two significant factors which contribute to the length of a hospital stay. </li></ul><ul><li>A study conducted in a newborn intensive-care unit found that playing lullabies with a heartbeat can be so beneficial to premature infants that they are discharged as much as two weeks earlier than babies who aren't serenaded </li></ul><ul><li>Music in the neonatal intensive care unit can mask the aversive sound levels there, hence facilitating homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Johann Lowey has shown that drugs can be avoided during procedures involving infants. The music can be the anesthetic. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Benefits of childhood music <ul><li>Music can help to develop a child's fine motor skills (i.e. using small muscle groups to play a piano) and gross motor skills (i.e. using large muscle groups to dance). In addition, music improves vocal, speaking and listening skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm and pitch are part of child's natural development. In what experts refer to as &quot;The Mozart Effect,&quot; exposure to classical music can have a significantly positive effect on humans' physical and mental health. </li></ul><ul><li>The sharing of musical instruments and playing in a &quot;band&quot; can help toddlers to learn important social skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Music can have an important influence on the development of a child's brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Infants and toddlers tend to be less inhibited about making errors, than older children are </li></ul>
  26. 27. Music and cognitive and language development <ul><li>at first, the very young child can’t pronounce the words, or that she isn’t sure what the words mean (Honig, 2004). The sound of the music will encourage the child to make an effort to try to say the words. Eventually, the meaning of the words will come, especially if there are meaningful motions being performed by the mother along with the singing. Singing also helps young children concentrate on learning tasks and aids in establishing rituals. Music encourages dramatic play and aids in the understanding of concepts, including quantity, number, and space. Many of the songs that toddlers love end in rhyme. It is an important cognitive achievement when young children learn that two words that sound the same are rhymes (Honig, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>language development: Toddlers commonly sing long phrases of familiar songs, even though they customarily speak in two- or three-word phrases (Honig,2004). They are not simply reiterating familiar phrases, but are learning and building vocabulary (NAEYC, 1997). Eventually, the child will develop the ability to put his own words to the tunes of these now very familiar songs. </li></ul><ul><li>Lullabies are composed of words, and use certain aspects such as repetition, rhyme, assonance and alliteration. The repetition of certain songs will reinforce sound recognition. Your children may even find themselves singing the songs and practicing these elements without even knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>it.also aids in the learning of foreign languages. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Music and physical coordination <ul><li>Physical coordination is promoted by music through motion. Both gross and fine motor skills are affected. Young babies energetically move their arms and legs when lively music plays, and older babies bounce and sway. Toddlers wave their arms, jump, and turn. Music also provides a creative and productive channel to release physical energy (Lagoni et al., 1996). Fine motor skills are enhanced through finger plays and the playing of instruments, such as when pressing the keys of a toy (or real!) piano or when covering the holes of a “flute” or tin whistle. Gross and fine motor skills are strengthened through movement and dance. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Music and emotional and social development <ul><li>The various forms of music promote social interaction in infants and toddlers. When the mother (or the caregiver in a childcare setting) sings to the baby, the baby responds, becomes attentive, and makes eye contact with her. Eventually, the interaction becomes a duet, an interchange of communication between mother and baby. Socialization has taken place. A relationship is developing At the toddler stage, music continues to play an important role in a child’s social development. Toddlers enjoy playing games, and music encourages cooperative and group play along with developing social relationships. Music allows the toddler to be a “star” for a few moments, so he gets the undivided attention that he craves from anyone who might be in the vicinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the very nature of music is sensual, it contributes much to the emotional well-being of the infant and toddler. Most parents (and caregivers) can attest to the fact that singing lullabies soothes a young child. Music helps relieve the tensions of any emotional stress the infant or toddler may be feeling (Honig, 2004). The child can then communicate his feelings through physical relaxation or smiling as well as verbally if able. Music not only allows for release of tension, it is also used to express happiness, sadness, excitement, and anger. Music is a great communicator </li></ul>
  29. 30. Additional benefits <ul><li>Exposing infants and toddlers to diverse types and styles of music is one way of providing a multicultural education. At home, some parents immerse their children in the music of their cultural heritage to aid in developing bilingualism along with developing a cultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Special needs children also benefit from music such as attachment disorders, autism, and Down syndrome. The goals of music therapy used in early intervention address socialization, self expression, communication, motor development, and sensory stimulation. These are the same goals that are addressed by parents and teachers in general development. early communication is very important for an infant’s development, and children who are deprived of it can become upset or withdrawn. It is also suggested that a lack of contingent interactions can affect brain development and result in negative long-term emotional effects for the infant. Music therapy works because music is highly motivating, stimulates the senses, and involves the child at many levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted infants and toddlers are another category of special needs children who benefit from music. Music is comforting, and familiar music has an even greater ability to comfort (Miller & Ward, 2001). </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Research <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further. [Jinah Kim, Tony Wigram and Christian Gold,2008] </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>Music has proven to provide many more benefits to children and adults than simple entertainment. It has even proven to help patients recover from diseases or surgery more quickly and with less pain. Much research currently is being undertaken to learn the effects of music on the mind and body, yet we now know from findings of several of the most prestigious researchers in the field that it can have very positive effects on child development. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Thank You