Water-Logged Trenches <ul><li>Officers walk through a flooded trench. </li></ul>
Life in the Trenches <ul><li>Trenches became water logged when it rained. </li></ul><ul><li>Men who stood for hours suffered from Trench Foot. </li></ul>
Life in the Trenches <ul><li>Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. If a trench subsided, or new trenches or dugouts were needed, large numbers of decomposing bodies would be found just below the surface. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that littered the trenches, attracted rats. One pair of rats can produce 880 offspring in a year and so the trenches were soon swarming with them. Some of these rats grew extremely large. One soldier wrote: "The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself." These rats became very bold and would attempt to take food from the pockets of sleeping men. Two or three rats would always be found on a dead body. They usually went for the eyes first and then they burrowed their way right into the corpse. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The top of a trench would consist of sandbags. This would protect the soldiers from shots. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical bullet would penetrate 15 inches into the sandbag. </li></ul>
German Trench Warfare <ul><li>This section of German trench at the Somme helps explain why the initial British artillery barrage did little to weaken the Germans. It was much deeper than the British trenches. </li></ul>
Airplanes were extensively used in military actions for the first time during WWI, and the U.S. preparation for this war included the manufacture of aircraft and training of fliers. The Curtiss JN 4-D "Jenny" biplane was the principal American-made aircraft in World War I, but it was used primarily for training.
Airplanes Reconnaissance camera attached to the side of a British plane Airplane Bombing
British plane dropping torpedo Central Powers airplane "Shot down in flames"
Chemical Warfare <ul><li>The first army issue gas masks were little more than gauze bandages with ties. These would be moistened with water to improve their effectiveness in filtering out the gas. </li></ul>
Chemical Warfare <ul><li>The cannister gas mask was developed to protect the soldier from the use of chlorine gas and tearing agents such as xylyl bromide. This type of mask was not effective in filtering out the more deadly phosgene and diphosgene gases. There was no mask that could offer protection from the blistering mustard gas which attacks all exposed flesh. </li></ul>
Poison Gas <ul><li>A German Soldier after a Gas Attack. </li></ul>
Mustard Gas <ul><li>British soldiers blinded by Mustard Gas </li></ul>