Short Story Unit
Literary Terms
Plot
The sequence of events

that make up a story,
usually centering around a
main conflict
The Five Stages of Plot
Exposition
 The first stage of plot!
 In the Exposition, the scene is set:

– this part of the story introduces the
char...
Setting
 The



setting of the
literary work is the
time and place of
the action.



Time can include not only
the hist...
Rising Action
 The second stage of plot!
 This is where the action usually begins. In

the Rising Action, the conflict i...
Climax
 The climax is the  Generally, this is the

highest point of
conflict in the
story!!

point after which
everythin...
Falling Action
 This stage begins the downward

slope the conflict lessens, and the
plot moves towards closure
Resolution/Denouement
 In the final stage of plot, the conflict

concludes, and loose ends are tied up.
Conflict

A conflict is a struggle between opposing
forces.
There are two types of conflict:
INTERNAL
-Conflict that
occ...
Protagonist
The protagonist is the main

character in a literary work.

He/she is NOT necessarily

the “good guy”, just ...
Antagonist

An antagonist is a character or

force in conflict with the main
character

This is NOT necessarily the

“ba...
Narrator
The person

from whose
perspective a
story is told
Point of View
 The perspective or angle from which a story

is being told

 There are several types:

– First-Person-Poi...
Point of View (continued)
 There are also two types of Third-Person-

Point-of-View:

– Third-Limited -Point-of-View: Whe...
Irony

 The difference between appearance and

reality or the expectation and result.



There are THREE kinds of Irony:...
Irony (continued)

-Situational Irony: When an event directly
contradicts expectations of the reader or of
the characters
Foreshadowing
 Clues in a literary work that suggest events

that have yet to occur

This literary device
helps to creat...
Theme
 The central message or insight into

life revealed through a literary work

– This is the deeper meaning, the main...
Denotation Vs. Connotation
 Denotation:

The dictionary
meaning of a word,
independent of
other associations
that the wor...
Mood

 The feeling created in the reader

by a literary work

Tone
 The attitude toward the subject
that an author conve...
Simile
 A comparison between two unlike things

using “like” or “as”.
 Similes are used to make descriptions of
objects ...
Metaphor

 A comparison between two unlike things,

without using the words “like” or “as”.
 Instead, one thing is spoke...
Personification
 A type of figurative language, where a non-

human object is given human characteristics

Examples:
-The...
Imagery

 The descriptive or figurative language

used in literature to create word
pictures for the reader.

 These wor...
Symbol
 Something that has a literal meaning, but

also stands for or represents an abstract
idea.
Example: The American ...
Allusion
 When one literary work references a well-

known person, place, event, work of art, or
another literary work to...
Dialogue




A dialogue is a
conversation between
characters.
It is often used to
reveal things about a
character’s thou...
Diction
 Word choice, including vocabulary

used, word appropriateness, and
vividness of language
Characterization
 The way a writer reveals a character’s

personality and traits.

 There are two methods:

– Direct Cha...
Dynamic Character
 A character that develops and changes

through the course of a story

Example: Ebenezer Scrooge at th...
Static Character
 A character that does not change or

develop through the course of the story

Example:
Wile E. Coyote
Round Character
 A character that exhibits many traits, faults

as well as virtues

Flat Character
 A character who seem...
Stereotype
 A set of inaccurate, simplistic

generalizations about a group that allows
others to categorize them and trea...
Topic Sentence
 A sentence that expresses the main idea

or point of the paragraph, usually
appearing at the beginning.
Supporting Details
 Statements that support the main

idea/topic sentence with explanations,
descriptions, definitions, o...
Purpose
 The author’s reason for writing a

specific piece

(Examples: To entertain, to inform, or
to persuade the reader...
Thesis Statement
 The sentence or two that contains the

focus of the essay and tells your reader
what your essay will be...
Generalization
 A broad principle that is supported by evidence

or particulars

Evidence

 Particulars, or details, tha...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Short story terms

1,696 views

Published on

Literary terms every student should know.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,696
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
63
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Short story terms

  1. 1. Short Story Unit Literary Terms
  2. 2. Plot The sequence of events that make up a story, usually centering around a main conflict
  3. 3. The Five Stages of Plot
  4. 4. Exposition  The first stage of plot!  In the Exposition, the scene is set: – this part of the story introduces the characters , tells the reader the setting , and provides all of the necessary background information
  5. 5. Setting  The  setting of the literary work is the time and place of the action.  Time can include not only the historical period—past, present, or future—but also a specific year, season, or time of day. Place—though usually physical—may also involve the social, economic, or cultural environment of the story
  6. 6. Rising Action  The second stage of plot!  This is where the action usually begins. In the Rising Action, the conflict is introduced (either between characters, or with an outside force). This conflict will build up pressure until the Climax
  7. 7. Climax  The climax is the  Generally, this is the highest point of conflict in the story!! point after which everything is different. All of the pressure or events of the Rising Action have stacked up to this moment, when something must change.
  8. 8. Falling Action  This stage begins the downward slope the conflict lessens, and the plot moves towards closure
  9. 9. Resolution/Denouement  In the final stage of plot, the conflict concludes, and loose ends are tied up.
  10. 10. Conflict A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. There are two types of conflict: INTERNAL -Conflict that occurs inside the character -man Vs. self EXTERNAL –Conflict that occurs outside of the character -man Vs. man -man Vs. nature -man Vs. society -man Vs. fate
  11. 11. Protagonist The protagonist is the main character in a literary work. He/she is NOT necessarily the “good guy”, just the main character
  12. 12. Antagonist An antagonist is a character or force in conflict with the main character This is NOT necessarily the “bad guy”, just the person or thing that is working against the main character
  13. 13. Narrator The person from whose perspective a story is told
  14. 14. Point of View  The perspective or angle from which a story is being told  There are several types: – First-Person-Point-of-View: When the narrator telling the story is one of the characters, and tells the story as a personal account – Third-Person-Point-of-View: When the narrator is not one of the characters (has no name, and does not participate in any of the action of the plot)
  15. 15. Point of View (continued)  There are also two types of Third-Person- Point-of-View: – Third-Limited -Point-of-View: When the Thirdnarrator sees the world through one character’s eyes and reveals only that character’s thoughts – Third-Omniscient -Point-of-View: When the Thirdnarrator sees into the minds of more than one character. Omniscient = all knowing
  16. 16. Irony  The difference between appearance and reality or the expectation and result.  There are THREE kinds of Irony: -Verbal Irony: a word or phrase used to suggest the opposite of its actual meaning. “You look so good in that dress,” said her best friend. -Dramatic Irony: When there is a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the readers know is true. You know something the character doesn’t know. (You know the murderer is hiding in the closet but the character doesn’t know.)
  17. 17. Irony (continued) -Situational Irony: When an event directly contradicts expectations of the reader or of the characters
  18. 18. Foreshadowing  Clues in a literary work that suggest events that have yet to occur This literary device helps to create suspense, keeping readers wondering about what will happen next.
  19. 19. Theme  The central message or insight into life revealed through a literary work – This is the deeper meaning, the main lesson/message/moral that the author hopes the reader will understand at the end of the story
  20. 20. Denotation Vs. Connotation  Denotation: The dictionary meaning of a word, independent of other associations that the word may have  Connotation: Suggested meaning. An emotional association with a word in addition to the word’s actual, explicit meaning. Ex., house, woman, Hollywood, joking
  21. 21. Mood  The feeling created in the reader by a literary work Tone  The attitude toward the subject that an author conveys in a piece of writing
  22. 22. Simile  A comparison between two unlike things using “like” or “as”.  Similes are used to make descriptions of objects or people more powerful. Example: Without a simile: “It was dark outside.” With a simile: “The night was as dark as thick, black velvet.”
  23. 23. Metaphor  A comparison between two unlike things, without using the words “like” or “as”.  Instead, one thing is spoken of as though it is something else completely. Example (from the Langston Hughes poem “Dreams”): “…if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly”
  24. 24. Personification  A type of figurative language, where a non- human object is given human characteristics Examples: -The desk coughed and grunted as I shoved it across the old wooden floor. -The tea kettle whistled once the water was boiling.
  25. 25. Imagery  The descriptive or figurative language used in literature to create word pictures for the reader.  These word pictures/images, are created by details of sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, or movement.
  26. 26. Symbol  Something that has a literal meaning, but also stands for or represents an abstract idea. Example: The American Flag– on a literal level, it is just a flag, a piece of cloth. However, it also stands for this particular county, for freedom, etc.
  27. 27. Allusion  When one literary work references a well- known person, place, event, work of art, or another literary work to make a point. Example: In Taylor Swift’s song “Love Story”, she alludes to the play “Romeo and Juliet”.
  28. 28. Dialogue   A dialogue is a conversation between characters. It is often used to reveal things about a character’s thoughts, motivations, and personality to the reader, and to advance the action of the plot. Example: After walking into the kitchen, Susie cried, “Mom, how could you eat the last cupcake?!” Mom replied, “I was hungry, and you weren’t here. It was delicious, my dear!”
  29. 29. Diction  Word choice, including vocabulary used, word appropriateness, and vividness of language
  30. 30. Characterization  The way a writer reveals a character’s personality and traits.  There are two methods: – Direct Characterization: The author directly states a character’s personality and/or physical traits – Indirect Characterization: Uses a character’s thoughts, actions, and feelings, to suggest the character’s traits.
  31. 31. Dynamic Character  A character that develops and changes through the course of a story Example: Ebenezer Scrooge at the beginning of “A Christmas Carol”, he is a mean, lonely man that is only interested in money. By the end of the story, he is generous, and interested in the “true spirit of Christmas.”
  32. 32. Static Character  A character that does not change or develop through the course of the story Example: Wile E. Coyote
  33. 33. Round Character  A character that exhibits many traits, faults as well as virtues Flat Character  A character who seems to have only a single personality trait
  34. 34. Stereotype  A set of inaccurate, simplistic generalizations about a group that allows others to categorize them and treat them accordingly.
  35. 35. Topic Sentence  A sentence that expresses the main idea or point of the paragraph, usually appearing at the beginning.
  36. 36. Supporting Details  Statements that support the main idea/topic sentence with explanations, descriptions, definitions, or other information.
  37. 37. Purpose  The author’s reason for writing a specific piece (Examples: To entertain, to inform, or to persuade the reader)
  38. 38. Thesis Statement  The sentence or two that contains the focus of the essay and tells your reader what your essay will be about.  The thesis statement unifies the essay parts.
  39. 39. Generalization  A broad principle that is supported by evidence or particulars Evidence  Particulars, or details, that lead to generalizations Evidence Evidence EvidEncE Evidence GENERALIZATIO N (BIG

×