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  1. 1. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 1 OVERVIEW OF ANCIENT EDUCATION PRIMITIVE EDUCATION Education was acquired during primitive period by enculturation. Enculturation is the process of learning the culture and acquiring the values and knowledge of a society. Primitive education aims to help a primitive person in learning his culture, developing his behaviour in the ways of adulthood, and guiding him toward eventual role in his society. In this education, the environment and all the surrounding activities are viewed as school or classroom and all adults act as teachers. The purpose of primitive education is to shape children to becoming good members of a tribe. Training for citizenship is essential to primitive people because they are primary concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the comprehensive understanding of their society and lifestyle during the passage from pre-puberty and post-puberty. Primitive education is classified into: pre-puberty and post-puberty education.  Pre-puberty education. In this education, children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities, and their participatory learning is based upon identification, empathy and imitation (Margaret Mead). Primitive children learn by doing and observing basic technical practices. Teachers are their immediate community.  Post-puberty education. In this education, some cultures are strictly standardized and regulated. Teachers are unknown to initiates (referring to their students), though they are his relatives in other tribe. The form of education is called initiation. Initiation may begin with initiate being separated from his family and sent him to secluded camp where he joins other initiates. The initiation curriculum does not include practical subject, instead it composes of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion, myths, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge. The body of knowledge constituting the initiation curriculum is the most essential to primitive people’s tribal membership.(Anon., 2008) ORIENTAL EDUCATION CHINA Geography: China, officially the People’s Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state occupying a position on the eastern side of Asiatic continent. It is the second largest country in the world by land area covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres or 3.6 million square miles. It is also the most populous country in the world having a population of over 1.53 billion. Its territory lies between 18 degree and 54 degree North latitude and 73 degree and 135 degree East longitude. Brief History Shang Dynasty was the first Chinese dynasty who ruled between 17th to 11th centuries BCE. The oracle bone script of the Shang Dynasty represents the oldest form of Chinese writing, and
  2. 2. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 2 considered as the direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters used throughout East Asia. The Shang was invaded from the west by the Zhou, who rules between the 12th and 1th centuries BCE. Qin Shi Huang formed the first imperial known as Qin State in 221 BCE. He proclaimed himself as the First Emperor. During his reign, he imposed many reforms throughout China such as forced standardization of the Chinese language, measurements, length of cart axles, and currency. After the downfall of Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty rules between 206 BCE and 220 CE. The dynasty created a lasting Han cultural identity among its people that has endured to the present day. It helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia, and became the largest economy in ancient world. The fall of Han Dynasty gave way to chivalric period of the Three Kingdoms. Among these kingdoms was Wu Dynasty that opened diplomatic relations with Japan and introduced the Chinese writing systems. The development of Chinese technology and culture happened during the reign of Tang and Song dynasty. Song Dynasty was the first to use paper currency and the first to establish Chinese polity. In this dynasty, arts and philosophy flourished. Notable philosophers during this period were Cheng Yi and Chu His who taught the doctrine of Neo Confucianism. Kublai Khan, Mongol leader, conquered the last remnant of the Song Dynasty in 1279 and built his on empire known as Yuan Dynasty. They were defeated in 1368 by a peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang, and he founded the Ming Dynasty. Under the government of Ming Dynasty, the China’s economy became rich and prosperous with their flourishing arts and culture. During this dynasty, explorations around the world started and changed the capital from Nanjing to Beijing. Wang Yangming, a philosopher, further critiqued and elaborated the concept of Neo-Confucianism with individualism and innate morality. Ming Dynasty fell by an alliance of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. However, the dynasty founded by Li Zicheng named Shun Dynasty reigned shortly when they were overthrew by Manchu Qing Dynasty together with Ming Dynasty general, Wu Sangui. Qing Dynasty lasted from 1644 until 1912 and it was the last imperial dynasty in China. The dynasty experienced western imperialism in 19th century and was forced to sign unequal treaties, pay compensation, and cede Hong Kong to Britain. Despite of tremendous rebellions during the period that wasted several million lives, Qing regime became victorious. Mass civil disorder begun and advocates for reform and revolution emerged across the country and this led to the end of ruling of dynasty.(Wikipedia, 2013) EDUCATION HOME EDUCATION The wife exists only for the comfort of her husband. She receives punishment by one hundred stripes when she abuses her husband, but abuse from her husband is not a punishable offense. The birth of a boy in the family is presented by hanging a bow and arrow over the door while the birth of a girl is presented by a hanging a spindle and yarn over the door. Instruction at home and in school is limited to boys. Boys are more important than girls. The mother can seldom read and write as she does not receive formal education. Her primary duty is mostly at home and that is to bring up her children by instilling the two cardinal Chinese virtues. These are obedience and politeness(Seeley, 1904).
  3. 3. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 3 ELEMENTARY EDUCATION The child enters school at the age of six or seven. The school is held sometimes in a temple, home of the teacher, or home of a wealthy patron. The room has an altar consecrated to Confucius and the god of knowledge, a desk and a chair for the teacher, and student’s self-provided desks and stools. Rich families used to employ teacher to educate their children. The first day of the child in school is accompanied by a ceremony. This is considered one of the most memorable experiences for the child as he drops the name of his babyhood and receives a new name. Every change of name goes with new epoch of life, it means new responsibility. On the first years of study, pupils are dedicated to reading, writing and arithmetic. The teaching method is fixated on cultivation of memory and improvement of writing. The study to learn is driven by fear not by child’s interest. The second level of education includes translation from textbooks and lessons in composition. The third level consists of belles-lettres and essay writing. Only few reach the third level, only if the student wants to have position under the government. Even with last two levels of education, memory is the principal concern (Seeley, 1904). HIGHER EDUCATION Men who have taken degrees gather about them young students, who are devote themselves to study, and give them instruction in the Chinese classics and prepare them for the State examinations for degrees. Students in this education are required to memorize writings from classical authors and to write essays and verses which are evaluated by their teachers. Education is confined solely to the Chinese Classics (Seeley, 1904). EXAMINATION Candidates must pass three examinations in their own district and those who passed receive the lowest degree called “Budding Intellect”. Thousands enter for this degree but only about one percent succeeds in achieving it. Having this degree does not entitle a holder to a public office, but most of them become teachers, physicians, lawyers, etc. Once in three years there is another examination for the second degree called “Deserving of Promotion”. This examination is conducted by an examiner sent from Perkin. Examination for the third degree is also conducted once every three years, and successful examinees are rewarded by the title called “Fit for Office”. Holders of these last two degrees are entitled to an appointment to some offices. There is still higher degree called “Forest of Pencils” that is only administered to the members of Royal Academy, the Hanlin. Possession of this degree provides greatest honor and highly esteemed, and may hold the highest offices in the country. An edict was promulgated in 1905 to abolish the old system of examination. This marks an era in Chinese educational history and will tend to place China in the line of modern political and industrial development (Seeley, 1904). CONFUCIUS (550-478 BC) He is the most respected man among Chinese. He was concerned on language and literature aside from Buddhism. He began to teach in a private school at the age of twenty-two and rejected
  4. 4. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 4 pupils with no ability and ambition (Seeley, 1904). His interests were more on moral philosophy, ethics, and social philosophy. His famous writing is “Analects of Confucius”. INDIA Geography: China, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It’s land area covering approximately 3.2 million square kilometres or 1.3 million square miles. It is the second most populous country in the world having a population of over 1.2 billion. Its territory lies to the north of the equator between 6.44 degree and 35.30 degree North latitude and 68.7 degree and 97.25 degree East longitude. Brief History During the period of 2000-500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. In this period, the Vedas, the oldest known scriptures of Hinduism, were composed, and many historians have analysed these to postulate a Vedic Culture both in Punjab region and upper Gangetic Plain. The caste system arose during this period. Around the 5th century BCE, in the late Vedic period, the small chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies called mahajanapadas. Orthodoxies and the development of urbanization led to the creation of reform movements of Buddhism and Jainism, both of which became independent religions. Between 200 BCE and 200 CE revealed the Sangam Literature of Tamil Language. The Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas were the dynasties that ruled the southern peninsula and they traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with the West and Southeast Asia. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire has created a complex system of taxation and administration in the greater Ganges Plain that became the basis for later Indian Empires. Under this empire, Hinduism began to assert itself according to devotion rather than the management of ritual. The renewal was reflected in a flourishing of sculpture, architecture and Classical Sanskrit literature. Science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances during these centuries. Medieval India began between 600 CE to 1200 CE. It was defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. Territorial expansion was the prominent issue during this century. After the 10 century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans overran South Asia’s north western plains, and led to creation of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. The sultanate built to control North India and to make many forays into South India. The sultanate’s invasion and weakening of South India’s regional kingdoms paved way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. The empire embraced a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate. It came to control much India peninsular and then it came to influence South Indian society. In the early 16th century, Northern India fell to the hand of Mughal Empire. The empire derived most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes to be paid in the well-regulated silver currency. These economic policies caused peasants and artisans to enter larger market. Commercial expansion during Mughal rule gave rise to the new commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.
  5. 5. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 5 India’s Modern Age begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. This period set changes essential to a modern state. This includes the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and education of citizens. Technological changes and industrial improvement were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe(Wikipedia, 2013). THE CASTE SYSTEM There are four great castes in India: 1. Brahmin- the highest order that includes priests, scholars, lawyers, physicians, teachers, etc. They are highly respected by lower caste and its members are dignified, abstemious, and sedate (Seeley, 1904). 2. Kshatriyas- the second order that includes warriors, administrators, and law enforcers. 3. Vaishyas- the third order that includes farmers, traders, and mechanics, and they constitutes the bone and sinew of India (Seeley, 1904). 4. Shudras- the fourth order that includes servants or artisans, who receive no education expecting in matters of politeness and other things connected with their station in life (Seeley, 1904). Those people who were not considered from these four caste classifications are considered Panchama. They are also regarded as outcastes or the untouchables, and they lived on the fringes of the society. EDUCATION HOME EDUCATION Woman has no educational advantages in India, and she is considered more as the servant than as equal of her husband. She is not allowed to appear uninvited in the presence of any man except her husband. She does not also medical attention in case of sickness unless a female medical missionary can be reached. A member of a caste may marry in his own or in a lower caste. Brahmin may have four wives, Kshatriyas may have three, Vaishyas may have two, and Shudras may have one. Children are taught to love and honor their teachers even more than their parents. They are also taught to respect older people under all circumstances. Hindu idea is to prepare for future life, and children are trained with reference of this idea (Seeley, 1904). ELEMENTARY EDUCATION All teachers belong to the Brahmins. They are paid by gifts for support. Unlike Chinese teachers who are strict, they are mild in discipline and humane in treating their pupils. Instruction, when in good weather condition, is held under the tree or when in bad weather condition, it is held in shed or tent. Education focuses more in reading, writing, and arithmetic and memorizing the holy sayings of Brahma constitutes a large portion of the time. Reading lessons are taken from the Veda. In writing, the child begins by forming characters in sand with his finger or a stick, then he writes on leaf, and finally on paper. Arithmetic is very elementary and it deals with things are the important to learner’s practical life. Servants and girls are excluded even from this limited education.
  6. 6. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 6 The castes are taught separately, and especial attention is given to such instruction that will fit them for their station in life. They are taught with politeness, patience, modesty, and truthfulness (Seeley, 1904). HIGHER EDUCATION The Brahmins are the only educated class. Warriors attend their schools for purpose of such study as is necessary in connection with their calling. Farmers may also attend the Brahman schools to lean studies pertaining to their caste. In this education, they study grammar, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, law, literature, and religion. Many of them still speak their classic language, the Sanskrit (Seeley, 1904). BUDDHA He fought to overthrow the Brahmanism and taught that all men are brothers, that they should show friendship, kindness, pity, and love toward their fellow. His belief and teachings approach nearer to Christianity than any other oriental faith. Buddhism are more on moral acts (Seeley, 1904). THE JEWS Brief History The Jews, as translated, were the “Children of Israel” or “Sons of Israel”. They came from the Israelites (Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East. Biblically speaking, Jewish ancestry is originated from apostles Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who lived in Canaan around the 18th century BCE. Historically speaking, they had evolved mostly from the Tribe of Judah and Simeon, and some were from Benjamin and Levi, who all together formed the ancient Kingdom of Judah(Wikipedia, 2013). They reached their greatest power and glory during the reigns of David and Solomon, and they occupied Palestine (known now as Israel), with Jerusalem as their capital city. In this place happened the most important events in history, and the Jewish race was chosen to be representatives of God’s purposes toward man. The early Jews were nomadic in their habits, living in tents, and tending their flocks. The patriarch, who was the head of a family or tribe, made laws for people under him and governed them in accordance to God’s command. In 63 BCE, the Jews lost their freedom and they were under the control of Romans, and in 70 AD, Jerusalem was ruined that made the Jews wandered all around the world. Despite of this, they had maintained their racial characteristics with remarkable purity. However, most of them were persecuted by other religions because of their religious belief (Seeley, 1904). EDUCATION HOME EDUCATION
  7. 7. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 7 Jewish people practiced monogamy, and the wife was regarded as the companion and equal of the husband. Children are gift of God, and as father, he had to bring up his children in the knowledge and service of the Lord. The father taught his boys reading and writing while the mother taught the girls household duties but girls were not entirely excluded from intellectual training. Jewish people paid attention to rites and ceremonies of the tabernacle and the law. They also taught history as a mean of stimulating patriotism. Their children were accustomed with the Scriptures (Bible) and history, law, and prophecy. There were no schools, teaching was given at home and the child’s parent was considered his teacher. Education was central on religion to prepare every child for the service of the tabernacle and the worship of God was also given to them. Obedience and respect to parents and ancestors with knowledge of Jewish law were instilled into the minds of all children. Music and dancing were taught in every household, not for pleasure, but as means of religious expression. The father led his children to ideal manhood which was revealed to him by the teachings of Holy Writ. There was no social discrimination among Jewish people. All were equal, rich or poor, high or low and they deserved to get an education (Seeley, 1904). THE JEWISH SCHOOL Education became the sole means of retrieving their national greatness. In 64 AD, the rabbis, the teachers, required every community to support a school, and that attendance should be compulsory. Every teacher could have not more than twenty-five pupils, otherwise an assistant was employed. Teachers were respected even more than parents because they prepared their pupils for the future. Parents were to prepare their children for the present. Qualified teachers were mature married men. The child entered school at age six. Tasks were provided according to the child’s strength. The subjects taught were reading, writing, natural history, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy. The Scriptures were taught to all children, and all were versed in religious rites(Seeley, 1904). THE SCHOOL OF RABBIS The tablets containing the Ten Commandments of God are the oldest writing among the Israelites. Moses, David, Solomon, and Isaiah, and the other prophets were the founders of the Hebrew Literature. School of the Prophets were among the educational institution that provides higher education. Teachers of this school taught philosophy, medicine, poetry, history, and law to the sons of prophets and priests, and of known families. The school aimed to stimulate the production of the historical, poetical and prophetic books of the Old Testament. But School of the Rabbis was considered important as direct means of higher education. The school was founded by famous teachers. They taught mainly theology and law, while politics, history, mathematics and science were being excluded(Seeley, 1904). THE TALMUD
  8. 8. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 8 This is a book of sayings and discussion of rabbis collected from the second to the sixth century AD. It serves as rule of life to Jews and aids in perpetuating laws, ceremonies, customs, and religion. It has been the most compelling means of preserving the national and racial characteristics of the Jews for nearly two thousand years (Seeley, 1904). GREEK EDUCATION Greece Geography: China, officially the Hellenic Republic and known since ancient times as Hellas. It is the country in Southeast Europe.The country has the 11th longest coastline in the world and eighty percent of the country consists of mountains, of which Mount Olympus is the highest mountain. Brief History Greece is considered the birthplace of western civilization beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea (3200 BC), the Minoan civilization in Crete (2700- 1500BC), and then the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland (1900-1100 BC). The end of the Greek Dark Age was also the year of the first Olympic Games. During this age, various kingdoms and city-states across Greek peninsula emerged. These states and their colonies achieved cultural prosperity clearly expressed in their architecture, philosophy, science, mathematics, and drama. Cleisthenes implemented the first democracy system of government in Athens in 508 BC. Hellenistic and Roman periods started between 323 BC and 4th century AD. At the Battle of Pydna, Macedonia was defeated and became a province of Rome and the rest of the Greece became a Roman protectorate. In 27 BC, the process of colonization was completed when Roman Emperor Augustus annexed the rest of Greece and made it as the senatorial province of Achaea. Romans, despite of their military superiority, were admired and heavily influenced by Greek culture. Science, technology and mathematics became popular during this Hellenistic period. In the 14th century, Byzantine Empire lost most part of Greek peninsula as first the Serbs and then Ottomans who declared imperial territory. This invasion caused many Byzantine Greek scholars to go west bringing with them a large body of literature, which had significant influence in Renaissance. During the Ottoman period, Greece people suffered economic consequences. Ottoman Empire imposed heavy taxes and enacted a policy of hereditary estates turning the rural Greek populations into serfs. The Greek Orthodox Church and the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople were considered by the Ottoman governments as the ruling authorities of the entire Orthodox Christian population. Christians suffered discrimination and with these they were forced to be converted to Islam.Greece fought their freedom between 1821 and 1832(Wikipedia, 2013). The Olympic Games
  9. 9. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 9 The Olympic Games has direct influence on the education of the people. This was celebrated in honor of Zeus at Olympia, which became the Holy Land of Greece. This took place once every four years, and this period called the Olympiad. The first Olympia begins with 776 BC. This game united various states of Greece in friendly and joyous activities. The activities in this game were foot race, wresting, jumping, and throwing spear. Then, they added chariot and horse races, and competition in painting, sculpture and literature. Only Greek citizens of good moral character were allowed to join the game. Winner received a prize of simple wreath of laurel or olive. The Olympian Games aimed to unite people of Greece and it was created to stimulate national patriotism (Seeley, 1904). Sparta Sparta was the capital of Laconia, the southern province of Greece. People of Sparta were categorized as: 1. Citizens- they were nobles who rules other classes. 2. Perioeci- they were freemen subjected to the nobles. 3. Helots- they were slaves. Home Education The child was left in charge of the mother until six or seven years of age. The father usually spearheaded the child’s training, but sometimes a mature relative assumed the responsibility. Child was taught implicit obedience and modesty. The Iliad and the Odyssey served the Bible of Greek, and children learned excerpts from the works of the great poet, Homer. The mother was highly respected by her husband and her children, and she was noted for her chastity and nobility of character. She cheerfully gave her sons to serve his country and inspired them to deeds of bravery and patriotism. State trained those strong children that were likely to become good soldiers. Those children who were perceived as weak and unpromising either killed as soon as they were born or left to feed to the wild beasts upon the mountain. These abandoned children were rescued and reared by the lower classes(Seeley, 1904). Education At six or seven, the boy was taken from the home, and the State had entire jurisdiction of his education. They boys were placed in group in charge of young men who were responsible for their education. They sat at table with older men and listened to their storied of heroism and bravery. They were never allowed to speak unless they had to answer questions. The State trained these children to endure hunger and pain. The purpose was to prepare them to be a soldier with strong and supple bodies and inured to hardship. The only intellectual education provided to them was music from playing lyre as accompaniment to the dance. Reading and writing were fit for slaves. At twelve, the boy exchanged the long coat for the mantle, a sign the boy was entering manhood. From this age to thirty, same training was continued, though the training became more definitely military.
  10. 10. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 10 At thirty, the Spartan youth became a citizen and was expected to marry. Girls also received gymnastic training, in many cases with the boys. Gymnastics for girls aimed to develop strong and beautiful wives and mothers(Seeley, 1904). Lycurgus He formed the constitution which gave the Sparta its peculiar institutions. His laws were intended to check luxury and to inculcate the simple habits (Seeley, 1904). Pythagoras He was not a Spartan, but he was associated with southern Greece. The fundamental thought of Pythagorean philosophy was the idea of proportion and harmony. His school taught mathematics, the central idea of the system but they also taught medicine, physics, and philosophy. His major contribution was the so-called Pythagorean Theorem in geometry(Seeley, 1904). Athens Contrast to principles of Sparta, Athens’ education, politics and ethics worked together with their love of liberty, love of wisdom and love of beauty. Athenians believed that the truest beauty was to be reached only by development of mind. Hence, Athens produced great men. Among them were Pericles, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Athens created literature that influenced the world, she developed art to its highest excellence, and she gained a permanent and high place in the world’s history. The spirit of Athens was liberty, while the Sparta was tyranny. Athens had slaves but they had a large share of freedom and they also enjoyed some means of education. Children of the wealthy families were committed to trusted slaves called pedagogues, who escorted them to school, instructed them in many things, and had a right to punish them for disobedience. The first democratic idea of government was first found in Athens. Solon (638 BC) was the great lawgiver of Athens. His wise laws had much influence on the prosperity and intellectual development of people (Seeley, 1904). EDUCATION Home Education In Athens, the child was left with the mother until the sixth or seventh year. The toys were greater in variety than with any other people of antiquity. Their purpose was to amuse the children rather than furnish a definite preparation of life. Therefore, play was recognized as an important factor in the child’s life, and these toys used to stimulate and encouraged the joyous element in the child’s nature. Toys are an effective stimulus toward child’s mental and physical growth. Training of the children was humane and intellectual but strict parents or mentors enforced strict obedience.Children were taught about selections from the works of poets. Father interested himself mainly in the education of his son, and when he was unable to discharge this duty, he selected an elderly male relative as a mentor who devoted his leisure hours to such training. Little attention was paid to the intellectual training of the girls.
  11. 11. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 11 Women were not held so high esteem nor they were worthy of respect. She was not equal to her husband neither by social position nor intellectual attainment. Her husband exercised the same authority over his wife and over his children (Seeley, 1904). Education The father was free to choose for his children their school and the character of their education. The State provided gymnasia that served as schools, and it also fixed the qualification of the teachers, the school hours, and the number of pupils to a teacher. Philosophers or wise men were the teachers, thoroughly capable to discharge the duties to their office. The boy went to school at age six or seven in charge of a pedagogue, or leader of young- he was old and trusted slave. Pedagogue was responsible for morals and manners and he was allowed to administer punishment for disobedience. He was the constant attendant of the boy. The first two years were devoted chiefly to gymnastics. The two subjects of the elementary course were gymnastics and music, and the next term, reading and writing were included. Little attention was paid to study of arithmetic as it was only needed for practical use. The idea of education of Athens was the development of beauty. So the pupils were required to memorize many selections from the works of poets. Children of the poorer classes were kept in school until their fourteenth and fifteenth year, when they learned to trade. Those from rich classes remained in school until twentieth year to study music, rhetoric, grammar and philosophy. After twenty, the youth’s education was considered completed, and became a citizen. Teachers were paid fees and not fixed salaries. Athens’ education aimed “beautiful”, and the ideal was the aesthetic in mind and body (Seeley, 1904). The Sophists The Sophists flourished during the 15th century BC. Their chief exponents were Protagoras and Gorgias. They wandered about from place to place proclaiming themselves as philosophers and bidding for the patronage of the rich by charging large fees and considering public questions. They discussed error and wrong with same eloquence and zeal and they discussed truth and justice. Their purpose was foster eloquence rather than discover truth. From them, we came with the word “sophistry”, which means fallacious reasoning. Protagoras hit many correct principles of rhetoric, and satisfactorily established certain grammatical categories(Seeley, 1904). Athenian Educators Socrates (470-399 BC) Socrates challenged the Sophists by saying it is possible to learn absolute virtue and attain truth. He sought universal principles by pursuing the clear, common meaning of terms, and he raised some of the basic questions of knowledge and ethics. His method of question and answer conversation now called Socratic Method. His teachings rested on two basic assumptions: a person is never to do wrong, either directly or indirectly, and not one who knows what is right will act contrary to it (Zulueta & Malaya, 2012). Plato (429-347 BC)
  12. 12. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 12 Plato was a disciple of Socrates, and he recorded many of his conversation. His “Dialogues” are some of the most interesting reading in Western literature. He developed a many sided philosophy that includes a theory of knowledge, a theory of human conduct, and a theory of the state universe. He said there is a world of sense experience that is always changing. His world of ideas resembles a blueprint after which the objects of the physical world are fashioned (Zulueta & Malaya, 2012). Another great work of Plato is his “Republic”. It portrays the ideal State and outlines his scheme of education, which assembled on archetypes of both Spartan and Athenian citizenship. From Sparta comes the thought of an education which shall be controlled by the State from birth, while Athens adds aesthetical aspects to those purely physical. In his scheme, he divided the people into the following classes: 1. The common people. They should be allowed to rise, but no education is provided for them in his scheme. 2. The guardians or citizens. They should study music and gymnastics. Music includes literature, that is, human culture as distinguished from scientific knowledge. Writing and arithmetic are also included under music, the latter not being studied for practical purposes, but to develop the reason. 3. The rulers. They should study music and gymnastics and should also study geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, and philosophy (Seeley, 1904). Aristotle (384-322 BC) Aristotle was Plato’s most prominent pupil. He departed from his master’s teaching on many aspects. His writings on nature make him the world’s first real scientist, though his conclusions have long been superceded. He said that the material world is real and not a creation of eternal forms. He taught that individual things combine form and matter in ways that determined how they grow and change. He was also the founder of formal logic (Zulueta & Malaya, 2012). Rome In Age the Augustus, Roman Empire embraced all the border of the Mediterranean, extended as far north as the North Sea, as far east as the Euphrates, as far south as the Sahara, and west to the Atlantic. With its rich territory and vast population, this great empire possessed brilliant advantages for the spread of Christianity, for the propagation of intelligence, and for the development of the human race. Its government was generally some form of republic. Their religion took on gross forms of idolatry, for they readily adopted and worshiped the gods of the Grecians, Egyptians, and other conquered people. Romans were very superstitious. These facts have a bearing upon Christian education(Seeley, 1904). Education Home Education In Rome, the responsibility of the education of the boy was devolved almost entirely upon the mother. In early Roman history, the matron was celebrated for her virtues- fidelity to her husband, love of her children, and queenly guardianship of the sacred precincts of the home.
  13. 13. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 13 The husband was the head of the house, but to his wife was committed the care of the children and the instruction for the first six or seven years of their lives. The mother taught her children strict obedience and politeness, and instructed them in the “Twelve Tables of Roman Law”. She also took great pain to teach her children correct pronunciations in preparation of their later training in oratory, which was the most important study in Roman Education. Besides, she taught them their alphabets, first the name and then the form, a practice which is pedagogically false, as Quintilian pointed out. She also taught them poems from the great masters(Seeley, 1904). Elementary Education With the same practice with Athenians, the child went to school at age six or seven in charge of a slave. The slave task was to look after the child’s protection and to carry his books. He was not responsible to child’s moral and manners. In this level, children were taught by literators. They were usually men of little culture and no social standing. These institutions were public, though supported by private means. The discipline was severe, strict obedience being exacted by the teacher, who made use of the rod when he thought it necessary. The school asserted obedience, politeness, modesty, cleanliness, and respect for teachers. The subjects taught were reading, writing, and arithmetic, and with great emphasis on pronunciation. In writing, the letters were traced with stylus on waxed tablets. Arithmetic was learned for its utility. Indeed, the whole purpose of the schools was to prepare the children for practical life (Seeley, 1904). Secondary Education At age twelve, the boy entered a school taught by literatus. They were educated men. Many of the teachers of this level were Greek. In addition to the subjects taught in elementary school, the pupils were taught the Greek and Latin languages. They also studied poets, history, oratory, philosophy, and criticism. Higher Education At age sixteen, the boy was inducted with ceremony into the dignity of manhood, and was clothed with the toga virilise, the dress of men. He now chose his calling and began definite preparation for it. He chose among oratory, politics, arms, law, and agriculture. Those without talent or inclination of any of the others devoted themselves to agriculture. They were taken to the farms, where they received definite instruction in the principles and practices of this occupation. Those who chose oratory, politics, or law, were assigned persons experienced in their respective fields, and the boys were taken to the forum, the senate, and other places where they could hear renowned orators and become familiar with public life. They had also definite instruction in their chosen field. Those who chose army were placed in charge of military officers. They learned military tactics and the practical duties of life in camp. These learners also gave attention to oratory and other intellectual studies. The purpose of Roman education was to train the children in his practical duties in life. Romans had their ideal of what an educated man should be, and that ideal found its expression in
  14. 14. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 14 the name of orator. He who was the best orator was the best educated man. The schools were only for boys, while girls were educated on household duties at home. Roman Educators Cicero (106-43 BC) Cicero was a Roman statesman who introduced Greek philosophy to Rome, and he was famous because of his political ideologies and interest. His writings endow the finest examples of Latin style, and his orations are studied for their classic beauty and rhetorical finish. Among his most pedagogical teachings that had significant influence on education are: 1. That education begins in childhood, and is steady growth throughout life. 2. That memory should be cultivated by learning extracts from classic authors. 3. That great care should be taken to make the amusements and environments of the child such as to elevate and refine, as well as properly to develop its powers. 4. That at the suitable time some calling should be chosen for which the youth has evident fitness. 5. That religion is the basis of morals; therefore careful attention should be given to religious instruction(Seeley, 1904). Seneca (3 BC- 65 AD) Seneca was the most eminent writer, rhetorician, and orator of his time. His writings have strong religious sentiment, quite like that of Christianity, leading one to think that he may have been influenced by Christ and his apostles, with whom he was contemporary. Among his pedagogical teachings are: 1. “Who condemns quickly, condemns willingly; and who punishes too much, punishes improperly.” 2. The office of education is to correct the evil tendencies in the child. 3. The character of each child must be studied, and each individual should be developed according to his peculiarities. 4. Do not flatter the child, but teach him truthfulness, modesty, and respect form his elders. 5. Take great care that the environment of the child is elevating, and allow only pure and ennobling examples to be reflected before him. 6. Give the child but few studies, in order that he may be thorough and acquire right habits of learning. 7. The office of teachers is one of the most important of all offices(Seeley, 1904). Quintilian He was one of the renowned orator and teacher during Roman time. He taught that as oratory was the climax of Roman education, should be given great attention. Among his pedagogical teachings of greatest importance are: 1. There should be no corporal punishment, as punishment administered to slaves is not suitable for children who are to be citizens.
  15. 15. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 15 2. Nurses must be irreproachable in life and language, so that children be not brought in contact with anything impure. 3. Amusements should be turned to account as a means of education. 4. Teachers should be men of ability and of spotless character. 5. Children should begin early with a foreign tongue, as their own language will come to them naturally in their intercourse with those about them. 6. Education should begin with the earliest childhood. 7. The forms and names of the letters should be learned simultaneously, playthings being utilized to assist in this. 8. Care should be taken that children do not acquire distaste for learning. 9. In learning to read, advance very slowly. 10. Writing should begin with tracing, and the copies should consist of moral precepts. 11. The individuality of the child should be studied. 12. Public schools are preferable to other means of education, because they do not subject the child to greater moral danger, while they stimulate him by association, friendship, and example, to noble endeavor. 13. Under the literatus, grammar, composition, music, geometry, astronomy, and literature are to be studied. 14. The climax of education should be rhetoric. Table: Summary of the Development of Education from Primitive to Oriental Education Period Aim of Education Learners Teaching Methods Curriculum Teachers Influence on Education Primitive Education To teach survival skills andto impart cultural believes and practices Children Informal, children imitate adults Practice fishing, hunting, poems, songs, and dances Parents, tribal elders, religious leaders Transmission of tribal culture and tribal practices Chinese Education To prepare elites to govern the empire in accordance to Confucius principles Males of upper class Memorization and Recitation Confucian classics and writing State officials Written examination for civil service Hindu Education To learn behavior and rituals based on Vedas Males of upper caste Memorization and interpretation of sacred texts Vedas and religious books Brahmin Cultural transmission, assimilation, and spiritual detachment The Jews Education To foster nationalism, patriotism, and to strengthen religious belief Male children ages 6-20 Learning the verses in the Scriptures Reading, writing, natural history, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, Scripture Rabbis Obedience, patriotism, and religion Spartan Education To prepare for the life of the soldier Male children ages 6-20 Developing survival skills, listening to older men’s stories of heroism Drills, military songs and tactics Military officers Concept of military state Athenian Education To nurture civic responsibility Male children ages 6-20 Memorization, recitation, discussion, lecture Gymnastics and music, reading and writing, drama and poetry, but little of arithmetic Philosophers or wise men Well-rounded, liberally educated person Roman Education To develop civic responsibility for the empire, administrative Male children ages 6-20 Memorization and recitation, oration Reading, writing, arithmetic, law, philosophy, and Literators (elementary education), Practical administrative skills,
  16. 16. MEM 501: HISTORY OF EDUCATION 16 and military skills rhetoric literatus (secondary education, Assigned to person experienced in respective field (higher education) relate education to civic responsibility References: Anon., 2008. History of Education, System of Education around the Globe and its Survival through the Core of the History to the Present Era of Hubs. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 15 August 2013]. Seeley, L., 1904. History of Education. Revised ed. Chicago: American Book Company. Wikipedia, 2013. China. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Augusr1 2013]. Wikipedia, 2013. Greece. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2013]. Wikipedia, 2013. India. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 15 August1 2013]. Wikipedia, 2013. Jews. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 15 August 2013]. Zulueta, F. M. & Malaya, E. M., 2012. Historical, Anthropological, Philosophical, Legal, Psychological, Sociological Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore.