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The Rise Of African Civilization


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The Rise Of African Civilization

  1. 1. The Rise of African Civilization
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Powerful trading empires will develop in both eastern and western Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Africa will become more involved in the global trade network </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Africa will maintain strong traditions around family, villages, and religious beliefs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Varied Geography <ul><li>Africa is the second largest continent on earth and makes up more than 1/5 of the earths land surface </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the continent is dominated by savanna and desert </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna areas tend to have larger populations because they receive enough rainfall to support agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the continent is covered by desert, including the Sahara, the worlds largest </li></ul><ul><li>The Sahara continues to grow as a result of desertification, or land changing into desert caused by drought, deforestation, and overgrazing </li></ul><ul><li>There is a small belt of rainforest along the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Few natural harbors or navigable rivers </li></ul>
  4. 4. African Savanna
  5. 5. Sahara Desert
  6. 6. Traditional Society <ul><li>Village Government – power was shared among the members of the community, not a single leader </li></ul><ul><li>Family Patterns – traditional people lived in both nuclear and extended families. The GROUP was always more important than the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Beliefs – Early Africans identified with the forces of nature and the belief that all living and non-living things contained spirits, this is called animism </li></ul>
  7. 7. Art – often reflected beliefs of the people
  8. 8. Rise of African Kingdoms <ul><li>Many African towns became part of the global trade network </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and salt were the two most important exports </li></ul><ul><li>Strong rulers created powerful kingdoms by gaining control of the profitable trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>These kingdoms included Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in West Africa and Axum in East Africa </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kingdoms of West Africa
  10. 10. Ghana <ul><li>Around 800, many villages united to form the kingdom of Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana profited from their income in the gold trade </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim merchants brought their religion and ideas to Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana absorbed Arabic writing and Muslim styles of architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Many however will keep their traditional religious values </li></ul>
  11. 11. Village Life in Ghana
  12. 12. Mali <ul><li>Mali was ruled by powerful kings called mansas </li></ul><ul><li>Under Mansa Musa, their most powerful ruler, Mali extended its borders and dominated west Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Mali also profited from the gold trade </li></ul><ul><li>A large army was created to keep the order and prevent invasions </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the people were farmers and herders </li></ul><ul><li>Mansa Musa ran an efficient government, appointing governors to rule particular areas </li></ul><ul><li>Mansa Musa also converted to Islam, basing his system of law on the Koran </li></ul><ul><li>He also made the city of Timbuktu a center of Muslim learning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Timbuktu
  14. 14. Songhai <ul><li>The emperor Sonni Ali turned Songhai into the largest state that had ever existed in in West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>He was also a Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>The empire expanded its trade into Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War in the 1500’s brought the empire to a collapse </li></ul>
  15. 15. Kingdom of Songhai
  16. 16. Axum <ul><li>Located in East Africa, Axum’s location on the Red Sea helped them create a thriving trade route linking Africa, India, and the Mediterranean world </li></ul><ul><li>Many of Axum’s people were from Arabia. They brought with them the religions of the Middle East </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kingdom of Axum
  18. 18. African City States <ul><li>Africa played a major role in global trade </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean and Red Seas linked Africa to the Middle East and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Ocean linked Africa to India and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The blending of African and Middle Eastern cultures led to a new language called Swahili </li></ul>
  19. 19. Contributions <ul><li>Art – closely tied to religion, made from ivory, wood, and bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Traditions – folktales were passed on from generation to generation, Arabic was a popular written language </li></ul><ul><li>Education – in most societies, it was the duty of the elders to teach boys and girls their roles in the village </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce – trade allowed many empires to prosper and develop as a result of cultural diffusion </li></ul>