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  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Rationale Conceptual Framework Theoretical Background Survey of Related Literature THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY DEFINITION OF TERMS THE RESEARCH DESIGN Research Methodology Research Environment Sampling Techniques Data Gathering Procedures APPENDICES Reference/Bibliography Research Instruments Curriculum Vitae PAGE
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study A library collection is like a garden that must be cultivated and maintained in order to flourish. Libraries are limited by space and finances, decisions about what to add and what to remove from the collection are made carefully to make it like a healthy garden. The American Library Association (ALA) defines collection development as a term which encompasses a number of activities related to the development of the library’s collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning of resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding. There is no agreed usage for the terms collection development and collection management – in fact the two are used as rather loose synonyms. However, reflection would demonstrate that they do imply different concepts. Collection development relates to the selection and acquisition of material for an expanding collection and decisions to be included in that collection. Collection management may subsume this, but also includes the allocation of the book fund and the balance open and closed access, between books, journals and conservation; the library and stores, and finally monitoring and encouragement of collection.
  3. 3. Collection development, as seen from above definitions, is essentially a planning process which uses the methodology typically followed in planning: establishing mission and policy statements, describing the present state of affairs, reviewing relative strengths and weaknesses, considering environmental influences and other trends, setting goals and designing strategies to reach those goals. (Odini, C. 1994). The increasing availability of electronic information libraries everywhere is shifting their focus from building up collection to providing access to information. The traditional academic library will be transformed by an ongoing convergence of digital media and services; accompanied by rising expectations from users that libraries will adapt to an increasingly digital environment. (Kusik,J. 2009). The CSHC library will always consider the needs of the academic community and curriculum as bases for the building the library collection. It is impossible to ever have a “perfect “collection; however we do have standards that can help libraries create a picture of an ideal collection. The library will strive not only to meet the standards set by Commission on Higher Education (CHED) but to go beyond these standards. That collection development is the core of what makes a library successful.
  4. 4. Collection Development in Cebu Sacred Heart College Library Evaluate the existing library E collections Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the collections Recommendation/ Implementation Conceptual Framework
  5. 5. Collection development is one of the primary functions of a library. It is important to remember that the expression “collection development” is fairly recent in the professional literature. There had been an evolution in the field before reaching the concept, starting with “book selection” to “collection building” and from “collection building” to “collection development”; many professionals are now also using the expression “collection management” as an extension of the “collection development”, signifying a further step in the field (although both expressions are sometimes used interchangeably). Good collection development practice the six elements includes an understanding community (which may require a community analysis), policies related to selection and deselection of materials, acceptance of gifts, and related topics, procedures for regular selection of materials based on library’s mission, goals, and policies, a process for actually acquiring the materials (acquisition) selected and getting them processed for use, procedures for weeding of materials that are no longer useful, and evaluation to determine the quality of the collection. Mary C. Bushing, writing about collection mapping (collection analysis using the Conspectus collecting level definitions), defines it as “ the ability to understand the specific strengths and weaknesses of information resources with statistical data as well as impressionistic judgments based on experience and knowledge of the discipline area under consideration. Collection analysis is important component of the collection development process and it is a systematic process for determining the quality of the library’s collection. The central concept in the process of analyzing a collection is that collection are created, developed and maintained to meet the needs of the users they serve. This means that collection evaluation
  6. 6. must also include an analysis of how well the materials are currently meeting needs and how likely the materials (and the collection) are to continue meeting the needs of current and future users. ( Without collection evaluations that provide a clear assessment of available resources, future collection management – budgeting, format consideration, selection, or deselection – may be inefficient at risk. Librarians in large or small libraries can employ the collection evaluation methods to gain meaningful information about their own library holdings. Evaluation allows librarians a more thorough knowledge of what already exist, what may be needed, and whether collection development goals are being achieved. (Agee,J. 2005) As librarians most of us want to know if the collection is relevant to the needs of our users but we can also use the information gathered through the analysis and evaluation to support request for additional funding. Analysis also provides valuable insight into the collections strengths and weaknesses so that we can reallocate available funds to improve specific areas of the collection. To validate the strengths and weaknesses of the collection and to determine concrete recommendations for improvements, a request was made to contract an external agency to conduct an additional collection. Priorities needed to be established in order to update and maintain the collection to meet the needs of the users. As the data collected by the collection inventory it served for major changes in collection development for immediate attention to correct the deficiencies of the collection.
  7. 7. Survey of Related Literature “Collection development” is a wider term. It involves the formulation of a systematic general plan for the creation of a library collection that will meet the needs of that library’s clients. The opinion expressed by Richard K. Gardner (1981) on the Collection Development as a planned purchased of materials in various formats to match the instructional and research needs of the campus within the current fiscal environment and resource sharing opportunities. Whereas Brindly (1988) conveyed and described it in a broader view and said that “Collection Development is a planning function for the systematic and rational building of the collection from Collection Development plans flows decisions on selection, acquisition, weeding, preservation and evaluation all embraced and quantified in collection management.” Negrete Gutierrez (1993) stated that Collection Development as “a process that permits the library to develop the collection of materials that respond the information needs and service requirements of the users.” Whereas Vignau Sanchez (1999) opined that “Collection Development is a process that satisfies the information needs of the users in an economic fashion and inside of the reasonable period of time using resources as much internal as external to the organization.” Both share the same opinion that collection development satisfies the information needs of the users within a given time frame and economic limits. Similarly the view of T.E. Nisonger (1996) is that collection development is a planning, methodology and decision making process which includes assessing user needs, determining selection policy, setting up acquisition procedures evaluating and then weeding the collection and planning for resource sharing.
  8. 8. Further Eguavoen (2002), Ochai (2002) expressed the opinion that collection development as “a planned systematic development of a collection, based on the objectives of the library. It is the totality of activities which lead to building up a total library collection.” In fact collection development is a tool that focuses on the building up of collections and a process of continuous growth where all the activities like acquisition, selection, evaluation and weeding never cease to stop. Linda Mc Nair Cohen (1988) studied the collection development practices in five Alabama’s academic libraries. He identified various methods of collection building and management that have emerged as a result of different traditions. He inferred that changing patterns of collection development activities differ as institutions and their associated libraries have different and diverse missions and varying user needs. His study concentrated mainly on the differences in collection development techniques followed among these five libraries. Building library collections in university libraries is probably the most important and one of the most complicated and difficult activities of library administration. G.T. Onadiran (1983) investigated the number of books per student, the annual growth of library materials, selection policy, acquisition procedures, the relationship between book dealers and university libraries in Nigeria. Collection development through donations, gifts and exchange is a worthwhile venture if properly managed and monitored. A. B. Oshinaike (2006) analyzed the contribution of philanthropic organizations to collection development in libraries in South Western Nigeria. His study revealed that book donations from philanthropic organizations had a positive impact on collection development. It increased the volumes of books in their collections. It was discovered
  9. 9. that Book Aid International was the major donor to these libraries. He reported that acquisition of books was not affected through these donations. He suggested that these donors should consult the collection development librarians before so that the concerned area of weak collection is developed. They should be encouraged to contribute materials in other format. C.O. Omagbemi etal (2004) assessed the collections of Olabisi Onabanjo University Library. He reported that the library collection was not able to meet the needs of the users of Nigerian Universities. He identified the major problem was due to inadequate funding and geometrical increase in the growth of students. He opined that this problem was faced by other Nigerian Universities. Quality education is impossible without quality library collection. The essential component of the university library is the information housed in it. G.T. Onadiran & R.W. Onadiran (1983) attempted to study the process involved in collection building of library materials in eleven university libraries in Nigeria. They have examined the library collections and their infrastructures of the concerned university libraries. Hence it is that collection development is necessary to identify the needs of the user rather than to build abstract collection. Ross Atkinson (1994) emphasized that Collection Development is a separate library operation probably and will not survive the eventual disappearance of the paper but will have nevertheless a critical role to play in the transition from paper to online access. Collection development has lost its importance with the advent of the virtual library. Coming to the current collection development activity Grizly Meneses and Barbara Susana Sanchez Vignau (2005) expressed factor that contributed for the importance of
  10. 10. collection development that included advances in information technology, the variety in the formats for the presentation of information, increase in the number of scientific publications and the economic crises on a world scale that affected the publishing world directly. Ileana Lourdes Presno Quesada & Barbara Susana Sanchez Vignau (2006) expressed that changes in economic developments, advances in the science and development information technologies transformed collection development to collection management as a solution to guarantee the information needed by the user under standards of quality. The increased use of electronic resources in all types and sizes of libraries should consider as a part of collection assessment. Mathew Pciszek (2010) explained that collection assessment is useful for determining the diversity of collection and are not applicable for large libraries with diverse collections. He insisted that additional tools are to be developed to facilitate assessment of collections in large institutions. His paper illustrated several tools for diversity related collection development. He emphasized that librarians should rethink and examine diversity related collection assessment useful for large libraries. Further C. Maxey Harris (2010) explored the fact that every little has been written about scale diversity collection assessment. Jane Goodwin & Lydia Patrick (1990) observed that the traditional method of individual selection for building the collection was no longer working due to significant increase in the volume of information request and increased use of circulation statistics on collection use have paved the way for materials selection officers. They have taken advantage of using the mechanism that vendors have applied to speed identification and acquisition of available items. They framed statements for the scope and profiles of the collection that helped library staff and
  11. 11. vendors. Likewise Ellis Mount (1989) provided a summary on the basic aspects of managing the collection of scientific and technical literature, selection criteria for using published materials for listing unpublished publications and policies for weeding collections. John Picco (1983) insisted in his paper that community college library staff should give great importance to collection management programs. This should be an ongoing examination of the existing materials for continued evaluation process for balancing the needs of printed and non printed collections. Collection analysis techniques educate and support the new library staff about collection and provide better data to determine collection development priorities for budget planning. It helps librarians to assist their patron’s search information. Henry Elizabeth…*et al.+ (2008) presents a case study in which collection analysis is carried out in Saint Leo University Cannon Memorial Library, Florida USA. The collection was evaluated using online analysis tools. Topics covered are about the importance of e-book collections, faculty participation in the selection for more balanced and comprehensive collection management plan. It revealed that collection analysis has positive impact on collection development and management. Findings inferred from this study suggest that access to the collection were improved and some problems encountered with a particular collection identified. Mary W. Ghikas (1989) in her paper managing academic libraries in the 21st century has commented that collection development in the year 2000 will be characterized by virtual collections where the location, the delivery time and channel will be pre identified. Few articles have been identified on collection development models. The following paragraphs describe the
  12. 12. innovative models framed for the purpose of effective collective management in academic libraries. A structural and functional systems model was developed to help librarians switch from crisis managers to strategic planners. Anthony W. Ferguson (1986) designed a model that focused on the environmental factors within which a library operated. He considered the demands made upon libraries, other factors that influenced the library behavior in the decision making process and the variety of outputs or decisions that must be made by a library to stay healthy. There are many factors that affect the collection development model. In the key note address in the Charleston Conference by MC Clure (1996) suggested that there are six models of Internet based collection development. These models would be suitable for a particular library depending on the library’s information infrastructure, skills available among the staff, costs involved, methods of access within and outside the library, licensing and copy right issues. His intention is to link the major functions of collection management with collaborative collections, vendor supplied collections and integrate internet resources into the online public catalogue by creating hot links to the resources in URL address. The functional model has the advantage of improved communication and coordination among librarians with similar responsibilities. The main difficulty of this model is in coordinating collection activities across a large library with many geographic or client based units. Balancing needs and goals is a challenge. Drucker (1974) analyzed the great strength of the functional model applied to libraries lies on the stability, clarity and high degree of economy. Creth (1989)
  13. 13. describes a model that helps the library staff to benefit from different views and new information generated from relevant subject expertise. S.D. Creth(1991) suggested a model for collection development that has a primary administrator combined with teams of librarians from all sections of the library who have the appropriate subject knowledge to accept collection management responsibilities. Decision support system is a powerful tool for collection management. Libraries have to adopt decision support systems for task performance, monitor the results of innovation, identify problems and opportunities, evaluate alternative options and conduct strategic planning. Wanda V. Dole (2000) in his paper explored the potential use of computer based systems for decision support in collection management. He opined that decision support systems helped in decision making and utilizes data and models to solve unstructured problems. He outlined the advantages and obstacles of decision support systems with respect to libraries. His paper described in detail the background information about the application of decision support systems in different university libraries located in different regions of the world. Despite a wide variety of institutional environments and management styles, collection development would be more fruitful in fulfilling their responsibility by taking the support from their central administration. This opinion was supported by Robert Kenseler (1996) who said that strong support from the central library administration provides the best environment for maximum utility among their staff. This approach forms a well coordinated collection development program.
  14. 14. The literature study indicates that these models are like simplifications of the real practices. Libraries benefit from adopting the unique model that suit their environment in which they operate. THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study aimed to evaluate the existing library collections of CSHC college library, according to the standards set by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) in order to determine the quality of the collection and to know if the collection is relevant to the needs of the users. Specifically, it sought to answer the following: (1) What is the status of CSHC college library in terms of their: a) administration and financial support or library budget; and b) library holdings/collections. (2)Where is the collection weak, and where is it strong? (3) How does the college library conform to the standards set by CHED. (4) Based on the findings of the study, what collection development program can be recommended for guidelines and improvement of the library collections. DEFINITION OF TERMS To better understand the study, the following are defined operationally: 1.) Acquisition – 2.) Collection development – the process of planning and building a useful and balanced collection of library materials over a period of years, based on an ongoing assessment of
  15. 15. the information needs of the library’s clientele, analysis of usage statistics, and demographic projections, normally constrained by budgetary limitations. 3.) Collection mapping – is the process of examining the quantity and quality of a library’s collection and identifying its strengths and weaknesses. 4.) Weeding – the process of examining items in a library collection title by title to identify for permanent withdrawal those that meet pre-established weeding criteria, especially when space in stacks is limited.