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Concepts of transfer and transformation in
designing for situated knowledge across
contexts
Roland Hachmann & Lea Tilde Ro...
Research questions for our review
How is the concepts of transfer and transformation, related to education identified
with...
Concepts of transfer
Classical
transfer
perspective
Situated
perspective
Sociocultural
perspective
Alternative
transfer
pe...
1901/11
Thorndike &
Woodworth
Identical
elements
Judd
General
principles
1908 1980/83
Gick &
Holyoak
Analogical
mapping
Cl...
Classical perspectives on transfer
Transfer happens across situations with similar structures or tasks. The more similar, ...
Situated perspectives on transfer
Transfer research is to researcher oriented
“That” which is transferred is not knowledge...
1988
Lave
Situated
Cognition
Perkins &
Salomon
High/Low/
Near /Far
1989 1993
Greeno
Affordance
and
constraints
Situated pe...
Situated perspectives on transfer
Transfer requires transformation and knowledge construction over time. Transformation al...
Sociocultural perspectives on transfer
There are no neutral contexts and the situative
perspective must be seen in the sys...
1991
Lave &
Wenger
Situated
Learning
Rogoff
Apprenticeship /
Guided participation /
Participatory
appropriation
1995 1999
...
Sociocultural perspectives on transfer
“The use of “activity” or “event” as the unit of analysis - with active and dynamic...
Alternative perspectives on transfer
With all the different mechanisms being investigated, we are now at a point
where we ...
2003
Tuomi-Gröhn
& Engeström
Developmental
Transfer
Lobato
Actor-Oriented
Transfer / Noticing
2003/12 2006/10
Engle
Bonded...
Alternative perspectives on transfer
“Noticing” as a plausible transfer process - both individual noticing and the social
...
1988
Lave
Detterman
and
Sternberg
1993 2001
Critical perspectives on transfer
20151999 2002 2006
Beach Packer
Carraher
and...
Discuss with the person next to you:“If we deny transfer, we seem to deny thatnew learning rests on former learning; if we...
Concepts of transfer and transformation in designing for situated knowledge across contexts (2)
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Concepts of transfer and transformation in designing for situated knowledge across contexts (2)

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A presentation on the results of a literature review on transfer and transformation. Conducted by Roland Hachmann and Lea Tilde Rosenlund in 2016.

Published in: Education
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Concepts of transfer and transformation in designing for situated knowledge across contexts (2)

  1. 1. Concepts of transfer and transformation in designing for situated knowledge across contexts Roland Hachmann & Lea Tilde Rosenlund http://himachalabhiabhi.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/transfers. jpg
  2. 2. Research questions for our review How is the concepts of transfer and transformation, related to education identified within the research literature? Which central positions and discussions related to transfer and transformation can be identified? What differences highlighted between the two concepts?
  3. 3. Concepts of transfer Classical transfer perspective Situated perspective Sociocultural perspective Alternative transfer perspectives Gestalt theory Lab experiments Empirical research in “everyday” settings Empirical research in educational settings
  4. 4. 1901/11 Thorndike & Woodworth Identical elements Judd General principles 1908 1980/83 Gick & Holyoak Analogical mapping Classical perspectives on transfer 2010 2012 Wagner Transfer in pieces Reed Mapping across situations http://reha-bil.com/assets/bg5.jpg
  5. 5. Classical perspectives on transfer Transfer happens across situations with similar structures or tasks. The more similar, the more transfer will occur. Thorndike argued in 1913, based on many studies, that transfer did not happen and that the human mind was not wired to perform transfer. Theory of generalization assumes that what is learnt in task ‘A’ transfers to task ‘B’, because in studying ‘A’, the learner develops a general principle which applies in part or completely in both ‘A’ and ‘B’. Reasoning by analogy typically implies a comparison of two concepts (“analogs”) at the same (usually quite concrete) level of abstraction (e.g., the heart and a water pump).Reed expands the notion of mapping to apply not just to problems and solutions, but also to external representations and problem contexts. Thorndike & Woodworth Charles Judd Gick & Holyoak; Reed A "transfer-in-pieces" approach demonstrates how means of attending to (reading out) and coordinating information available in particular instances may vary as a single mathematical principle is perceived as relevant in different contextual circumstances. Transfer is revealed not as rooted in the acquisition of increasingly abstract mental representations, but through the incremental refinement of knowledge resources that account for—rather than overlook—contextual variation. Wagner
  6. 6. Situated perspectives on transfer Transfer research is to researcher oriented “That” which is transferred is not knowledge from task to task, but patterns of participation and participatory processes across situations
  7. 7. 1988 Lave Situated Cognition Perkins & Salomon High/Low/ Near /Far 1989 1993 Greeno Affordance and constraints Situated perspectives on transfer 2006 Marton Sameness and differences https://images.sciencedaily.com/2015/10/151021083527_1_540x3 60.jpg
  8. 8. Situated perspectives on transfer Transfer requires transformation and knowledge construction over time. Transformation also occurs in the activities or processes between contexts. Double Transfer Paradigm: students need to transfer what they learned from the instructional method to learn from the resource, and they need to transfer what they learned from the resource to solve the target problem. This seems like a more complete model of transfer, because it considers both the “transfer in” that helps people to learn and the “transfer out” that helps them apply that learning. Were we to widen the scope of the concept of transfer, such an effect could be called transfer: One learns something in some situations, and the one becomes better at learning something else in other situations. Lave Marton Greeno To use the term productivity, rather than transfer, to refer to the generality of learning, and claim that we should pay more attention both to practices of productive learning and to the activities involved in using the results of prior learning in novel situations, as well as to how we can help these processes The learner must be able to perceive the “transfer affordances” of the environment to transfer knowledge from earlier situations to novel learningsituations.
  9. 9. Sociocultural perspectives on transfer There are no neutral contexts and the situative perspective must be seen in the system of activities, wherein the participants are acting and communicating The learners, the activity and the situation constitute each other through interactivity mediated by artefacts and resources
  10. 10. 1991 Lave & Wenger Situated Learning Rogoff Apprenticeship / Guided participation / Participatory appropriation 1995 1999 Beach Consequential transition / Generalization of Knowledge Sociocultural perspectives on transfer 2001 Packer From transfer to transformation https://prinsesamusang.wordpress.c om/2012/02/22/clasping-hands-left-b rain-right-brain-or-no-brain/
  11. 11. Sociocultural perspectives on transfer “The use of “activity” or “event” as the unit of analysis - with active and dynamic contributions from individuals, their social partners, and historical traditions and materials and their transformations - allows a reformulation of the relation between the individual and the social and cultural environment in which each is inherently involved in the others’ definition. None exists separately.” Generalization of knowledge, “…the continuity and transformation of knowledge, skill, and identity across various forms of social organization...” Beach adds that this generalization of knowledge requires multiple inter -related processes across contexts and social organizations og instead of a fixed or general procedure between two contexts. Consequential transitions The basis of the concept is how the individuals processes of reflection, and challenges by developing or apply the prior knowledge or experience in new situations , either change the individual's understanding of himself or the situation and the business it is in. Four typologies: Lateral-, collateral-, encompassing- og meditational transition) Lave & Wenger; Rogoff Beach The sociocultural critique is both on the perception <> ontological view on the learner. And what we want to schools to do. Packer
  12. 12. Alternative perspectives on transfer With all the different mechanisms being investigated, we are now at a point where we can begin coordinating different mechanisms with each other (as e.g. Lobato) Transfer is simply too complicated of a phenomenon to be explained by any single mechanism.
  13. 13. 2003 Tuomi-Gröhn & Engeström Developmental Transfer Lobato Actor-Oriented Transfer / Noticing 2003/12 2006/10 Engle Bonded (here/ now) & Expansive framing Alternative perspectives on transfer 2013 Nokes-Malach & Mestre Transfer as Sense-Making http://kristina-goworit.ru/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/kinh-doanh-linh- vuc-gi-co-lai-thoi-diem-nay_mini.jpg
  14. 14. Alternative perspectives on transfer “Noticing” as a plausible transfer process - both individual noticing and the social organization of noticing via the focusing framework. Specifically, we relate the nature of students’ reasoning on transfer tasks with what students notice mathematically in classrooms when many sources of information compete for their attention, and then we account for noticing as socially situated in classroom discourse practices, features of mathematical tasks, and the nature of mathematical activity. ”actor-oriented transfer is defined as the personal construction of relations of similarity between the activities, or how ”actors” see situations as similar” (Lobato & Siebert 2002:89). The idea that the framing of learning and transfer contexts can influence students’ propensity to transfer what they have learned. We predict that transfer would be promoted by framing contexts in an expansive manner in which students are positioned as having the opportunity to contribute to larger conversations that extend across time, places, people, and topics. …. Lobato Engle Whereas Beach focused on developmental trajectories of relationships between individuals and social context, Tuomi-Gröhn and Engeström (2003) focuses on developmental trajectories of collective activity in different social organizations. By drawing on activity theory, they treated transfer as the proliferation of collective practices. Tuomi-Gröhn and Engeström
  15. 15. 1988 Lave Detterman and Sternberg 1993 2001 Critical perspectives on transfer 20151999 2002 2006 Beach Packer Carraher and Schliemann Marton Perkins and Salomon What is the “that” which is learned? Functional vs. antropological situated view Relations between situations Single or multiple situations Where or when does transfer happen? Sameness vs. differences afford transfer Transfer, transition or transformation? Transfer constraints learning and should be abandoned
  16. 16. Discuss with the person next to you:“If we deny transfer, we seem to deny thatnew learning rests on former learning; if weendorse the idea of transfer, we subscribeto questionable beliefs about knowledge.Neither of these options is acceptable.” (Carraher & Schliemann, 2002)

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