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Lecture #2 for GEO 4190 Virtual Field School: El Cerrito

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  1. 1. The Hispano Homeland: Past, Present, and Future And the Pecos River as Hispano Homeland Relict Brock Brown Texas State University—San Marcos Fall, 2011
  2. 2. The Hispano Homeland: Past, Present, and Future <ul><li>Innovation/invention and diffusion (review) </li></ul><ul><li>Define archaic folk culture </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze comparative relative isolation of the homelands—brief history </li></ul><ul><li>Unique aspects of the Hispano Homeland that fostered an archaic folk culture </li></ul><ul><li>Unique cultural expressions and landscapes of the archaic Hispano Homeland </li></ul><ul><li>The homeland in 1939 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Geography is a broadly applicable, interdisciplinary perspective that allows for the observation and analysis of anything distributed across Earth space . </li></ul><ul><li>First, it observes spatial distributions (anything that can be mapped) by asking “who or what is being observed, when is it being observed, and where is it?” ( knowing ) </li></ul><ul><li>Next, it investigates the underlying spatial processes responsible for the observed distribution by asking “how and why?” ( understanding ) </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, it attempts to make spatial predictions and decisions by asking how can the observed distributions be preserved or changed by asking “how can and what if?” ( applying ) </li></ul>Definition of Geography--Review Geospatial technologies/analysis
  4. 4. Causes of All Cultural Change <ul><li>Innovation/Invention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think it up themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not very likely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How innovations spread from place of origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to diffusion slow or stop change resulting from diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the absence of diffusion, little change is expected to occur </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Geographical distribution of Homelands
  6. 6. Homelands and People Review <ul><li>Homeland , an uncertain concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People - unifying ethnic identity, self-conscious awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place or territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonding with place - emotional feelings of attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adjusted to its natural environment, and left their impress in the form of a cultural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of place - desire to possess, even compulsions to defend, facilitates bonding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time – to bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Nostrand and Estaville, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Homelands in the United States Hispano Homeland (Nostrand and Estaville, 2001)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Archaic Folk Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>A group of people who . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Premise, all cultural change is due to: </li></ul><ul><li>local Innovation/Invention ; or </li></ul><ul><li>it is due to Spatial Diffusion . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The English in the Appalachia </li></ul><ul><li>The French in Canada and Louisana </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanos in New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Hispano Homeland compared to other early </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish areas of settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Early diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation through geographical isolation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hispanos as a distinctive subculture <ul><li>Came earlier, and with exceptions, more directly from Spain to the Borderlands than Tejanos or Californios </li></ul><ul><li>After initial colonization, Hispanos were isolated from outside contact and their numbers grew (Nostrand, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic folk culture evolved </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hispano Homeland <ul><li>Environmental adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental modification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterioration of upland resource base </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Hispano Homeland <ul><li>Landscape impress </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hispano Homeland <ul><li>Place identity-bonding </li></ul>
  13. 13. Distinctive Hispano Culture Markers
  14. 14. Archaic Folk Culture Markers <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I believe there is no modern Spanish dialect, either in Spain or America, that can surpass the New Mexican in archaic words, expressions, constructions, and sounds. Aurelio M. Espinoza, 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive Hispano Surnames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esquipula, Secundino, Ornofre, Belarmino </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folk plays and songs (from oral traditions) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Hispano Culture – Erosion of Isolation <ul><li>Period of isolation following initial settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Later Anglo intrusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AT&SF Impact on diffusion to the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Miguel replaced by Las Vegas as regional center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anglo-centric economy and political infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States and New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjudication and loss of land resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men working outside the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women and children seldom left the immediate region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deterioration of agricultural infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Persistence of Hispano Homeland along an urban hierarchy <ul><li>Las Vegas </li></ul><ul><li>Villanueva </li></ul><ul><li>El Cerrito </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tenacity in the Homeland during hard times before the period of out migration <ul><li>Agricultural and Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Many push factors, few pull factors </li></ul>