The future of optical storage x rg zech (slide share)

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The future of optical storage x rg zech (slide share)

  1. 1. The Future of Optical Data Storage Will this once leading-edge storagetechnology prosper in the 21st century? IEEE ICCE Conference 2012 Las Vegas, NV January 13-16, 2012 < by > Richard G. Zech, Ph.D. Consultant & Expert Witness - Computer Storage & Photonics President & Managing Principal The ADVanced ENTerprises (ADVENT) Group Colorado Springs, CO 80906 (719) 633-4377 v adventgrp@comcast.net [Special to SlideShare]
  2. 2. Forward/Read Me This presentation is both a review of my work on optical data storage (ODS) futures over the past 10 years and a tutorial. The basic emphasis of this presentation is on the potential of ODS to increase significantly disc capacity. This is an exciting area for both research and product development. Parts 1-6 of the presentation focus on the status and means for capacity increases for optical discs using the Blu-ray disc (BD) model. Part 7 is a series of appendices providing background/historical information. My original papers on ODS are available upon request.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 2
  3. 3. Afterward I attended (partially) StorageVisions 2012, iCES 2012, and ICCE 2012 (January 08-16, 2012). Each in its own way was very useful for understanding major trends in consumer electronics. A summary of my remarks at StorageVisions and ICCE follow:Ø Optical storage will continue to be the best choice for physical media distribution. The likelihood of Flash memory devices displacing CD. DVD, or Blu-ray discs in the near future is minimal. However, Flash and online downloads are major competitors.Ø Optical storage probably has a technical life of 5-10 years and a product life of 10-20 years. However, for optical storage to be competitive in the age of nanotechnology-enabled data storage products, new components and design strategies and significant investments will be required.Ø Future optical storage will probably be modeled on Blu-ray disc, whose basic design is robust and extensible. Older concepts, such as 3D holographic memories, Millipede, etc., will never be commercially viable.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 3
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsØ Dr. Curt Shuman, C.A. Shuman Inc.Ø Dr. Chris Steenbergen, CREST (Concepts in Removable Storage)Ø Dr. Di Chen, Chen and Associates It is my pleasure to acknowledge the important comments and opinions of the above optical storage pioneers.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 4
  5. 5. Abstract/Overview (1/2) More than 60 years have passed since Nobel-laureate Dr. Dennis Gabor (Imperial College) invented holography (1948). In 1963 PJ van Heerden (Polaroid) published his seminal paper on 3D data storage using holographic data storage principles. For the next 10 years holographic memories were touted as a replacement for all other types of memory. Sadly, after more than 10 attempts, no company has successfully commercialized the technology. In the 1960s, the development of servo-controlled optical disc systems was initiated. By the early 1970s analog video disc systems were commercially available. These were closely followed by 12" write-once (WORM) drives and media. In 1982 Sony and Philips announced the 120mm diameter compact disc (CD-DA) followed by the CD-ROM in 1984. In 1995 the DVD-ROM was announced and in 2002 Blu-ray Disc (BD). Each of these technologies increased capacity significantly and mainly supported important consumer electronics applications (CD for audio and DVD and BD for video). Also in 1995, the EIDE/ATAPI standard was promulgated, which allowed these drives to become a standard part of a PC’s storage suite. Consequently, sales grew exponentially. Other types of optical storage of various disc diameters and storage mechanisms were extant in the 1980- 1990 timeframe, but few had even a marginal market success. In 2012, nearly 30 years after the introduction of the CD, classical optical data storage has perhaps reached, or even passed, both its technology zenith and market zenith. Solid state flash drives, portable hard drives, and downloading of music and video have begun to erode significantly the optical data storage market share. Moreover, optical data storage technology appears to have reached some fundamental physical limits (laser wavelength at 405nm and numerical aperture at 0.85). Some would say, in analogy to magnetic data storage, it may be optical data storages "superparamagnetic limit."January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 5
  6. 6. Abstract/Overview (2/2) The utility of optical data storage (ODS) is derived from how small a diffraction-limited laser beam can be focused for writing and reading; in other words, spot size. From basic optical theory we know that spot size is proportional to wavelength and inversely proportional to the effective numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging system. With 25GB/storage surface BD, the 405nm wavelength and 0.85 NA pretty much exhaust the basic potential of optical data storage. But like magnetic data storage, optical data storage has several non-conventional means that may permit the technology to reach new capacity plateaus. These range from multi- layer discs and near-field recording (NFR) to UV lasers, negative refraction and plasmonic lenses. There are also several consumer applications that may justify pushing disc capacity to 100GB, or more. One of them is 4K x 2K video (current HD is 2K x 1K), the standard for which is being developed in Japan and will require 100GB disc capacity. 8K x 4K (Super Hi Vision) is another possibility, which is even more capacity hungry (requires 400GB). In this presentation, the future of optical storage will be analyzed in terms of advanced technologies. The metrics will be maturity, difficulty of implementation, cost, impact on manufacturing yield, and market need. The specs and performance potential of some of these advanced optical data storage devices will be enumerated. Finally, some related data storage technologies that promise multi-TB capacities will be discussed. The engineering challenges of these advanced optical read/write methods on lasers, media, optical pickups, servos, and read/write channels will be significant, but achievable. They must be done if optical data storage is to survive. Then, one can confidently predict the future of optical storage will be for capacities reaching 1 TB.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 6
  7. 7. ContentØ Part 1: IntroductionØ Part 2: Near-term PossibilitiesØ Part 3: At the Mountains of MadnessØ Part 4: Some Key Enabling TechnologiesØ Part 5: Replication and Disc Manufacturing ChallengesØ Part 6: Summary, Conclusions, & RecommendationsØ Part 7: AppendicesJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 7
  8. 8. Part 1Introduction
  9. 9. Some General AssumptionsØ Blu-ray Disc (BD) Model (25GB per surface) and Other Main SpecificationsØ 120mm Diameter Discs (except for X-ray “ODS”)Ø Recording radii of 22mm ~ 58mm (storage area of about 14in2)Ø Single Surface Disc with 1TB capacity requires an areal storage density of about 572Gb/in2Ø Replicated, Write Once, or Rewritable Phase Change Storage LayersØ Single- and Multi-Layer Disc ArchitecturesØ Single- and Multi-Level Disc Surface EncodingØ Front Surface Read and WriteØ Data rates will scale with recording (bit) density.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 9
  10. 10. Optical Data Storage has come a long way in the past 42 years! World’s First MO Optical Disc RecorderMnBi film coated optically flat disc on air bearing spindle, with HeNe laser, EOmodulator, and galvo deflector. Honeywell Research Center, 1969 (Dr. Di Chen, Ref 1)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 10
  11. 11. The ODS Product Technology Cycle (The DVD Era) (The BD Era) (Breakthrough (Significant Competition) Technologies) [OR] (The CD Era) (End of ODS Products)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 11
  12. 12. Optical Storages “Moores Law”The symbol ▌in this slide means λ. source: Dr Chris Steenbergen, CREST January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 12
  13. 13. Optical Disc Capacity - Achieved Min. Data Track Track Recording Areal Capacity Mark Bit Type Pitch density Density Density Comment (GB) Size Length (nm) (tpi) (bpi) (Gb/in2) (nm) (nm) CD not 0.65 1,600 15,875 833 590 43,051 0.683 (G1) nanotech DVD not 4.7 740 34,324 400 267 95,131 3.27 (G2) nanotech BD not 25 320 79,375 149 112 227,293 18.1 (G3) nanotechThe above table summarizes existing ODS technologies, all backed by recognizedbook specifications and in production. G = Generation.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 13
  14. 14. Classical Optical Storage - I Is the end of the technology line in sight?Ø Laser diode (LD) wavelengths (λ) have reached the end of the visible spectrum at 405nm.Ø Conventional objective lenses have reached the limit of usable numerical apertures (NAs) at 0.85.Ø Spot size is proportional to λ/NA; shorter λs and larger NAs yield smaller spot diameters and higher areal densities ~ (λ/NA)2.Ø The technology life appears ended - But Wait! This is only true for linear thinking and design.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 14
  15. 15. Classical Optical Storage - 2 Is the end of the technology line in sight?Ø For λ fixed at 405nm and NA=0.85 (BD model), classical optical storage can increase capacity in several ways, alone or in combination.Ø Architecture Examples: – Multi-Layer Disc (MLD); 2N surfaces. – Multi-Level Recording (MLR); replicated, phase change. – Near-Field Recording (NFR); read-only and write/read.Ø Attractive Combinations: – MLD + MLR (25GB/surface x 2.5 ML gain x N surfaces or 250 GB/120mm disc). – NFR + MLD + MLR (50-200GB/surface x 2.5 ML gain x 1-2 surfaces or 125GB - 1TB/120mm disc). The above are the lowest risk, lowest cost strategies.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 15
  16. 16. Part 2Near Term Possibilities
  17. 17. ODS Prospects 5-10 years AgoØ Multi-Layer Recording – Increases capacity without requiring a corresponding increase in areal density. – 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-layer discs with up to 400 GB capacity demonstrated by Philips, Pioneer, and TDK using Blu-ray storage layers. – Increases optical media manufacturing and replication costs significantly.Ø UDO – 30 GB cartridges shipping today; 60 GB cartridges expected in 2007, but came in 2009. – A blue-laser concept, but not Blu-ray (computer application oriented). – Roadmap capacity to 120 GB/cartridge.Ø Near-field Recording (NFR) – Multiplies effective NA. – Maximizes areal density and surface capacity. – Trades MLD complexity for optical head-disc interface complexity.Ø MultiLevel Recording (MLR) – not to be confused with multi-layer disc (MLD) – Provides a practical 2.5x bit density multiplier per layer (8 levels). – Can be implemented with a single DSP; not too expensive. – Works with any optical storage recording technology.Ø 3-D Holographic Memories (Holomems) - Disc Architectures – Products after 48 years of worldwide R&D were expected by end of 2010; it didn’t happen . – Mainly professional AV storage, archiving, and some general applications. – Only two real players: InPhase Technologies & Optware (Japan) – both now out of business.Ø Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD) – Great concept (discrete layer 3-D storage), but some inherent problems. – Constellation 3D (out of business) needed some heavyweight funding for product development. – Excellent HDTV playback demonstrated for 6-layer disc.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 17
  18. 18. Disappointments/Possible Write Offs- A 2012 PerspectiveØ Magneto-Optical (MO)Ø 3D HolomemsØ Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD)Ø UDO (Ultra Density Optical)Ø Bit-oriented MemoriesØ Probe/Cantilever (similar to IBM’s “Millipede”)Ø Biological (biorhodopsin and similar) The above technologies either don’t fit a market need (price/performance issues), are too expensive, cannot be reliably implemented outside the lab, are a technology dead end, or all the above.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 18
  19. 19. Future ODS Technologies (?)→ Near-Term (getting to 100GB/120mm disc) – Multi-Layer Architecture (with and without Multi- Level Encoding) – Near-Field Recording Over the Horizon (getting to 1TB/120mm disc) – UV Disc – X-RAY Disc – Atomic/Quantum Mechanisms (not really optical, but could use optical disc architectures)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 19
  20. 20. 2a) Multilayer DiscJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 20
  21. 21. Blu-ray Disc Standard Reference (1 or 2 layer) Source: PhilipsJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 21
  22. 22. Blu-ray Disc Roadmap Source: TDKJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 22
  23. 23. Isao Ichimura, et. al., SONY, JapanJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 23
  24. 24. 2b) Near-field RecordingJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 24
  25. 25. Note: An effective NA of ~ 1.7 doubles bit and track densities. BD model capacity increases by a factor of 4x (to ~ 100 GB). Graphic Graphic source: Philips NV.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 25
  26. 26. January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 26
  27. 27. Near-Field Recording with VSALs (source: Lucent Technologies) Ne ar Fie ld Near-Field image of 60 nm bits written by near-field compared with Far-Field d d/2 NEAR FIELD λ VSAL = Very Small Aperture Laser Aperture Size Determines Resolution -- Independent of Laser Wavelength Exceptionally Small Spot Sizes -- 60nm spots (134Gb/in2) demonstrated in MO material Beam of any shape demonstrated -- Improves performance & design flexibilityJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 27
  28. 28. 2c) Multi-Level TechnologyØ Multi-Level (ML) is not a product, but a performance-enhancement technology.Ø Fixed-size data cells support 8 reflection levels or variable areas on a dye-polymer (±R) or phase change (±RW) recording layer. Yields about 2.5 bits per cell in practice (not the theoretical 3).Ø ML-enhanced drives and media work for CD/DVD and Blue-laser formats. Should work for all disc formats.Ø 2GB “CD-ROM” shipped by TDK ~ 2001; very little market acceptance.Ø 60GB per 120mm Blue Disc demonstrated in lab (Calimetrics, now part of LSI Logic, and Philips joint research project). The enabler was a proprietary DSP chip (core IC) from Sanyo. Circa 2002.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 28
  29. 29. Part 3 At the Mountains of Madness* Bleeding Edge Futures*After HP Lovecraft’s Novella about terror in the mountains of Antarctica.
  30. 30. Extending the Definition of “Optical”Ø Classically, “optical” means electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths (approximately) in the 400nm-700nm range.Ø ODS has reached the classical technology end of life with BD discs and drives at λ = 405nm (and NA = 0.85).Ø However, extending the meaning of “optical” to include UV and X-radiation, opens new frontiers for high-density data storage.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 30
  31. 31. Potential Optical Disc Capacity Roadmap(?) Min. Data Capa Track Track Recording Areal Mark Bit Type city Pitch density Density Density Comment Size Length (GB) (nm) (tpi) (bpi) (Gb/in2) (nm) (nm) 4G 4-layer or NFR 100 320 79,375 149 112 227,293 18.1 (2012?) “not nanotech” "nanotech 5G threshold" 220 108 235,185 58 41.3 615,686 144.8 (2016?) EB Mastering Near-Field Read 6G real nanotech 500 80 317,500 34.4 24.5 1,036,535 329.1 (2020?) EB Mastering? real nanotech 7G 1,000 60 423,333 22.9 16.3 1,554,803 658.2 Nano- (2024?) imprinting?4G and 5G are proven in the lab. 6G and 7G (following the BD model at a higher areal density) are purespeculation, but illustrate the challenges faced by optical storage to reach 1 TB capacity. Multi-layersolutions are feasible. 4-layer, 8-layer, 12-layer, and 16-layer discs are proven in the lab. NFR is alsofeasible, but needs to be proven outside the lab. The real potential of nanotech is yet to be determined.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 31
  32. 32. Tracks and Pits for Electron Beam Mastering (5G?) - Near Field Read 120mm Capacity = 220 GB; storage density = 144.8Gb/in2. The track pitch is 108nm; the minimum mark size is 58nm. This is at the nanotechnology threshold. (source: Sony Corporation)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 32
  33. 33. Future ODS Technologies (?) Near-Term – Multi-Layer Architecture (with and without Multi- Level Encoding) – Near-Field Recording→ Over the Horizon – UV Disc – X-RAY Disc – Atomic/Quantum Mechanisms (not really optical, but could use a disc architecture; that is, may require a read/write head, servoing, etc.)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 33
  34. 34. Potential Future ODS TechnologiesØ UV disc (continuation of the classical optical roadmap - requires UV laser diodes)Ø X-ray disc (digital holography means)Ø Atomic/Molecular (data storage by means of configuration or quantum state or both, but may share implementations like “optical.”)Ø Some enabling means: – negative refraction (spot sizes less than the diffraction limit) – variable focus lenses (for multi-layer discs to correct for spherical aberration) – nanotech (e.g., super high storage densities, self assembly, patterned media) – nanophotonics (e.g., modulators, lasers, gratings implemented in Silicon) – plasmonics (spot sizes less than the diffraction limit) – photon sieves (for far UV and X-ray spot formation)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 34
  35. 35. 3a) UV “Optical Storage”January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 35
  36. 36. Ultraviolet “Optical” StorageØ Does classical optical data storage end with λ = 405nm?Ø Not if the technology uses near and mid-range ultraviolet (UV).Ø Diagnosis: UV optical storage will be far more challenging than near-IR and visible optical storage ever was.Ø Front surface recording layer and reflection component OPU (optical pickup unit) required.Ø Prognosis: Within 5 years optical storage at λ = 325nm (e.g., frequency doubled 650nm) will be feasible. This increases the capacity per layer to 39GB - 3 layers are needed to reach 100GB capacity per disc. For λ = 202.5nm (e.g., frequency doubled 405nm; vacuum UV regime), the trade offs involve a 4x increase in BD areal density, versus the complexity and cost of UV components. This increases the capacity per layer to 100GB – only 1 layer is needed. However, the technology will probably be abandoned before reaching λ = 202.5nm, owing to cost and complexity.Ø Much of UV optical storage technology will probably be adapted from semiconductor UV and EUV lithography.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 36
  37. 37. UV “Optical” Storage ChallengesØ UV laser diodes (expensive today, low power)Ø UV optical components (need reflective optical elements for OPU)Ø UV storage media (media noise may be a big problem)Ø Cost and complexity (may not be proportional to capacity increase)Ø Mastering and replication processesØ Killer application motivationJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 37
  38. 38. UV Laser DiodesØ UV laser diode technology is still immature.Ø Very few commercial products are available.Ø Engineering samples from Nichia have 200mW CW output @ 375nm.Ø 340nm-360nm is current R&D sweet spot. 240nm-260nm demonstrated in the lab.Ø DPSS (diode-pumped solid state) lasers, which can be frequency tripled or quadrupled, must be greatly reduced in size and cost to be candidates.Ø Other options to UV laser diodes and DPSS (for example, KrF or F2 fiber) have no possibility of meeting size and cost requirements.Ø Nanotech may hold the key to long-term prospects (structural enhancements, materials improvements).Ø Bottom Line: UV laser diodes are in about the same position as blue lasers in 1995. Solutions are 3-5 years out.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 38
  39. 39. January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 39
  40. 40. 3b) X-RAY “Optical Storage”January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 40
  41. 41. X-Ray “Optical” StorageWRITEØ Concept designed for x-radiation with λ ≤ 1nmØ 1D or 2D computer-generated Fourier Transform hologramsØ Select page size (N or NxN pixels) and offset angleØ Compute and sample analog interference patternØ Apply data coding and EDACØ Modulate and scan write spot to form hologramREADØ Parallel read by means of holographic reconstructionØ Position read beam over hologramØ Project N or NxN pixels onto photodetector arrayØ Process and format serial data streamJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 41
  42. 42. X-Ray “Optical” StorageThe ChallengesØ A compact, safe, inexpensive X-ray laser.Ø All optics must be reflective.Ø No compact photodetector arrays.Ø New mastering (write) and replication methods required.The AdvantagesØ No page composer (SLM) required.Ø No 3D media and incoherent superposition (stacking) of holograms required.Ø Can apply method to all media formats.Ø Read servo requirements about the same as today’s DVD.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 42
  43. 43. X-Ray “Optical” Storage Performance Potential of Digital Fourier Transform Holograms: Ø Assume a disc format; 50mm diameter and a recording area of 1600mm2. Ø Storage Density ρ = 1/(2λF#)2 Ø For λ = 0.5nm and F# = 2, ρ = 250Gb/mm2 (160Tb/in2) Ø C = 50TB unformatted Ø Access Time < 10ms Ø Read Data Rate = function of [# of pixels, read power, detector sensitivity, scan speed]; could achieve 50Gbps, or higher.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 43
  44. 44. State-of-the-Art X-Ray Laser A Free-Electron Laser (FEL) Some engineering required to make suitable for optical storage applications applications Source: University of HamburgJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 44
  45. 45. 3c) StarTrek Era StorageJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 45
  46. 46. Bits Written on Ferroelectric Thin Film The marks are roughly on 25nm centers corresponding to a storage density of about 1TB/in2. Writing and reading are done by means of a voltage nanoprobe. The storage mechanism is domain switching between two polarization states. Imaging is done via a DC-EFM (Dynamic Contact-Electrostatic Force Microscopy).January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 46
  47. 47. Density = 645Tb/in2. 1130TB (unformatted) on a 120mm disc. [Assumes 1nm bit and track pitches.]January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 47
  48. 48. (51.6 Pb/in2) H = Hydrogen atom F = Fluorine atom Storage at the atomic level. In this concept H atoms represent 0s and F atoms represent 1s.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 48
  49. 49. Part 4Some Enabling Technologies
  50. 50. A Few ExamplesØ Plasmonic OPU (POPU)Ø Negative RefractionØ Variable Focus Lenses (needed to aid layer-to layer focusing for ML discs)Ø Photon Sieves The above enabling technologies may provide the means to write/read significantly smaller marks.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 50
  51. 51. Plasmonic Optical StorageJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 51
  52. 52. Plasmonics for ODSØ Plasmonics is a branch of physics in which surface plasmon resonances of metals are used to manipulate light at the sub-wavelength scale.Ø Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are collective oscillations of electron density at an interface of a metal and dielectric.Ø Because SPPs can be excited and strongly coupled with incident light, they have many potential applications in high-resolution optical imaging and storage and lithography.Ø Some metals (gold and silver, for example) exhibit strong SPPs resonance in certain wavelength ranges, and therefore can be used to guide and concentrate light to nanoscale spots less than the classical diffraction limit.Ø Some of the SPPs resonant structures can produce a field irradiance (W/m2) at the near field that is greater by orders of magnitude than the incident light.Ø Some resonant optical antennas can concentrate laser light into < 25nm FWHM size spots (as defined by gap widths).January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 52
  53. 53. Plasmonic Optical Pickup Unit (POPU)Ø Optical read/write similar to NFR; that is, a POPU is required that flies 20nm, or lower, above the disc surface. Hence, an ABS is required to achieve this.Ø Spot sizes can be 25nm FWHM, or smaller. This corresponds to an areal density of ≈ 1Tb/in2, or a capacity of ≈ 1.75TB on a 120mm disc. Initially, a 70x increase versus Blu-ray Disc.Ø Will permit multi-channel read/write.Ø Will permit integrated POPU.Ø Will support head per side optical disc drives.Ø Major challenges will be servo control of POPU flying height and tracking. POPU = Plasmonic Optical Pickup Unit / NFR = Near-field Recording ABS = Air Bearing Surface / FWHM = Full Width Half MaxJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 53
  54. 54. Plasmonics Resonant Optical Antenna Designs See Reference 5.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 54
  55. 55. Plasmonics Laser Antennas & Spot Formation See Reference 5.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 55
  56. 56. A Multi-Channel POPU for ODS See Reference 6. Modified by the author for ODS applications.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 56
  57. 57. Parallel Track Read/Write See Reference 6.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 57
  58. 58. Negative RefractionJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 58
  59. 59. Negative Refraction a) negative refraction b) normal (positive) refraction source: Physics Today (December 2003)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 59
  60. 60. Negative Refraction normal refraction negative refractionJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 60
  61. 61. Negative RefractionJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 61
  62. 62. Variable Focus LensesJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 62
  63. 63. Variable Focus LensesJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 63
  64. 64. Variable Focus Lenses source: http://physicsweb.org (Feb 3 2006)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 64
  65. 65. Variable Focus Lenses source: Photonics Spectra, March 01 , 2005January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 65
  66. 66. Photon Sieve “Fourth generation light sources, based on Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) will be capable of producing X-rays of such extreme brilliance that new possibilities of focusing the radiation emerge. An optical element, based on the simple concept of an array of pinholes (a photon sieve), exploits the monochromaticity and coherence of light from a free-electron laser to focus soft X-rays with unprecedented sharpness (high irradiance levels). The combination of an excellent focus with extreme flux will provide new opportunities for high-resolution X-ray microscopy and spectroscopy in both the physical and life sciences.” From http://www.photonsieve.de/ (Also works for visible and UV light). Google “photon sieve.” See Nature 414, 184 -188 (2001) Research supported by the BMBF, Germany Protected by patents (see, for example, US7368744 re Photon Sieve for Optical Systems in Micro-lithography)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 66
  67. 67. Photon Sieve A means for focusing UV and X-ray beams to sub-diffraction spots source: http://www.photonsieve.de/January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 67
  68. 68. Photon Sieve Irradiance profile of the photon sieve is on the left; its Gaussian counterpart is on the right. [Note the suppression of the secondary maxima by the photon sieve] source: http://www.photonsieve.deJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 68
  69. 69. Part 5Replication and Disc Manufacturing
  70. 70. Mastering & ReplicationØ The future of optical disc storage will ultimately be determined by disc mastering and replication processes.Ø Near-UV mastering and modified replication processes already exist. Phase transition mastering at 405nm works well for BD.Ø For C ≥ 100GB per layer/120mm disc, extreme UV (EUV) or e-beam mastering machines (EBMM) will be required.Ø EBMM have already achieved 50nm wide pits (DVD uses 300nm); 15nm features are feasible.Ø 100GB (recordable/rewritable) and 200GB (read-only) per layer for 120mm discs have been demonstrated at the research level.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 70
  71. 71. Optical Disc Mastering- AFM Images (source: Optical Disc Corporation – achieved more than 10 years ago)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 71
  72. 72. This process is an invention of Plasmon plc in 1986. Company researchers used large-diameter, collimated large- Argon-ion laser beams to Argon- create a grating master on a 130mm diameter glass substrate. An array of sub- sub- micron cells was create by rotating the substrate by 90 deg and repeating the exposure. The crossed gratings were the basis for Plasmon’s “moth’s eye” Plasmon’ moth’ eye” write-once optical media, write- which closely approximated an ideal black body.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 72
  73. 73. Challenges & Opportunities for the Optical Media IndustryØ The technology and equipment for CD and DVD is proven and mature. The key problems for BD have been solved. That was the easy part.Ø Optical media in the next generations will be more complex. Required yield, throughput, and quality will be harder to achieve, regardless of the future technology winner(s).Ø The cost and complexity of processes and equipment and the unit cost of media will increase, perhaps significantly in some cases. A major challenge to the industry is to prevent or minimize this.Ø New or modified processes, manufacturing equipment, and quality control methods will be required for N-layer MLD and NFR media.Ø More sophisticated and complex in-line and off-line test and measurement equipment will be required.Ø The cost of R&D will increase significantly; more materials scientists, chemists, and physicists will be needed.Ø On the positive side, new opportunities are plentiful, and provide a natural evolutionary path. On the negative side, a finite probability exists that increasing the capacity of optical storage media may well become too expensive (diminishing economic returns).January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 73
  74. 74. Part 6The Bottom Line
  75. 75. Summary and Conclusions 1Ø The market success of optical storage products can be correlated with design to a specific application (notably audio or video). CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Disc (BD) are the most relevant examples.Ø Computer applications were extensions for CD (CD-ROM), inherent, but secondary for DVD and BD.Ø If consumer applications no longer require optical discs, ODS will then depend on computer storage applications.Ø Existing optical storage technologies still have at least a 10- year useful product life cycle. However, classical optical storage will have reached the end of its technology life before then.Ø Future ODS products will primarily be the blue-disc progeny of Blu-ray Disc.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 75
  76. 76. Summary and Conclusions 2Ø Optical storage 5-10 years from today will be provided mainly by evolved versions of today’s proven technologies.Ø Optical storage will continue to dominate the removable-media AV applications sector in consumer electronics for the near future. "HDTV" playback and recording and personal storage applications will remain the dominant applications.Ø Over the 10-year horizon, optical storage will likely be provided by a mixture of today’s evolving and future technologies. Displacement technologies cannot be ruled out.Ø To secure its future in the mainstream storage world, ODS must expand its horizons. This will require significant investment and risk, given its many challenges and competitors.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 76
  77. 77. RecommendationsØ Anyone in the ODS drive or media business, whether OEM or ODM, should accept the certainty that ODS technology is at a tipping point.Ø Optical Media manufacturers must develop equipment that can handle spatial structures of less than 50nm and inline manufacturing of 4-16 layer discs.Ø Future ODS products will have a large percentage of what today are considered esoteric components; most have not been developed to commercial status – R&D must focus on “future” components, if future ODS products are to be evolved.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 77
  78. 78. Part 7Appendices
  79. 79. < Appendix 7A > About the Author Dr. Dick Zech has over 46 years of computer storage, materials science and photonics experience. His academic focus was on modern optics, electromagnetic theory, communications theory, advanced mathematics, and the chemistry/physics of materials. His doctoral dissertation was entitled "Data Storage in Volume Holograms” (supervised by Prof. Emmett N. Leith at the University of Michigan). His primary expertise is in the fields of optical data storage, holography, recording media, nanotechnology, optics, and optical disc replication processes and technology. His main interests are data storage; lasers; materials physics, chemistry and processes; control and positioning of light beams; and photonic components and their integration into fully functional information processing systems. Much of Dick’s early work (1965-1979) was for the US Department of Defense, NASA and various intelligence agencies. The primary goal of this work was to use photonics technology for the rapid acquisition, processing, storage and communication of data vital to national defense and the space program (including holographic wideband recorders and BORAM holographic memories) . In addition, Dick also has significant engineering, product and business development, and sales and marketing management experience, which he has used as a consultant for the past 23+ years. Since 1990 he has worked as an expert witness in numerous patent infringement litigations (and a few involving breach of contract and theft of trade secrets) and evaluated over 200 patents for technical and economic merit. Among his inventions are the projected real-image Lippmann-Bragg hologram, volume manufacturing methods for holograms, and the multi-channel optical disc recorder (DIGIMEM). He has published over 150 papers, reports, and presentations.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 79
  80. 80. < Appendix 7B > References1. Di Chen and R.G. Zech, Optical Data Storage - Technology and Business Outlook (Invited Paper), International Forum on Optical Industry IP (Cheng Chan High Tech Center), Shanghai, China, May 19- 21 2007.2. "Relevant Technologies for Future Generations of Optical Data Storage," Prof. M. Mansuripur (Optical Sciences Center, Un. of Arizona), Media-Tech Conference, Hollywood, CA, August 31, 2004.3. "Optical Recording at 1Tb/in2," Prof. T. D. Milster, (Optical Sciences Center, Un. of Arizona), THIC Meeting, Louisville, CO, July 22-23, 2003.4. Harumasa Yoshida, Yoji Yamashita, Masakazu Kuwabara & Hirofumi Kan, Nature Photonics 2, 551 - 554 (2008) Published online: 27 July 2008.5. Using Plasmonics to Shape Light Beams, OPN, May 2009, pp. 22-27.6. High-speed Nearfield Optical Recording Using Plasmonic Flying Head, Liang Pan et al, NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center, University of California (Berkeley), Paper OMA3, NLO/ISOM/ODS 2011.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 80
  81. 81. < Appendix 7B > ReferencesSome of Dick Zechs papers:Ø “Volume Hologram Optical Memories: Mass Storage Future Perfect?,” Optics and Photonics News, August 1992, pp. 16-25.Ø “Where do we go from here? Digital Media Futures for Consumer Electronics,” Diskcon 2002, , San Jose, CA, September 17-19, 2002.Ø “UV Futures for Optical Disc (What’s Next for DVD after Blu-ray?),” adapted from the International Storage Industry Consortium (INSIC) 2003 Conference on the Future of Optical Data Storage, San Francisco, CA, January 23-25, 2003.Ø “Technology Analysis: Optical Storage Futures - The Consumer Electronics Perspective," IIST Workshop XVII, Asilomar Conference on Computer Storage, Monterrey, CA, December 2003.Ø "Strategic Assessment of Next Generation and Future Optical Storage Technologies,“ National Electronics Manufacturers Initiative (NEMI) Biannual Roadmap, July 2004.Ø The 2005-15 Roadmap: Optical Storage for Consumer Electronics," An ADVENT Special Report, December 2004.Ø "A Bright Future for Optical Storage - The Consumer Electronics Perspective," Storage Visions 2005, Las Vegas, NV, January 4-5, 2005.Ø "Focusing on Blu-ray & HD DVD," The 2006 Consumer Electronics Show, Las Vegas, NV, Jan 5-8, 2006.Ø "The Blue-Laser Media Perspective," A CeBIT 2006 Summary Report, Hannover, Germany, March 8-15, 2006.Ø "Strategic Assessment of Next Generation and Future Optical Storage Technologies," international National Electronics Manufacturers Initiative (iNEMI) Biannual Roadmap, July 2006.Ø "The Future Direction of Optical Data Storage: Technologies and Challenges in the 21st Century (Invited Paper)," Media-Tech 2006, Long Beach, CA, October 10-11, 2006.Ø Computer Storage at the New Technology Tipping Point: The Impact of MEMS and NEMS on Performance (Invited Paper)," International Conference on Consumer Electronics 2007, Las Vegas, NV, January 10-14, 2007.Ø A DVD Primer - The DVD-Video Perspective (rev 08), An ADVENT Group Publication, September 2007.Ø “Optical Data Storage: A Tutorial (Invited Paper),” International Conference on Consumer Electronics 2009, Las Vegas, NV, January 11-14, 2009. Copies of ZECH publications available in PDF format upon request by e-mail to adventgrp@comcast.net.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 81
  82. 82. < Appendix 7C > 3-D Holographic Memories (Holomems)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 82
  83. 83. Holographic MemoriesJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 83
  84. 84. January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 84
  85. 85. Holographic Memories - HistoryØ Original concept by P.J. van Heerden (Polaroid) in 1963, based on D. Gabor’s “wavefront reconstruction” (holography).Ø Generally agreed to be impractical by 1975.Ø Over 50 companies worldwide have invested in and abandoned the technology (1965-2010).Ø The early 1990s saw a resurgence in interest; for example, DARPA’s HDSS/PRISM program helped to greatly advance the art.Ø The “no moving parts” (random access) BORAM model has been abandoned in favor of the (direct access) optical disc model.Ø Advances in lasers, storage media, photodetector arrays (PDAs), spatial light modulators (SLMs), hologram stacking methods, data coding, and signal processing have made 300GB 130mm discs feasible today.Ø Today’s leading companies are InPhase Technologies and Optware (Japan).Ø After more than 40 years of R&D, holographic memories (holomems) in 2009 appeared on the threshold of commercial viability for a limited set of applications (for example, general archiving and digital video storage). Both companies now out of business.Ø Holomems are not suitable for consumer electronics applications today. However, they could have effectively supported the creation and delivery processes.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 85
  86. 86. Pros and Cons of HolomemsProsØ Parallel write/read of large data pages (1024 x 1024 pixels common).Ø 3D stacking of holograms in a common volume (increases 2D areal storage density by a factor of 1,000x, or more).Ø Simple read mechanisms, which reconstruct each data page independently (ideally, with no crosstalk).ConsØ Complex system designs.Ø Demanding storage media requirements.Ø Lack of infrastructure (photonic components challenging; optical communications applications have driven lower pricing, volume, and reliability).Ø Expensive hardware compared to competing storage technologies (disc media competitive).January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 86
  87. 87. IBM Demon 2 Holomem Demonstrator source: IBM Almaden LabsJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 87
  88. 88. Optware Holomem Products Optware tabletop exhibit at ODS 2004 (source: ADVENT)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 88
  89. 89. InPhase Technologies Prototype Holomem Drive and Disc Cartridge source: InPhase TechnologiesJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 89
  90. 90. InPhase Technologies Holomem Drive Schematic (record optical path) (read optical path)HWP = half wave plate SLM = spatial light modulator source: InPhase TechnologiesJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 90
  91. 91. InPhase Holomem Recordable Technology "Roadmap" Specs 2005 2008 2010 Effective Areal Density 480 Gb/in2 1280 Gb/in2 2560 Gb/in2 Raw Data Rate 160 Mbits/s 640 Mbits/s 960 Mbits/s Estimated Capacity (GB) 300 800 1,600 NA of object beam 0.65 0.65 0.65 Bragg Null 2nd 2nd 1st SLM Pixels 1280x1024 1200x1200 1200x1200 PDA Pixels 1280x1024 1696x1710 1696x1710 Camera sensitivity (Counts/(J/m2)) 176,000 350,000 700,000 Laser power (mW) 50 70 100 Wavelength (nm) 407 407 407 Material Thickness (mm) 1.5 1.5 1.5 Original table from InPhase; edited by the author to show capacity points for 130mm discs.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 91
  92. 92. source: MaxellJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 92
  93. 93. < Appendix 7D > Fluorescent MultilayerJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 93
  94. 94. Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD)Ø 5-100 storage layers on a substrate (claimed; about 20 actual)Ø Read signal generated by laser-induced linear or non-linear fluorescenceØ Minimal interaction between layers (adequate signal and SNR)Ø Gives optical storage equivalent HDD multiple discs per spindle capabilityØ No standards issues (works with CD, DVD, and BD/HD DVD media formats)Ø Read Only, Write Once, and ReWritable storage modes are possibleØ Drives are feasible (may need dynamic aberration correction)Ø Disc manufacturing is complex, likely to be expensive initially, but feasibleØ Inventor C3D went out of business, but came back as D Data Inc (New York).January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 94
  95. 95. < Appendix 7F > Ultra Density Optical (UDO)January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 95
  96. 96. UDO - The Other Blue-laser DiscØ UDO = Ultra Density Optical (a Plasmon plc product – the company is no longer in business)Ø Original design by Sony as successor to 5.25" MO.Ø Designed for computer applications (-R and -RW).Ø 30 GB cartridge media (2-sided phase change disc).Ø ANSI-standard 5.25" MO disc cartridge; jukebox ready.January 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 96
  97. 97. Source: Plasmon plcJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 97
  98. 98. source: Plasmon plcJanuary 2012 (c) 2012 The ADVENT Group 98

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