Conservation of Pesut Mahakam


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Conservation of Pesut Mahakam

  1. 1. Status of the Conservation of Fresh Water Irrawaddy Dolphins in Mahakam River Indonesia By Roffi Grandiosa Presented on the Course of Conservation Biology Gent University
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Irrawaddy Fresh Water Dolphin ( Orcaella brevirostris) known as Pesut Mahakam is in the list of IUCN Red List 2006 as a critically endagered spesies </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of conservation of this spesies in Indonesia has to be considered since the population mean is around 43 individu at 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>In Indonesia it is only found at one Mahakam River which is at the Kalimantan Island </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Cetacea Range Map </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Major Habitats: Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove, Wetland – Permanent, Rivers/Streams/Creeks, Wetland - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes, Sea – Shallow, Coastline - Estuarine Waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Threats: Habitat Loss/Degradation - Agriculture - Wood plantations - Large-scale (ongoing) - Extraction - Mining (ongoing) Extraction - Fisheries – Artisanal / small-scale (ongoing) Infrastructure development - Dams (ongoing) Harvesting (hunting/gathering) - Cultural/scientific/leisure activities - Regional/international trade (ongoing) </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental mortality – By catch - Fisheries-related - Netting (ongoing) and Dynamite (ongoing) </li></ul>
  5. 7. STATE OF THE ART <ul><li>Conservation actions of the river dolphins must be evaluated through preliminary research. The important research done was to determine the conditions under which dolphins reacted to boats and also revealing attitudes of local residents to the future program of conservation of Irrawaddy Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of boat traffic has been studied on other species of dolphins resulting significant change of behaviour. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>In freshwater Mahakam dolphins case:: especially in the confluent area where the dolphins were majorly sighted, dolphins had interuption from boat (speed boat and tugboat). Dolphins could not evade sound and physical presence of boats. This result into Frequent interruption of dolphin feeding, resting, or socializing through active boat avoidance, disrupted echolocation signals for safe navigation and active hunting, and masking of acoustic cues to hunt passively and to locate group members for maintaining social cohesion and coordination. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Long term sound stress could lead to disorder in reproductive and disgetive organs. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Although Dolphins’ continuous presence in this intensive boat traffic area does not mean that they are not disturbed, but, rather, it underlines the importance of that area to the dolphins “ </li></ul><ul><li>In a mating activity the dolphin does not care about the presence of boats and that increase the probabilty to colide with a boat. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Local residents played an important role in the future of conservations. These people also utilize the rivers for daily transportation and also other activities such as fishing. The majority of the residents felt that the dolphins must be protected and also agreed that protected areas must be established. </li></ul>
  9. 12. RECOMMENDATION <ul><li>The conservation of these mammals are still in progress since 2000 include an annual conservation/awareness campaign aimed at different sectors of society, annual monitoring of the dolphin population, socioeconomic surveys related to fisheries, attitude assessment surveys with local communities, demarcation of an important dolphin site by placing a large billboard in Muara Pahu, and establishment of patrols in several villages </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>efforts are made to reduce mortality, halt habitat deterioration and protect the dolphins’ food supply, survival and even recovery of this, Indonesia’s only freshwater population of dolphins, could be feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Positive support from the local people should be maintained and encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Baird (2001) observed that conservation of the dolphin habitat in Mekong benefited the fish population and the fishermen livelihood. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>The pesut fits the definition of a flagship species both internationally and locally; it has charisma and thus may effectively facilitate protection of other species and of the ecosystem with which it is associated. </li></ul>
  12. 15. THANK YOU for your ATTENTION!