History of ionizing radiation


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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. However, Einstein himself writes: "It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty." A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy.More information on https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM
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  • In between 300-400 BCaristotle,descartes(1637),huygens(1678),fresnel91817),maxwell(1873)Democrates(400bc,pierre gassendi(1660) issacnewton(1675)Max plank(1990).einstein(1905)
  • Henry geissler
  • On N ovember 8, 1895, in his laboratory in Wurzburg, W. C. R oentgen(Figure 1) registered the new type of penetrating rays. H e spent sevenweeks to follow working on his experiment and on D ecember 26, 1895,took the very first picture of his wife’s hand with a ring using what hecalled the new rays, creating the new famous roentgen picture.For this revolutionary discovery he was awarded with first nble prize in physics in 1901.
  • It was already on January 12, 1896, only 17 days from publishingRoentgen’s discovery, that E mil G rubbe applied X-rays to irradiatea female patient suffering from locally advanced breast cancer andrecorded palliative effect. He himself died in 1960 as the result of multiple squamouscarcinomas with metastases probably due to his work with radiation.
  • Despeignes was the first to apply roentgen therapy inFrance. In July 1896 he treated a case of gastric carcinomawith 80 sessions lasting between 15 and 30 min daily. Hereported improvement and pain relief. Treatment was giventwice daily
  • In Austria, the dermatologist LeopoldFreund had among others observed epilation after exposureto x-rays. In 1896 he treated a patient with hairynevus (3) daily over 2 weeks and was the first to givefractionated radiotherapy
  • The field grew rapidly through the last years of the 19thcentury and into the first years of the 20th (3). Antoine-HenriBecquerel, a physics professor in Paris, was the first to recognizenatural radioactivity while working with uranium salts
  • The first cases of basal cellcarcinoma of the skin and squamous cell carcinoma of theskin were cured in Stockholm in 1900 by T. Stenbeck andT. Sjogren (4), who used the same technique as Freund
  • The depth towhich X-rays can penetrate into biological tissue is related to thephoton energies, and therefore, early radiotherapy was verylimited by devices that could produce only low X-ray energies(f100 keV). Stimulated by the early successes of X-ray therapy,many scientists turned their attention to producing higher energyX-rays that penetrate deeper into tissue. This was necessary toreduce dose deposition in skin, thus allowing for treatment ofinternal tumors without causing severe skin burns at pointswhere beams enter the body.By 1913 William Coolidge, an American physicist, was workingwith General Electric to develop hot-cathode X-ray tubes, whichproduced energies in the 200 keV range. Treatment with thesetubes was initially termed deep roentgen therapy and later calledorthovoltage XRT
  • One of the oldest rules in radiobiology —developed in 1906 by two French radiobiologists,Bergonié and Tribondeau — offereda prediction about the relative sensitivity ofdifferent types of cells to radiation. The socalled‘Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau’concluded that cells tend to be radiosensitiveif they have three properties: a highdivision rate, a long dividing future, and anunspecialized phenotype22. This law pavedthe way for several radiobiology rules thatwere discovered a few years later by Germanand British radiation scientists from in vitro experiments.
  • In 1911 Claudius Regaud, an intern from Lyon, showed that aram’s testes could be sterilized without causing major burns tothe scrotal skin, if three irradiations were delivered 15 days apart(11, 12). This series of landmark experiments established the basisof what would become the principle of fractionation for externalbeam radiotherapy (XRT
  • In the 1920s, Coutardapplied the concept of fractionated XRT with treatment coursesprotracted over several weeks. Using this strategy, he was able tocure patients with a variety of head and neck malignancies and topopularize this concept of fractionation in the internationalcommunity (2, 13–15). His technologic advancesincluded many concepts taken for granted today, including customimmobilization of patients, beam hardening with metallic filters toachieve higher photon energies, and collimation/shaping of beams.
  • in 1955 by Thomlinson and Gray whenthey proposed that oxygen levels decreasedin a respiring tumour mass through eachsuccessive cell layer distal to the lumen ofthe capillary.
  • History of ionizing radiation

    1. 1. Ionizing radiation : Historical perspective and its use in cancer patient Dr.Ritam Joarder
    2. 2. Wave theory of light Particle theory of light Aristotle Democrates Descartes Robert Hooke Huygens Fresnel Thomas Young Newton Qu a n t u m t he or y of Plank l i ght Maxwell Einstein
    3. 3. Faraday William Crookes Eugene Geissler
    4. 4. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen: Discovery of X-ray ( November 8 ,1895 )
    5. 5. 1896 : Controversial claims of Emil Grubbe “First, that I was the first person exposed to x-rays who received sufficient cumulative effects to develop x-ray dermatitis. Second, that I was the first person to apply x-rays to pathologic lesions on living human subjects for therapeutic purposes.” Treated a woman with breast cancer in 1896
    6. 6. 1896 : Victor Despeignes Treated a case of gastric carcinoma with 80 sessions lasting between 15 and 30 min daily
    7. 7. 1896 : Therapeutic use of X-rays 1903 : Authored first textbook of radiotherapy A five yr old girl with pigmented hairy naevus all over her back treated and cured , then lived upto 75 yrs. Leopold Freund
    8. 8. Di s c o v e r y o f Ra d i o a The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903.......awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
    9. 9. 1897 : Discovery of Electrons by J . J . Thompson Received Nobel Prize in Physics 1906
    10. 10. 1898: Discovery of Radium And Polonium Marie and Pierre Curie shared 1903 Nobel prize in physics with Becquerel
    11. 11. 1899 : Cure of Skin Cancer Thor Stenbeck cured BCC of Nose with 100 treatments over 9 months in Stockholm Tage Sjoegren treated sq. cell epithelioma with 50 treatments over 30 months
    12. 12. 1899: Discovery of α & β particles ( E. Rutherford ) 1900: Proposal of Radioactive Decay & Half life Received Noble prize in Chemistry 1908 for “Disintegration theory “ of elements
    13. 13. 1900 : Discovery of γ-rays Paul Ulrich Villard discovered gamma radiation in 1900, while studying radiation emitted from radium. Villard's radiation was named "gamma rays" by Ernest Rutherford in 1903
    14. 14. 1900: Formulation of Quantum theory Awarded with Noble prize in Physics 1918
    15. 15. 1903 : Law of the Photo electric effect Albert Einstein was awarded with Noble prize in Physics 1921
    16. 16. 1903: Noble Prize in medicine for Neils Ryberg Finsen Used UV rays to treat Lupus Vulgaris , which also used to treat cancer later on.
    17. 17. 1904 : Fluorescent lamp of Edison ~ Death of Clarence Dally .. . I started in to make a number of these lamps, but I soon found that the xray had affected poisonously my assistant, Mr. Daily, so that his hair came out and his flesh commenced to ulcerate. I then concluded it would not do, and that it would not be a very popular kind of light, so I dropped it...
    18. 18. 1920s-1930s : Radioactive Quackery Case of “Radium Girls” 1932 : Death of Eben Beyers
    19. 19. Roentgen therapy Vs Radium therapy
    20. 20. 1913: Hot Cathode tube ~ W D Coolidge • Peak voltage of 140 Kv with 5 mAmp current • Max. dose at skin with rapid dose fall-off with depth inside tissue
    21. 21. 1922: Discovery of Compton Scattering Received Noble Prize in Physics 1927
    22. 22. 1923 : Grenz Ray therapy ( Gustav Bucky )  < 20kV Voltage  Filtration of 1.0 mm Al  Used to treat skin lesions
    23. 23. Contact Therapy Or Chaoul Therapy  40-50 kV potential  2mA current  SSD 2cm or less  0.5-1.0mm thickness Al filter  Rapidly decreasing depth dose in tissue Papillon technique for Superficial Rectal Cancer
    24. 24. Superficial Therapy  50 – 150 Kv Voltage  1- 6mm Al filtration  1- 8 mm Al HVL  15- 20 cm SSD  Operated at 5- 8 mA current
    25. 25. 1930s:Orthovoltage therapy or Deep Therapy ( Sieman’s Stabilapan )     150-500 Kv voltage 10-20 mA current 50 cm SSD HVL 1-4mm Cu  Disadvantage : High skin dose Increased absorbed dose in bone Increased Scattering
    26. 26. Telecurietherapy ( Radium bomb ) Sluys-Kessler Radium bomb Failla's Radium bombs Giaocchino Failla
    27. 27. 1920s : Radiation dosimetry R . Sievert E.Quimby
    28. 28. 1929 : Invention of Cyclotron Ernest Lawrence received Noble prize in Physics 1939
    29. 29. 1931 : Van de Graaff Generator (MIT) 40 feet high Electrostatic device capable of operating at 5,000,000 volts Robert van de Graaff 2 MeV Clinical Van de Graaff X-ray machine
    30. 30. 1932 : Discovery of Neutron James Chadwick received Noble prize in Physics 1935
    31. 31. 1934 : Artificial Radioactivity Irène and Frédéric Joliot Curie shared Noble prize in Chemistry 1935
    32. 32. 1938 : Discovery of Co60 isotope Glenn T Seaborg shared Noble prize in Chemistry 1951 with Edwin M McMillan for discovery of transuranium elements Glenn T Seaborg
    33. 33. 1940 : Betatron ( Donald W Krest ) 20 MeV Betatron created by Krest in University of Ilionis , USA (originally planned by Achen Widroe)
    34. 34. 1945 : Development of Synchrotron Originally the principle had been published by Vladimir Veksler Edwin Mattison McMillan later shared Noble Prize in Chemistry In 1951 with Glenn Seaborg for discovery in chemistry of transuranium elements
    35. 35. The Most Shameful day for Mankind On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM, the Atomic Bomb “ Little Boy" was dropped on Hiroshima by an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay directly killing an estimated 80,000 people
    36. 36. 1951 : Cobalt Bomb ( H.E.Johns) First Cobalt 60 machine in Saskatoon ,Canada
    37. 37. 1953: First Linear Accelerator 1956: First pt treated with LINAC Henry Kaplan Gordon Issac,2yr old pt of B/l Retinoblastoma
    38. 38. 1958 : Computerized treatment planning introduced :J. Laughlin, T. D. Sterling, K. C. Tsien, R. Wood 1962 : Electronic portal imaging introduced: S. Benner 1965: Conformal radiation therapy with multileaf collimation introduced : S. Takahashi 1968: Gamma Knife introduced :Leksell 1969: First commercial treatment planning systems :R. Bentley, J. Cox, W. Powers
    39. 39. 1968 : Computer-assisted Tomography Shared Noble Prize in Medicine 1979 Allan M Cormack Godfrey N. Hounsfield
    40. 40. 1973 : Zeugmatography Shared Noble prize in Medicine 2003 for their discovery Paul C. Lauterbur Sir Peter Mansfield
    41. 41. 1979 : Concepts of BEV, DVH, Digital reconstructed radiographs DVHs were introduced by Michael Goitein and Verhey in 1979 in a publication by Shipley et al
    42. 42. Brief History of Brachytherapy
    43. 43. 1920s : Radium Surface therapy Radium surface brachytherapy treatment of skin cancer at the Institut Curie, Paris, 1922
    44. 44. 1920s : Use of needle implants Interstitial implantation of radon seeds for a carcinoma of the rectum, 1929, at the London Hospital
    45. 45. 1910-24 : Stockholm technique Dr.Gosta Forssell : Started radium treatment in Ca Cervix in 1912 James Heyman : Published “Stockholm method in radiotherapy of uterine cencer “ in 1924 „Intensive, intermittent and intracavitary radium treatment method‟.
    46. 46. 1934 : Manchester Dosage System Ralston Paterson And Herbert M Parker developed Manchester Dosage system for surface applicators of radium in 1934 Later revised by Margaret C Tod and W J Meredith as Dosage System for Cancer of the Cervix in 1938
    47. 47. 1978 : Paris System B Pierquin ; A Deutreix et al published Paris system for Interstitial brachytherapy in 1978
    48. 48. 1904 : Earliest intracavitary applicator Used by Wickham and Degrais in Paris from 1904.
    49. 49. Early Concepts of Radiobiology
    50. 50. 1906 : Law of Bergonie And Tribondeau cells tend to be radiosensitive if they have •High division rate • Long dividing future •Unspecialized phenotype Jean A Bergonie L M Tribondeau
    51. 51. 1911 : Concept of fractionation Sterilization of ram's testis without excessive skin reactions using fractionated radiation ( Claude Regaud )
    52. 52. 1934 : Time –dose factor concept Henri Coutard showed that both skin and mucosal reactions depended on the dose, the treatment time and the no. of treatment sessions.
    53. 53. 1967 : Concept of Dose –volume Relationship Hypothesized that in addition to time-dose factor , irradiation damage to normal tissue also depends upon the volume irradiated. Francois Baclesse
    54. 54. Realizing the importance of oxygen Louis Harold Gray and RH Thomlinson established the relation of chronic hypoxia and Radiosensitivity (1955) The ability to quantitate cell killing. 1956, the cell-survival assay was developed by Theodore T Puck and Philip I Marcus
    55. 55. 1963 : Variation of Radiosensitivity through the cell cycle : Toyozo Terasima and LJ Tolmach 1966 : Potentially lethal damage repair : LJ Tolmach 1969 : Concept of Accelerated repopulation : Hermens & Barendsen
    56. 56. 1972 : Concept of Apoptosis Kerr et al recognized apoptotic cell death in the response of radiosensitive tissues to ionizing radiation. John F Kerr 1973 : Time course of proliferation in normal tissue following irradiation Julie Denekamp
    57. 57. 1975 : Concept of 4 Rs of Radiobiology Withers also quantified stem-cell numbers and survival of normal cells . H Rodney Withers 1982 : Concept of Biologically effective dose G W Barendsen
    58. 58. Advances in Radiotherapy 1900 to 1950
    59. 59. Advances in Radiotherapy 1950 to Present
    60. 60. " Martyr‟s Memorial " On the memorial for “x-ray martyrs” in the garden of St. George‟s Hospital, Hamburg, Germany, were 169 names inscribed in 1936; in 1959 their number had increased to 359