Into the Classroom: SomeUseful Reading Strategies inTeaching of Literature Ramil G. Ilustre Division In-service Training in Secondary English, November 12, 2010
The Outline: I. Teaching Beliefs II. Research Findings on Reading Strategies of Successful and Unsuccessful Learners III. Reading Strategies Pre-reading During Reading Post-reading
Teaching Beliefs: 1. All students can be successful readers.
Continuation… 2. All teachers are teachers of reading. 3.Teachers make a difference. 4. Monitoring and assessment inform teaching and learning. 5. Teachers need a repertoire of flexible practices and resources. “Staying pr ofessionaly cur isever teach ’sr l rent y er esponsib ity.” il
Research Findings on Reading Strategiesof Successful and Unsuccessful Learners Baker and Brown (1984);Brown (1981); Palinscar and Brown (1984)- the use of strategies have found to be effective in improving students’ reading comprehension. Hosenfield (1977)- used a think-aloud procedure; successful readers kept the meaning of the passage in mind while reading; unsuccessful readers lost the meaning of the sentences when decoded, read in short passages and had negative self-concept.
Block (1986) used think-aloud procedure. Findings include four characteristics of reading: integration, recognition of aspects of text structure, use of general knowledge, personal experiences and associations. Garner (1987), Waxman and Padron (1987) found that younger and less proficient students use fewer strategies and use them less effectively in their reading comprehension. In conclusion, reading strategies have found out to be effective tools in reading comprehension.
Pre-reading Stage GOALS: 1. To activate the students’ knowledge of the subject. 2. To provide any language preparation that might be needed for coping the passage. 3. To motivate the learners to want to read the text. 4. To comment on the visuals. 5. To talk about the title. 6. To draw student’s attention on the new vocabulary.
Strategies 1. T- Charts To explore effective listening skills, ask students to complete a T- Chart in table form. The charts may be displayed and used as a reference point. What I want What I Know to Know
2. Y- Charts Y- Charts are an extension of T-Charts. feels like looks like sounds like
3. Frayer Model The Frayer Model is a graphical organizer used for word analysis and vocabulary building. This four- square model prompts students to think about and describe the meaning of a word or concept by . . . Defining the term, Describing its essential characteristics, Providing examples of the idea, and Offering non-examples of the idea.
Steps to the Frayer Model:1. Explain the Frayer model graphical organizer to the class. Use a common word to demonstrate the various components of the form. Model the type and quality of desired answers when giving this example.2. Select a list of key concepts from a reading selection. Write this list on the chalkboard and review it with the class before students read the selection.3. Divide the class into student pairs. Assign each pair one of the key concepts and have them read the selection carefully to define this concept. Have these groups complete the four- square organizer for this concept.4. Ask the student pairs to share their conclusions with the entire class. Use these presentations to review the entire list of key concepts.
During Reading Stage GOALS: 1. To set ways for students to interact with the text by providing directions and questions ( Kang, 1994). 2. To help understand the text structure and the logical organization in a reading passage. 3.To clarify and comprehend the text context. 4. To look for specific information. 5. To survey the general information.
Strategies 1. Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) centers on open-ended questions about the reading experience. designed to make students aware of their own interpretive actions during reading. helps students recognize predictions, judgments an evidence verification.
Steps in DR-TA:1. Ask students to skim a reading selection prior to reading it. Have them note titles, subheadings, illustrations, captions, sidebars, etc. From this preliminary overview, ask students to predict the content or perspective of the text passage. More importantly, ask them to identify why they reached these conclusions.2. Pick a reasonable "break point" in the reading selection and have students read up to this point. Challenge students to evaluate their predictions and refine them if necessary. Press students who change their predictions to explain "why" and offer specific evidence/reasons for the change.3. Repeat the process in steps 1 and 2 throughout all the logical "break points" in the text until the selection is completed.
2. Graphic Organizers are printed charts or forms that assist students in producing visual representations of the concepts, organization, or arguments of a text selection. Most often, these tools help students isolate and analyze the main ideas of a document. Lenski, Wham, and Johns (1999) describe five types of graphical organizers:
The Enumeration (Description) Graphic Organizer prompts students to identifymain ideas and list possible definitions, related terms, or examples
The Time Order or Sequence Graphic Organizer helps students uncover thelogical progression of ideas in a document—from earliest to latest, from most toleast important, etc.—and then to place specific items or details within thissequence.
The Cause and Effect Graphical Organizer helps students recognize causalrelationships between events and produce a chart of causes and effects leadingto a conclusion.
Steps in Using Graphic Organizers:1. Select a reading text for the class and identify the most appropriate graphical organizer to assist student comprehension of the document.2. Duplicate and distribute the template for the selected organizer to the class. Students can work individually or in small groups to complete the organizer chart as they read the passage.3. Encourage students to discuss—in small groups or with the entire class—their entries in the organizer. Have students make any necessary refinements to correct misconceptions or sharpen imprecise language.
For more printable graphic organizers, go to: www.scholastic.com www.eduplace.com www.saskschools.ca www.thinkport.com www.teachervision.com www.educationoasis.com
3. Literature Circles - a small group of students discuss a piece of literature in dept - provide a way for students to engage in critical thinking and reflection as they read, respond, and discuss books or short stories - Collaboration is the heart of this approach - guide students to deeper understanding of they read through structured discussion and extended written and artistic response.
Steps in Literature Circles1. Select members for the Literature Circles (discussion groups).2. Assign roles for the members of each circle.3. Assign reading to be completed by the circles inside or outside of class.4. Select circle meeting dates.5. Help students prepare for their roles in their circle.6. Act as a facilitator for the circles.
Roles: discussion director - develops questions for the group to discuss literary luminary - chooses a selection that the group rereads and discusses because it is interesting, informative, the climax, well written.... vocabulary enricher - chooses words that are difficult or used in an unfamiliar way connector - finds a connection between the story and another book, event in their personal llife or the outside world illustrator - draws a picture related to the reading summarizer - prepares a brief summary of the passage read that day travel tracer - tracks the movement when the characters move a lot investigator - looks up background information related to the book
4. Radio Reading - a "read aloud" strategy designed for maximum interaction between the reader and the audience. The reader "reads aloud" a selection and then initiates a discussion by asking specific questions of the audience. Responses and dialogue should be fast-paced. improves reading comprehension at two levels. The reader must immerse himself in the text to develop the discussion questions. The audience, in turn, reinforces learning by responding to the readers questions.
Steps in Radio Reading:1. Divide a class into small groups. Assign each group a short reading. Have the group read the entire selection quietly.2. Assign a specific paragraph (or paragraphs) to each group member. Have them prepare discussion questions on this specific section.3. Have each student read their assigned section aloud and present their discussion questions to other members of the group.4. Ask group members to respond quickly. Once a question is thoroughly answered, move on to the next question.5. Repeat the process until all the team members have the opportunity to lead the discussion.
Post-reading Stage GOALS: To extend the reading experience. To review the first two stages. To lead the students to deeper analysis of the text. To use classroom games. To focus words or structures in a controlled writing situations (summarizing).
1. PMI A PMI (Plus, Minus, Intriguing) is used for affective processing to talk about the pluses, minuses and intriguing points felt about a lesson, concept or issue. What I liked Pluses (+) What I didn’t like Minuses (-) What I thought was intriguing Questions or thoughts
2. Herringbone Chart Students read and then work with partners or in group to complete the chart. Together, they must decide on answers to each detail question on the chart. Uses a chart to help students summarize and synthesize what they have read. Who? When? Where? Main Idea What? Why? How?
3. RAFT - Role/Audience/Format/Topic The RAFT strategy (Santa, 1988) offers students a creative outlet for demonstrating understanding. Students communicate information by taking an unusual point of view and writing for a specific audience. RAFT stands for:
Final Thoughts “Today a reader, tomorrow a leader.” -Margaret Fuller Happy Teaching!