EEX3070Chapter 16


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EEX3070Chapter 16

  1. 1. Fostering Strategies for Student Independence<br />Chapter 16 <br />Romie Garcia<br />Michelle Murray<br />Elizabeth Pratt<br />
  2. 2. What’s this chapter about?<br />Emphasizes importance of using effective strategy instruction in the classroom.<br />Shows how to facilitate the teaching-learning connection.<br />Explains why students have difficulty developing independence.<br />Demonstrates how to teach students to develop independence inside and outside of the classroom.<br />
  3. 3. Effective Strategy Instruction: The Teaching-Learning Connection<br />What’s a strategy?<br />Step-by-step cognitive processes and plans for reading, studying, and problem solving.<br />Okay, what does the mean in the classroom?<br />Strategies are deliberately controlled processes, they are goal-oriented. They go hand-in-hand with skills.<br />
  4. 4. The Goals of Strategy Instruction<br />To support students as they develop independence in completing learning tasks and eventually become skilled. <br />Such independent learners are known as executive learners.<br />
  5. 5. What makes an executive learner?<br />Are knowledgeable about personal learning strengths and challenges.<br />Have a clear understanding about tasks to be accomplished.<br />Have a repertoire of learning strategies that can be applied in independent learning situations.<br />Have developed a set of help-seeking behaviors.<br />
  6. 6. How do my students become executive learners?<br />Guidelines<br />Tips for Teachers<br />Choose Strategies Carefully<br />Present Content and Strategies Concurrently<br />Teach Strategies in Stages<br />Awareness<br />Knowledge<br />Simulation<br />Practice<br />Skill<br />Make Strategy Discussion a Regular part of Class Routines<br />Different strategies are designed for different purposes.<br />Not all strategies work for all students<br />For strategies to be useful they must be presented in a memorable form.<br />
  7. 7. Guidelines for Strategy Instruction<br />Choose Strategies Carefully<br />There are many sources available that provide a variety of different strategies. You just have to go out and look for them!<br />Present Content and Strategies Concurrently.<br />You can increase the odds of your students using the strategies when you teach them concurrently. <br />Make Strategies a regular part of the day<br />Brief class discussions about specific learning tasks and how best to accomplish them can be helpful.<br />Teach in Stages<br />Awareness: Becoming introduced to the strategy and its rational<br />Why use it?<br />Knowledge: Finding out when and how to use the strategy as well as the procedures to use it.<br />Simulation: Trying it out!<br />Practice: Trying it out in actual reading and studying<br />Skill: Making it a part of your regular routine.<br />
  8. 8. Difficulties In Developing Independent Learners<br />
  9. 9. Difficulties In Developing Independent Learners<br />
  10. 10. Developing Independence: Personal Responsibility<br />Many students have a tough time self-monitoring, while others struggle with self-determination. <br />Teaching students how to assume personal responsibility can help them move beyond passivity and learned helplessness.<br />
  11. 11. Self Monitoring<br />Self-monitoring includes :<br />Self-Evaluation- self-analysis and goal setting for either academic or behavioral task.<br />Self-recording: written documentation of incremental progress made in meeting goals.<br />It is important to set and monitor progress<br />
  12. 12. MARKER<br />MARKER is an acronym that gives students a mark to work towards and is a marker of their progress<br />Make a list of goals, set the order, set the date.<br />Arrange a plan for each goal and predict your success.<br />Run your plan for each goal and adjust if necessary.<br />Keep records of your progress.<br />Evaluate your progress toward each goal.<br />Reward yourself when you reach a goal, and set a new goal.<br /> <br />
  13. 13. For each goal, students use a Goal Planning Sheet on which they answer<br />the following questions:<br />Can I describe my goal?<br />What is the reason or purpose for the goal?<br />Where am I going to work on and complete this goal?<br />How much time do I have to complete the goal?<br />What materials do I need to complete the goal?<br />Can I divide the goal into steps or parts? If so, in what order<br />Should I complete each step or part?<br />How am I going to keep records of my progress?<br />How will I reward myself for reaching my goal?<br /> <br />NOTE<br />Students usually work on 1 to 3 goals at a time keeping progress on each goal.<br />Strategy used with middle and high school with learning disabilities and behavior disorders.<br />Can be difficult in a departmentalized setting.<br />
  14. 14. Organizational SystemsTime Management<br />Some students will; need more support and continuity in learning how to get organized.<br />Ask parents for help.<br />Have students set organizational goals for improving their study environment.<br />Check progress of goals throughout the school year.<br />Respect student personal matters if they do not wish to share with class.<br />Provide students with a list of materials to organize their notebooks and that you will be reviewing it.<br />Work with students to organize their notebook.<br />
  15. 15. Time Management <br /> Time Management is the organization and monitoring of time so that tasks can be schedule and complete in an efficient and timely manner. <br />Identify the task to be completed<br />Estimate the time needed to complete the task <br />Prioritizing task and estimating time<br />scheduling the time<br />work towards meeting deadlines<br />monitoring progress and adjusting deadlines or tasks<br />reviewing deadlines after task completion and adjusting schedules and priorities based on past performance<br />Note:<br />Long range and short range planning are essential parts of your professional life.<br />Build a rational that explains to students the importance of planning. <br /> <br />Suggestions for building rational:<br />parents will “get off your back” when they see you getting your work done on time<br />Being in control of time makes you feel like you have more control over your life<br />
  16. 16. Time Management<br />Content Class Integration<br /> Can have a lesson at the beginning of the year time: emphasizing time and its use or how it relates to productivity.<br /> Teaching Time Analysis<br /> Time analysis exercises:<br />Groups identify usual activities and estimate the time it takes to complete them list each school assignment and note whether they had to much, to little, or just enough time.<br />Have students compare their estimates with the actual time it took to complete the activities.<br />
  17. 17. Time Management<br />Planning and Monitoring a Schedule<br />Require students get a calendar if school does not provide one and a assignment notebook, to records assignment and due dates.<br />Steps required to planning:<br />Records due dates for assignments , test, and projects<br />record regularly scheduled activities, study and personal and study time<br />Identify complex task or projects, and break them into smaller task.<br />Make a to-do list OF each day so that you can see how you need to plan your time, particular study time.<br />Set priorities<br /> <br />Note:<br />Monitoring task completion is the key to successful use of schedules and to-do lists.<br />Suggestions for monitoring:<br />Meet with students to review the schedules and their monitoring.<br />Have students adjust their schedule as necessary.<br />Have students spend about 5 minutes during the class period to update their schedules and cross off task they have completed.<br />
  18. 18. Self-Advocacy<br />Occurs when individuals effectively communicate and negotiate for their interest , desirers, needs, and rights by making informed decisions and taking responsibility for those decisions.<br />subset of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that constitute self-determination.<br />Self-determination include choice making, decision making, and self-awareness.<br />can be taught, beneficial to students with cognitive and learning disabilities.<br />Step 1: students work in instructional groups to develop their own personal interest<br />Steps 2-4: remaining steps focus on the communication skills needed to present the information and advocate with teachers, parents, counselors, and others.<br />Steps are presented, discussed, and the practiced through role playing. <br />
  19. 19. I PlAN and SHARE<br />I- Inventories are created but each individual in instructional groups; focus on students strengths, weakness, goals, and choices for learning or accommodation.<br />P- Provide your inventory information.<br />L- Listen and Respond.<br />A- Ask questions.<br />N- Name your goals<br />Students learn the following SHARE behaviors to promote positive communication:<br />Sit straight up.<br />Have a pleasant tone of voice.<br />Activate you thinking.<br />Relax.<br />Engage in eye communication.<br />Note:<br />I PLAN and SHARE can be taught using role-playing activities.<br />
  20. 20. Developing independence: Active Learning in the classroom<br />Listening to lectures, asking questions, and taking notes are skills critical for success in school.<br />Participating in Class<br />Classroom discussions go beyond teacher questions and student responses.<br />Discussions provide opportunities for expression of multiple points of view, critical thinking, and information seeking.<br />Cooperative learning groups and students pairs can be excellent ways to promote class participation.<br />“Small group learning is complex, and cooperative teams don’t run by themselves. Students must know how to work together and how to use techniques they have been taught”.<br />
  21. 21. Listening and Taking Notes<br />There are two purposes for note taking:<br /><ul><li>External Storage Function
  22. 22. Encoding Function </li></li></ul><li>Purpose of Note Taking<br />External Storage Function means that taking notes in class provides the student with a record of what was presented and discussed in class.<br />Encoding Function means that the physical act of taking notes promote student engagement and learning.<br />
  23. 23. Suggestions for Note Taking<br />Write down the date and title for each lecture.<br />Don’t worry about punctuation or grammar.<br />Use abbreviations for speed and efficiency.<br />Don’t write down every word the teacher says.<br />Record what the teacher puts on the board or includes on PowerPoint presentations or transparencies.<br />Underline, circle, or star anything the teacher repeats or emphasizes.<br />Don’t write more than one line per line.<br />
  24. 24. Suggestions for Note Taking<br />Listen for digressions (times when the teacher gets off subject). It’s okay to take a mental break during these, but don’t fall asleep.<br />Write down any questions the teacher asks, because these are likely to appear on future tests.<br />Don’t cram your writing into small space. Leave room to add more notes later.<br />Put questions marks by any points you don’t understand. Check them later with the teacher.<br />
  25. 25. Teaching Note Taking<br />There are fourkey areas to teaching note taking:<br />Selectivity<br />Organization<br />Consolidation<br />Fluency<br />
  26. 26. Teaching Note Taking<br />Selectivity-selecting the most important main ideas and detail<br />Organization-showing how key ideas are related<br />Consolidation- shrinking the key ideas in a telegraphic style<br />Fluency- rapid and efficient mote taking<br />
  27. 27. Completing Assignments<br />Project Strategy Steps:<br />Prepare your assignment sheet<br />Record and ask<br />Organize<br />Break the assignment into parts<br /> Estimate the number of study sessions<br />Schedule the sessions<br />Take your materials home<br />Jump into it<br />Engage in the work<br />Check your work<br />Turn in your work<br />
  28. 28. Organizing and Planning for Long Term Assignments<br />For many students, developing the skills to organize and plan long-term assignments and projects in a new territory. <br />Here is a picture of a project planning form you can use to assist students in planning long term assignment.<br /> from the book (16.1)<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Remembering Information<br />
  31. 31. Remembering Information<br />Distributed Practice:<br />Breaking up the material to be learned into manageable chucks and then holding several short study sessions.<br />Over learning: Learning to mastery<br />Direct teaching of memory strategies can enhance student performance.<br />
  32. 32. Lets Remember…<br />One kind of memory-triggering technique is known as mnemonic devices. <br />There are two types:<br />Letter Strategy<br />Key word<br />
  33. 33. Mnemonic Devices<br />Letter Strategy<br />There are two types:<br />Acronyms: words created by joining the first letters of a series of words.<br />Acrostics: sentences created by words that begin with the first letters of a series of words. <br />FIRST-letter mnemonic strategy<br />Includes an overall strategy (LISTS) and a substrategy for making a mnemonic device (FIRST). <br />
  34. 34. Letter Strategy Mnemonic Devices<br />Acrostics <br />Acronyms <br />Radar: radio detecting and ranging<br />Scuba: self-contained underwater breathing apparatus<br />Laser: Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. <br />Every Good Boy Does Fine: Notes on the lines of the treble clef staff: EGGBDF<br />King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk: The Metric system: Kilo, Hecto, Deca, Meter, Deci, Centi, Milli<br />My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas: The Planets in our Solar System<br />
  35. 35. LIST Strategy<br />Look for clues<br />In class notes and books look for lists of information that are important to learn.<br />Investigate the items<br />Decide what should be included in the list.<br />Select a mnemonic device, using FIRST<br />Transfer the information to a card<br />Self-Test<br />
  36. 36. FIRST-Letter Strategy<br />Form a word<br />Using uppercase letters, write the first letter of each word in a list.<br />Insert a letter(s)<br />Insert letters to see if a word can be made<br />Rearrange the letters<br />Rearrange the letters to see what word can be made.<br />Shape a sentence<br />Try to construct a sentence<br />Try combination<br />Try combinations to see what works best<br />
  37. 37. Key Word Strategy<br />Involves three steps<br />1. Identify a target word of concept to be learned.<br />2. Identify a concrete, easily imagined “key word” that is either phonetically or semantically related to the target word.<br />3. Identify a visual image that links the key word to the meaning of the target word. <br />
  38. 38. End of Chapter Quiz<br />1. Why is it important for students to be executive learners?<br />2. You have implemented a strategy in order to help your students learn about the water cycle and planned the strategy beforehand and present the material to the class. Unfortunately you begin to realize the strategy you thought was helpful isn’t. What could be some of the reasons as to why your strategy may not have worked as you had expected?<br />3. What are some of the reasons why students may have difficulty becoming independent learners? How could you, as their teacher, help them learn how to become independent learners?<br />
  39. 39. End of Chapter Quiz<br />4. What does self- monitor include and how will you ensure your students learn to use it?<br /> <br />5. How many goals do students work on at a time? Which ones do the student monitor the progress?<br /> <br />6. How can students improve their studying environment?<br />
  40. 40. End of Chapter Quiz<br />7. What are some important aspects of time management?<br />8. Name 2 steps required to planning and explain <br />how you will use it in your classroom.<br />9. What are the purposes of note taking?<br />
  41. 41. End of Chapter Quiz<br />10. What are some note taking suggestions you could offer to your students?<br />11. What are the four key areas of note taking and how are you going to ensure your students understand these four areas?<br />12. Describe some of the methods in which you can help your students remember important information.<br />
  42. 42. End of Chapter Quiz<br />13. Using what you have learned about how to enhance student memory how would you help a student with learning disabilities memorize a particular mnemonic device?<br /> <br />14. Using what you learned about mnemonic devices, construct your own mnemonic device that you’d use to help your students remember something about the lesson they just learned. <br /> <br />