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Ideas for HR professionals: Leadership, culture, motivation and coaching

A range of ideas, models and processes to assist Organizational Development and Behavior practitioners in conceptualizing ways to address culture development through effective leadership.

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Ideas for HR professionals: Leadership, culture, motivation and coaching

  1. 1. The value of constructive cultures 62% Revenue Growth Per year* Share Price Growth Per year* Net Income Growth Per year* 82% 69% 15% 7% <1% 207 US firms in 22 different industries. Maintained for 11 consecutive years (Kotter & Heskett) DefensiveConstructive
  2. 2. Leaders create culture Culture describes the behavioral norms that have been established through the messages received about “what is really valued around here” Behavior Systems Symbols • How budgets are allocated • How time is spent • Promotions, exits of people • Offices, car parks, titles • Rituals and stories • Of leaders and influencers • Link between ‘walk’ and ‘talk’ • What is role modeled • Meetings, conferences, emails• Planning and budgeting • Performance review and reward • Measurement, reporting and learning • Structure • IT Systems Culture changes when messages change consistently and over time Source: Carolyn Taylor
  3. 3. Leadership Philosophy •Leader dictates what their people should be doing •Leaders seek to control •Accountability placed at the top of the organisation •Little or no innovation or creativity at the front line •Highly stretched and stressed leaders •Bottle necks lead to slower and slower progress •Growth potential is severely limited “HERO” “HOST” Leader Team Leader Team •Leader provides context/direction for the team •Leader empowers team to create the ‘how’ •Leader supports by removing barriers to progress •Everyone becomes co-responsible for delivery •Leaders remain accountable but bottle necks removed •Use of many minds speeds up progress •Stress levels reduced significantly and organisation growth accelerates exponentially. Source: Leading in the age of complexity: Meg Wheatley
  4. 4. Lead Self Develop Strategy Lead Others Lead the organisation Build personal effectiveness Implement Strategy • Coach leaders, develop talent • Design the organisation (process, structure, budgets, funding) • Set policy and guidelines • Develop capabilities • Internal locus of causality • Drive own career growth • Set goals & manage performance • Effective team work • Coaching and mentoring • 360 degree feedback (MLQ Plus) + + A framework for leadership
  5. 5. Self Determination Theory (SDT) People’s motivation driven by 3 basic human needs (cross- cultural) Autonomy Competence Relatedness • A need to feel ownership of work • An absence of micro-management • Choice • A feeling that progress is being made • Continued professional development • Regular feedback • Relationships with co-workers • A feeling of being cared for at work • Social connection If one or more of these factors is absent, motivation (engagement) will be low Motivation Source: Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)
  6. 6. A continuum of motivation CONTROL BELIEVEENDORSE SEEK APPROVAL Intrinsic Motivation No Motivation Autonomous, or ‘Constructive’ Motivation Process of internalisation • Rewards • Punishments • If… then • Compliance • Doesn’t last • Keep people in the cage • Conditional love and regard • Guilt & shame • Ego involvement • I’ll love you when • Tiger parents • Self-endorsed • I’ve come to see the value in it • Identification • It links with my personal values • Integration • I do it for the fun of it • Autotelic People are controlled from the outside People motivate themselves Style of regulating behaviour • No perceived relationship between behaviour and its outcome Coercive Motivation Source: Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)
  7. 7. Antecedents Autonomy Competence Relatedness Behaviours Discretionary effort aligned to the goals of the organisation Consequences Productivity Performance Motivation and Performance Source: Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)
  8. 8. Goal is to Look Smart Goal is to Learn Fixed Mindset (INATE TALENT) Growth Mindset (DEDICATION & PRACTICE) Reject tasks where might make a mistake Seek out challenging tasks Conceal problems/errors Open about mistakes Ego connected to performance (develops vulnerability) Ego connected to effort (develops resilience) Fail to live up to potential – Performance plateaus early Improvements in performance seen consistently over time Developed with performance praise and feedback Developed with process or effort praise and feedback Feedbackfocussedonhowpeople applythemselvesonthejob Feedbackfocussedonwhatisachieved andhowintelligentpeopleareMindsets
  9. 9. Leadership: Derailing* behaviours Conservative estimates suggest 50-60 per cent of leaders exhibit at least one ‘derailing’ behaviour. Derailing leaders behaviours have significant consequences for individuals such as: • Psychological distress (stress, burnout, anxiety, depression) • Emotional distress (fear, anger, despair) • Physical harm (weight loss/gain, insomnia, impaired immune system) • Family conflict • Withdrawal/disengagement • Absenteeism • Turnover • Confidence  Arrogance • Politically astute  manipulating • Assertive  intimidating • Conscientiousness  micromanaging • Affiliative  Passive * When a strength becomes a weakness due to some underlying fear or insecurity Source: Vicki Webster
  10. 10. Leader Derailing Behaviours Ego centred Intimidating Manipulating Micromanaging Passive-avoidant Thinks only of self without regard for feelings of others Frighten someone in order to make them do what you want Control or influence a person cleverly or unscrupulously Control every part, however small, of a person’s work Indirect resistance to the demands of others
  11. 11. The Full Range Leadership Model Passive/Avoidant Leadership • Waits for things to go wrong before acting • Believes in “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” • Avoids getting involved • Absent when needed • Avoids making decisions • Delays responding to urgent questions As little of this as possible Rewards achievement • Provides assistance in exchange for effort • Discusses who is responsible for achieving performance targets • Makes clear what the rewards for achieving results will be • Expresses satisfaction when people meet expectations Monitors mistakes • Focuses attention on mistakes, exceptions and deviation from standards • Concentrates attention on dealing with mistakes, complaints and failures • Keeps track of mistakes Transformational leadership • Builds trust • Acts with integrity • Inspires others • Encourages innovative thinking • Coaches others Much less of this As much of this as possible A little less of this Extra Effort Effectiveness Satisfaction Leads to… Source: Bass & Avolio
  12. 12. 1. Set the foundation up front - Ethics - Coaching agreement - Expected outcomes 4 competencies of an effective coach Ref: International coach federation 2008 4. Facilitate learning and results - Creating awareness - Design actions - Planning & goal setting - Manage progress and accountability 2. Build the relationship - Establishing trust - Being present 3. Communicate effectively - Active listening - Curious questioning - Direct communication
  13. 13. The ladder of inference Observable data and experiences Action Select ‘data’ from what is observed (unconscious bias) Meaning added (cultural and personal) Make assumptions based on the meanings added Draw conclusions Adopt beliefs about the world Take actions based on beliefs Beliefs Conclusions Assumptions Meanings Select Observe Our beliefs influence what we observe
  14. 14. Goal GROW Reality Obstacles & Options Way forward Objective • Agree the topic • Specify the goal(s) (SMART) Example questions • “What’s the change you would like?” • “What do you want to achieve?” Objective • Invite self-assessment of the situation • Give feedback (if relevant) • Check assumptions being made • Explore beliefs influencing action Example questions • “What’s the impact of this on you?” • “What have you tried so far?” Objective • Invite suggestions • Coachee retains accountability • Cover a full range of options Example questions • “What’s holding you back?” • “What alternatives are there?” • “Can you identify pros and cons to that?” Objective • Gain commitment to act • Plan the action and timeframes • Agree support to be given Example questions • “What are your next steps?” • “How will you monitor progress?” • “What support will you need?” GROW is an acronym of the four key elements of an effective coaching session. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
  15. 15. Habits Attitudes Beliefs Expectations Actual achievement Potential to achieve What limits us? Source: The Pacific Institute
  16. 16. Action/experiment - What can we change? - What can we do differently? Concrete Experience - Something happens - We (re)experience it Review / Reflect - What happened & why? - What can we learn from it? Conclude / make sense - What did it mean? - How do we feel / think now? Kolb’s Adult Learning Cycle (1984) Coaching inquiry and adult learning
  17. 17. Rebounding from disappointment 1. Unhook from thoughts 2. Make room for emotions 3. Be kind to self 4. Appreciate what worked 5. Find something useful 6. Reconnect to your values Source: Acceptance & Commitment Therapy
  18. 18. Five Qualities of people with Empathy 1. They take the perspective of the other person 2. They stay away from judgement 3. They recognising emotion in other people 4. They communicate this recognition 5. They set boundaries about what is and isn’t okay Empathy is ‘feeling with people’ “It is the skill set to bring compassion alive” Source: Brené Brown
  19. 19. Team creation and development GOALS ROLES PROCESSES RELATIONSHIPS Sequence of new team creation Sequence of team development activity
  20. 20. The Trust Equation Trustworthiness = Credibility + Reliability + Intimacy Self-Orientation Credibility = Deliver on your potential – use your skills Reliability = Do it consistently, and when it matters most Intimacy = Know each other, be comfortable expressing yourself, be vulnerable Self-Orientation = A preoccupation with your own needs. The inverse is ‘put the team first’