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Chemistry of Water

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  1. 1. Water Term 1, Year 12 Chemistry
  2. 2. Example Bullet Point Slide <ul><li>Water may be one of the most familiar substances on the planet, but it certainly isn’t ordinary. In fact, water’s unique chemical properties make it so complicated that even after decades of research, scientists still have much to learn about this remarkable and versatile substance. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s water, as in the clear, sparkling fluid that covers three quarters of the Earth’s surface—not to mention the basis of life as we know it, and possessor of the world’s most recognizable chemical formula (H2O). Water is everywhere. And yet, scientists are still learning about its properties. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water simply doesn’t behave like other liquids <ul><li>If you drop an ice cube into a glass of water, it floats. This happens because water expands as it freezes, which makes the solid form less dense than the liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>But most other liquids do just the opposite; they shrink and become more dense as they freeze, so the solid form sinks. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water simply doesn’t behave like other liquids <ul><li>Water boils at a very high temperature—100 degrees Celsius at sea level—compared to similarly sized molecules. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Water simply doesn’t behave like other liquids <ul><li>In general, the odd behaviours of H 2 O are reasonably understood. In large part, scientists attribute the unique properties of water to the special chemical linkages it forms called “hydrogen bonds”—interactions between the H’s and the O’s of neighbouring H 2 O molecules. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Water simply doesn’t behave like other liquids <ul><li>Water has a pH of 7. </li></ul><ul><li>This is due to the water molecules being able to spontaneously dissociate into OH - and H + , but only to a small extent. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure water contains only 10 -7 moles per litre of these. (One in 10 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Considering there are 55.5 moles of water in every litre, this is a very small dissociation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. pH of Water <ul><li>Water is a very good solvent. (Polar substances) </li></ul><ul><li>Many salts of sodium, calcium and magnesium dissolve in water. Depending on the salt, they can make the water more acidic or more basic. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretions from organisms most often make water more basic. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates slightly to make water more acidic. </li></ul>