Introduction to computers

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  • The term Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) is a defining characteristic of mainframe computers. Historically, mainframes acquired their name, in part because of their substantial size, and because of requirements for specialized heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ( HVAC ), and electrical power, essentially posing a "Main Framework" of dedicated infrastructure
  • Introduction to computers

    1. 1. Introducing Computer Systems Shivani Parikh
    2. 2. The Computer Defined <ul><li>The two principal characteristics of a computer are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers are electronic and digital </li></ul><ul><li>Converts data into information </li></ul><ul><li>Modern computers are digital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two digits combine to make data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Older computers were analog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A range of values made data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is a collection of raw facts and figures (e.g. cooking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data needs to be processed before it can be turned into something useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data comes in many forms – numbers, words, symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Car Mileage, Prices of cosmetics </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Case Study on DATA <ul><li>Pizza Hut wants to come up with a new joint in the city of Vapi in state of Gujarat. It has conducted a market research survey and has come up with the following data. Assuming Vapi city to be made up of following 10 people with their preferences listed below: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geeta aged 23 loves eating out and her preference is Indian food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rahul aged 16 loves eating out and his preference is pizzas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanjay aged 56 doesn’t eat out due to health reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rachana aged 35 prefers to eat in luxury hotels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vishal aged 30 can afford to eat only at cheap eateries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aarav aged 2 eats only home cooked food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashok aged 70 has dentures and hence can only eat soft foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mansi aged 10 loves eating continental food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ajay aged 40 loves eating out and has no preference towards any cuisine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallavi aged 23 eats only healthy foods and has no preference towards any cuisine </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Information <ul><li>The data is converted into the following information for Pizza Hut </li></ul>Sr No Names Age Preference 1 Geeta 23 Indian 2 Rahul 16 Pizzas 3 Sanjay 56 doesn’t eat out 4 Rachana 35 eat in luxury hotels 5 Vishal 30 cheap eateries 6 Aarav 2 doesn’t eat out 7 Ashok 70 doesn’t eat out 8 Mansi 10 Continental 9 Ajay 40 Any 10 Pallavi 23 Healthy Food
    5. 5. The Computer Defined <ul><li>For managers it is important to convert the data into information for decision making </li></ul><ul><li>In the above scenario Pizza Hut has identified that 40% of the total population shall be its target audience and its intended users. </li></ul><ul><li>The age group of intended target audience is 10-40 years </li></ul><ul><li>They would advertise close to schools, colleges, theaters, malls and so on </li></ul>
    6. 6. Types of Computers <ul><li>Computers for Individual Users </li></ul><ul><li>Computers for Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Users </li></ul><ul><li>Desktops </li></ul><ul><li>Notebook / Laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet computers </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld computers </li></ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul><ul><li>Computers for Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Network servers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Computer Defined <ul><li>Desktop computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common type of computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits on the desk or floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs a variety of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized for science or graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More powerful than a desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laptops/ Notebooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small portable computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 8 ½ by 11 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically as powerful as a desktop </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Computer Defined <ul><li>Tablet computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newest development in portable computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input is through a pen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run specialized versions of office products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handheld computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very small computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note taking or contact management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can synchronize with a desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Medical reps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Sculley from Apple gave industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the name PDA </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Computer Defined <ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid of cell phone and PDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web surfing, e-mail access </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Computers For Organizations <ul><li>Network servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All other computers connect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides access to network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often simply a powerful desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print Server, Web Server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most powerful computers made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle large and complex calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process trillions of operations per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in research organizations </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Computers For Organizations <ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in large organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle thousands of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users access through a terminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Banks, Insurance, Airlines, RTO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAS, HVAC, high speed, low maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called midrange computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power between mainframe and desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle hundreds of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in smaller organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users access through a terminal </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Looking Inside the Computer System <ul><li>Parts of the Computer System </li></ul><ul><li>Computer systems have four parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Parts of the Computer System <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical devices in the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that can be touched </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the computer what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of programs exist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pieces of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer organize and present data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People operating the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the computer what to do </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Information Processing Cycle <ul><li>Steps followed to process data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Essential Computer Hardware <ul><li>Hardware categorized into four types </li></ul><ul><li>Processing devices </li></ul><ul><li>Memory devices </li></ul><ul><li>Input and output devices </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul><ul><li>Processing devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brains of the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries out instructions from the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most computers have several processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>micro processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processors made of silicon and copper </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Essential Computer Hardware <ul><li>Memory devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data or programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile (men’s memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores current data and programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More RAM results in a faster system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent storage of programs (women’s memory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds the computer boot directions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Essential Computer Hardware <ul><li>Input and output devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the user to interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices accept data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard (foldable), mouse (wireless) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices deliver data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor (touch screen example), printer (thermal, UV), speaker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some devices are input and output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch screens, </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Essential Computer Hardware <ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold data and programs permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different from RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most popular device for data storage is USB drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy (3 ½ inch), hard drive and external hard drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a magnet to access data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD and DVD drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a laser to access data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers are built with inbuilt DVD drives </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Software Runs The Machine <ul><li>Tells the computer what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Reason people purchase computers </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network operating system (OS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symantec AntiVirus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Software Runs The Machine <ul><li>Application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishes a specific task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common type of software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MS Word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers most common uses of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples are MS PowerPoint, Excel, Games, photos, Educational software </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Computer data <ul><li>Fact with no meaning on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Stored using the binary number system </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be organized into files </li></ul>
    22. 22. Computer Users <ul><li>Role depends on ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mange files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ User less” computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run with no user input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated systems </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Thank You

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