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New World Origins: Jesuit-Guarani Reductions tour in South America

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International tour of the Jesuit Guarani Reductions in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.

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New World Origins: Jesuit-Guarani Reductions tour in South America

  1. 1. JESUIT-GUARANI REDUCTIONS TOURBrazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia Richard Kane, Brazilianist Inquiries: rfranklinkane@gmail.com CoverBrazil on Facebook
  2. 2. D R I V E , T R E K O R B I K E : D I S C OV E RTHE ORIGINS OF OUR NEW WORLD CIVILIZATION
  3. 3. SÃO MIGUEL DAS MISSÕES - RIO GRANDE DO SUL“You cannot write the history of Brazil {or the New World} without dipping your pen in the blood of Rio Grande.”
  4. 4. J E S U I T R E D U C T I O N S : C U LT U R A L SYMBOL OF MERCOSUL Hinterland of Rio Grande do Sul. Primary historical exports: yerbamate, beef jerky
  5. 5. SÃO MIGUEL:E N D O F T H E R E N A I S S A N CE The  Mannerism of Renaissance Europe (Jesuit Church of Gesu, Rome) was replaced by the Jesuit - Guarani  Baroque.
  6. 6. GUARANI REDUCTIONGuarani mother and children asnecessity entrepreneurs, reduced toselling handicrafts to tourists outsidethe Museum of the Missions;designed by Lucio Costa, urbanplanner of Brasilia.
  7. 7. HISTORY SINGS !JOSÉ CARRERAS, TENOR  A caste society  Jesuit elite  Annual elections of political rulers called caciques (chiefs) and civil servants  Guarani poverty
  8. 8. B E H I N D T H E FA Ç A D E O F S Ã O M I G U E L :MODERN AND POSTMODERN REALITY
  9. 9. O N T O A RG E N T I N A : RU I N S O F S A N I G N AC I O M I N Í ( V I D E O ) The Reductions conceptualized aslaboratories for applied social scienceresearch Achieved political, social andeconomic control through domesticscience From polygamy to monogamy:transformation of the Guarani extendedfamily structure to the nuclear family All Reductions in this slide show areUNESCO world heritage sites.
  10. 10. T H E A N C I E N T G UA R A N IS O C I A L O R D E R : TATA I P Y
  11. 11. U R BA N P L A N F O R T H E N E W G UA R A N I S O C I A L O R D E R Standard urban plan: church & workshops centered around a main plaza surrounded by Indian housing
  12. 12. JESUIT MUSEUM AT SAN IGNACIO MINÍ
  13. 13. MUSEO JESUÍTICO DE SAN I G NA C I O M I N Í Close-upinside the Jesuitmuseum of SanIgnacio Mini,Argentina: relicsof the Guarani-Baroque
  14. 14. T H E BA RO Q U E : C O R N E R S T O N E O F E VA N G E L I Z AT I O N National instrument ofParaguay: harp String, woodwinds and organmusic put the Guarani into a stateof ecstasy.
  15. 15. JESUIT CINEMA: THE MISSION Year: 1986 Cast: Robert De Niro & Jeremy Irons Writer: Robert Bolt Director: Roland Joffé Music: Ennio Morricone Score: ranked #1 of all-time Oboe music sample
  16. 16. H I S T O RY S I N G S A N D L I V E S : T H E REDUCTIONS OF CHIQUITOS The Reductions in Chiquitos, Bolivia are still in operation todayThe bi-annual classical music festival ofChiquitos has been sistered with theFestival of Sarrebourg (France ), one ofthe most important of Europe.
  17. 17. P R E S E RVAT I O N O F N E W W O R L D ARCHITECTONIC IDENTITY Ruins  After restor ation and preser vation 
  18. 18. TEMPLE OF SAN IGNACIO:PRE & POST RESTORATION
  19. 19. PARAGUAY: LA SANTISIMA TRINIDAD DE PARANÁ
  20. 20. T R I N I DA D E : U N I V E R S A L U R BA N P L A N
  21. 21. PA R AG UAY: L A S A N T I S I M A T R I N I DA D D E PA R A N Á
  22. 22. THE RUINS OF TRINIDAD
  23. 23. RUINS OF TRINIDAD
  24. 24. B E L L T OW E R : R E S T O R AT I O NCOMPLETED IN 2008, FINANCED BY GERMAN EMBASSY
  25. 25. C O L L E G E C L A S S RO O M &P L A N O F S T U DY: T H E R AT I O STUDIORUM OF 1599
  26. 26. H E R I T A G E T O U R I S M : D I S C OV E R T H EROOTS OF ECONOMIC DEPENDENCY AND GLOBALIZATION
  27. 27. THE THIRTY REDUCTIONSAND THEIR TERRITORIES 15 in Argentina 8 in Paraguay 7 in Brazil
  28. 28. V I S I T T O S Ã O PA U L O : B A N K I N G A N D F I N A N C I A L C A P I TA L O F SOUTH AMERICAFounded in 1554 by Jesuitmissionaries as headquartersfor their work with theGuaraní Indians, Sao Paulogave the Jesuits control overboth ends of the slaverydialectic and allowed them toperfect historical materialismbefore tutoring Marx on thetopic, according to ex-JesuitAlberto Rivera.
  29. 29. M A P : S L AV E C A P T U R E I N C U R S I O N S B Y PAU L I S TA BA N D E I R A N T E S The Reductions were military fortresses built on high ground featuring Guarani cavalry.
  30. 30. J E S U I T - G UA R A N I R E D U C T I O N S :B I RT H P L AC E O F C E N T R A L BA N K I N G
  31. 31. C O N D I T I O N S O F P RO P E R T Y A N D R E L AT I O N S O F P RO D U C T I O NThe economic basis of the Reductions was theocratic and congruent with main tenant ofMarx’s Communist Manifesto: from each according to his ability, to each according to hisneed. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the land and all that stood upon it belongedto the community, but was apportioned among caciques (mayors/chiefs) who allotted to thefamilies under them. Agricultural equipment and draught-cattle were loaned from thecommon supply. No one was permitted to sell his plot of land, house or Abamba, meaning“own property.” Yet the individual efforts of the Indian families did not yield the desiredsurplus, so priests set aside separate plots cultivated by common labor in common fieldsknown as Tupanba, or “God’s property.” Livestock herds were God’s property too, and theproduction of these fields and herds were placed in a “common storehouse,” or central bank,and saved as a reserve supply for unforeseen contingencies, and also as a medium ofexchange for European imports. The yield of the private fields and family labor wascredited to them individually through barter system so that each received the goods hedesired in exchange. That the common storehouse of the Reductions is the birthplace ofcentral banking has been illustrated by Eric Jon Phelps.
  32. 32. G UA R A N I U N I F O R M S : R E D U C T I O N CONSTRUCTION AND PRINTING WORKSHOP (VIDEO )
  33. 33. JOIN MY JOURNEY TO ALDEIA ALVORECER Kuaray Poty, or (Ariel Ortega) & Kerexu Rete (Patricia Ferreira)

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