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7517 Principles of
Sustainable
Resource
Management
Unit 209 Understand the
principles of the Waste and
Recycling Industry
Learning outcomes
 There are three learning outcomes to this unit. The
learner will:
 1. Understand the purpose of the w...
Purpose of the Industry
 The UK consumes natural resources at an
unsustainable rate and contributes unnecessarily to
clim...
Global warming
 There has been a clear decreasing trend in Arctic
summer sea ice levels since records began in
1979.
 Se...
Global warming
 The main cause of this warming is the emission of
“greenhouse gases”, such as carbon dioxide (CO2),
metha...
C02 Emissions – latest stats
 Between 1990 – 2009.... 20% higher
 Increase of 35% between 1995-2005
 Decrease of 9% 200...
CO2 Emissions
 Agriculture
 Fluorinated gases
 Waste industry
 Transport
 Industry
 household
Waste Sector
 Mainly methane that escapes into the atmosphere
from landfill sites.
 Caused by biodegradable waste, like ...
Actions
 EU/National/Local Targets for recycling
 recycling and composting of household waste –
 at least 40% by 2010,
...
Where waste comes from...
 Figures for England
 Commercial & Industrial/Trade
 - Combined 47.9 tonnes
 Household Waste...
Commercial and Industrial Waste
Household recycling has increased
 The proportion of household waste sent for
recycling, composting or reuse 2010/11 in
E...
Waste generation per person has
decreased
 Household waste
generated April 2010 to
March 2011 in England
was 449 kg per p...
Recycling rates improved
 The proportion of local
authority collected waste
being recycled,
composted or reused
continued...
Local Authority % to landfill
decreased
 2000/01 – 78%
 2010/11 – 43.4%
 England sends approx 49%
of its waste to landf...
 Why is this important – The EU Waste Framework
Directive requires the UK to recycle, compost or
reuse 50 per cent of was...
Landfill Tax
 £64 per tonne, and
will increase £8 per
year until 2014.
 £2.50 per tonne for
lower rate waste
 EU Enviro...
Group task
 Research and present:
 Zero waste/waste minimisation
 Waste Hierarchy
 Recycling targets/figures for Organ...
Waste Minimisation
 Process and the policy of reducing the amount of
waste produced by a person or a society
 Using fewe...
A few facts
 We throw away more than 7 million tonnes of food
and drink every year from our homes - most of which
could h...
Activities within the
Waste/Recycling Industry
Recycling
Kerbside Collection
Sorting
Waste transfer
Transporting
Rec...
Task
 Research and present:
 Where waste and materials go to
 Illegal Waste Disposal
Bring sites
Civic Amenity Site
 Materials Recovery Facility
 Waste Incineration – Energy Recovery Facilities
 Approx 9% of waste is incinerated in England
UK - The dustbin of Europe
 "The Dustbin of Europe" was how the UK was
described in 2007. Almost five years ago, Britain ...
Landfill
 One tonne of waste tipped in a landfill produces
between 200 and 400 cubic metres of landfill gas.
 Landfill s...
 How does a landfill site work?
(1) When waste arrives, it is weighed and its' contents checked to ensure it complies wit...
Hazardous Waste Facilities
 Laboratory chemicals
 Solvents
 Aerosols
 Batteries
 Fluorescent tubes
 Household hazard...
Illegal Waste Disposal
 Fly tipping
 Unlicensed carrier
 Burning
 Dumping
 Storing
 Site licence issues
 Thousands ...
Policies and Legislation
 Environmental Protection Act
 Duty of Care
 Hazardous Waste Regulations
 Waste Carriers Regu...
Unit 209 Principles of the Waste & Recycling Industry
Unit 209 Principles of the Waste & Recycling Industry
Unit 209 Principles of the Waste & Recycling Industry
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Unit 209 Principles of the Waste & Recycling Industry

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Unit 209 Principles of the Waste & Recycling Industry

  1. 1. 7517 Principles of Sustainable Resource Management Unit 209 Understand the principles of the Waste and Recycling Industry
  2. 2. Learning outcomes  There are three learning outcomes to this unit. The learner will:  1. Understand the purpose of the waste and recycling industry  2. Understand the flow of waste and other materials  3. Understand waste minimisation
  3. 3. Purpose of the Industry  The UK consumes natural resources at an unsustainable rate and contributes unnecessarily to climate change. Each year we generate approximately 290 million tonnes of waste, which causes environmental damage and costs businesses and consumers money.
  4. 4. Global warming  There has been a clear decreasing trend in Arctic summer sea ice levels since records began in 1979.  Sea levels around the UK rose by 10cm during the 20th century.  The earth’s surface has warmed by about 0.4°C on average since the 1970s.  In 160 years of records, the 10 hottest years have all been since 1997.
  5. 5. Global warming  The main cause of this warming is the emission of “greenhouse gases”, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide.  Human activity over the past 250 years, including the burning of fossil fuels, land use change, and agriculture, has increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere.  As these gases build up in the atmosphere, they strengthen what is known as the ‘“greenhouse effect’”.
  6. 6. C02 Emissions – latest stats  Between 1990 – 2009.... 20% higher  Increase of 35% between 1995-2005  Decrease of 9% 2008-2009  Carbon footprint increased by 12% over period
  7. 7. CO2 Emissions  Agriculture  Fluorinated gases  Waste industry  Transport  Industry  household
  8. 8. Waste Sector  Mainly methane that escapes into the atmosphere from landfill sites.  Caused by biodegradable waste, like food and wood, decomposing in landfill sites and giving off methane gas.  Much of this gas is captured at landfill sites, but the methane that does escape is estimated to make up about 3% of total UK greenhouse gas emissions.  Of that figure, 89% arises from landfill, 10% from waste-water handling and 2% from waste incineration (these figures are rounded).
  9. 9. Actions  EU/National/Local Targets for recycling  recycling and composting of household waste –  at least 40% by 2010,  45% by 2015 and  50% by 2020
  10. 10. Where waste comes from...  Figures for England  Commercial & Industrial/Trade  - Combined 47.9 tonnes  Household Waste  - 23.5 million tonnes
  11. 11. Commercial and Industrial Waste
  12. 12. Household recycling has increased  The proportion of household waste sent for recycling, composting or reuse 2010/11 in England was 41.2 %, increasing from 39.7% in 2009/10
  13. 13. Waste generation per person has decreased  Household waste generated April 2010 to March 2011 in England was 449 kg per person. 185 kg was recycled, composted or reused whilst 264 kg was not.
  14. 14. Recycling rates improved  The proportion of local authority collected waste being recycled, composted or reused continued the long term trend by increasing to 40.1 per cent between the years 2009/10 and 2010/11.
  15. 15. Local Authority % to landfill decreased  2000/01 – 78%  2010/11 – 43.4%  England sends approx 49% of its waste to landfill
  16. 16.  Why is this important – The EU Waste Framework Directive requires the UK to recycle, compost or reuse 50 per cent of waste from households by 2020  Sanctions  Fines
  17. 17. Landfill Tax  £64 per tonne, and will increase £8 per year until 2014.  £2.50 per tonne for lower rate waste  EU Environmental Policy  ‘Polluter Pays’ principle  Framework for liability with a view to preventing and remedying damage to the environment
  18. 18. Group task  Research and present:  Zero waste/waste minimisation  Waste Hierarchy  Recycling targets/figures for Organisation
  19. 19. Waste Minimisation  Process and the policy of reducing the amount of waste produced by a person or a society  Using fewer natural resources  ‘Zero waste’
  20. 20. A few facts  We throw away more than 7 million tonnes of food and drink every year from our homes - most of which could have been safely consumed.  By pursuing opportunities for re-use, the UK could reduce its reliance on raw materials, including rare earths, by as much as 20% by 2020.  Our research shows doubling the number of sofas re- used, could save 52,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent. At the moment, 83% of sofas are not re-used and are sent to landfill or recycled.  Tip of the iceberg……
  21. 21. Activities within the Waste/Recycling Industry Recycling Kerbside Collection Sorting Waste transfer Transporting Recovery Incineration Treatment Discharge Landfill
  22. 22. Task  Research and present:  Where waste and materials go to  Illegal Waste Disposal
  23. 23. Bring sites
  24. 24. Civic Amenity Site
  25. 25.  Materials Recovery Facility
  26. 26.  Waste Incineration – Energy Recovery Facilities  Approx 9% of waste is incinerated in England
  27. 27. UK - The dustbin of Europe  "The Dustbin of Europe" was how the UK was described in 2007. Almost five years ago, Britain was reported as disposing of more rubbish in UK landfills than any other EU state. The Local Government Association (LGA) estimated the UK put 27 million tonnes of waste into landfills every year, 7 million more than any other country and that the area given over to landfill space was about the size of Warwick. Not just that, but we would run out of landfill space by 2016.
  28. 28. Landfill  One tonne of waste tipped in a landfill produces between 200 and 400 cubic metres of landfill gas.  Landfill sites released 32% of the UK's methane emissions in 2009.  Methane is about 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide and allowing methane to escape into the atmosphere has significant global warming implications.
  29. 29.  How does a landfill site work? (1) When waste arrives, it is weighed and its' contents checked to ensure it complies with the landfill operating licence. (2) This waste is then tipped into the ‘tipping face' of the landfill. (3) This is then compacted by specialist machinery and covered with layers of cover material, such as soil. This layer helps to reduce odour produced by the waste and deter scavengers, like rodents, flies and birds. At the end of each day the operational area of the landfill is completely covered with a layer of cover material. (4) A common misapprehension is that waste is simply dumped and buried in landfills, but actually much of it is naturally broken down by microbes under anaerobic (absence of oxygen) conditions. This decomposition, combined with rainwater filtering through the landfill, results in the production of liquid, called leachate, and gas. (5) This gas is mostly carbon dioxide and methane and due to its harmful nature is often burnt off or directed to an on-site energy generation plant, where it is converted into electricity, which is most commonly exported to the National Grid. (6) The liquid is pumped into storage tanks where it is treated and cleaned before being discharged into the sewer.
  30. 30. Hazardous Waste Facilities  Laboratory chemicals  Solvents  Aerosols  Batteries  Fluorescent tubes  Household hazardous waste  Oils  Paints  Pharmaceutical waste  Photographic and printing waste  WEEE (Waste electrical & Electronic Equip)  Treatment  Inorganic treatment  Recovery  Storage & Disposal  High temperature incineration
  31. 31. Illegal Waste Disposal  Fly tipping  Unlicensed carrier  Burning  Dumping  Storing  Site licence issues  Thousands of incidents daily  Visible - public concern  Affect amenity of public spaces  Risk to public health  Local authorities, Environment Agency, other land managers, the police, Inland Revenue
  32. 32. Policies and Legislation  Environmental Protection Act  Duty of Care  Hazardous Waste Regulations  Waste Carriers Regulations  Waste Strategy for England 2007  Waste Regulations 2011

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