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Aerospace Engineering

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Senior Graduation Project base on Aerospace Engineering

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Aerospace Engineering

  1. 1. Aerospace Engineering By: Rich Farrell
  2. 2. Thesis Aerospace Engineering is a discrete branch of engineering that has a huge effect on everyday life. The process of designing aircraft is a very complex and intricate art that involves a wealth of knowledge and skills.
  3. 3. Personal Relevance I really wanted to learn more about Aerospace Engineering because I plan on majoring in Aerospace Engineering at college. I have always had a love of airplanes and a love for building things from scratch. Aerospace engineering allows me to combine my passions, so I can have a career doing what I love to do.
  4. 4. What is Aerospace Engineering? A branch of engineering that involves the design, manufacturing, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/28634332@N05/4053615832/ Aerospace Engineering encompasses the testing of aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and rockets. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/LESEC/60950480/ MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  5. 5. Continued The focus of Aerospace Engineering today revolves around the advancement of space exploration, aviation, and defense systems. Aerospace Engineers specialize in areas that include: structural design, navigation and control, guidance, and HTTP://GRIN.HQ.NASA.GOV/IMAGES/ SMALL/GPN-2000-000650.JPG instrumentation. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  6. 6. Structural Design Structural Design - Engineers focus on the overall layout of the airplane. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/MSC_PICS/3945450173/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  7. 7. Navigation and Control The engineers that focus on navigation and control design everything that makes the aircraft maneuverable. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/BUSABOYS/3062765729/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  8. 8. Guidance These engineers focus on electronic guidance systems for aircraft. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/MATTHEWPHX/2325660754/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  9. 9. Instrumentation These engineers design instruments that will help keep an aircraft on course if it’s electronic systems fail. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/NOGWATER/57324173/SIZES/L/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  10. 10. Branches of Aerospace There are two main branches of Aerospace engineering, Aeronautical and Astronautical engineering. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ 28634332@N05/4053615832/ HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ 28634332@N05/4053615832/ PATTILLO, DONALD M. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY. ED. STANLEY I. KUTLER. 3RD ED. VOL. 1. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 2003. GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. WEB. 2 DEC. 2009. <HTTP:// FIND.GALEGROUP.COM//INFOMARK.DO? &CONTENTSET=EBKS&TYPE=RETRIEVE&TABID=T001&PRODID=GVRL&DOCID=CX3401800082&SOURCE=GALE&USERGRO UPNAME=KING46652&VERSION=1.0>
  11. 11. Aeronautical Engineering Aeronautical engineering involves craft that stay inside Earth’s atmosphere. Craft such as missiles, airplanes, gliders, and some rockets. HTTP://WWW.VTAIDE.COM/PNG/ATMOSPHERE.HTM PATTILLO, DONALD M. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY. ED. STANLEY I. KUTLER. 3RD ED. VOL. 1. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 2003. GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. WEB. 2 DEC. 2009. <HTTP://FIND.GALEGROUP.COM//INFOMARK.DO? &CONTENTSET=EBKS&TYPE=RETRIEVE&TABID=T001&PRODID=GVRL&DOCID=CX3401800082 &SOURCE=GALE&USERGROUPNAME=KING46652&VERSION=1.0>
  12. 12. Astronautical Engineering Astronautical Engineering involves craft that operate in outer space. Craft such as satellites, spaceships, and some rockets. HTTP://WWW.VTAIDE.COM/PNG/ATMOSPHERE.HTM PATTILLO, DONALD M. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY. ED. STANLEY I. KUTLER. 3RD ED. VOL. 1. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS, 2003. GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY. WEB. 2 DEC. 2009. <HTTP://FIND.GALEGROUP.COM//INFOMARK.DO? &CONTENTSET=EBKS&TYPE=RETRIEVE&TABID=T001&PRODID=GVRL&DOCID=CX3401800082 &SOURCE=GALE&USERGROUPNAME=KING46652&VERSION=1.0>
  13. 13. History The very first flight was performed by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783 in a hot air balloon. The first planning for “flying machines” began in the 19th and 20th centuries. Sir George Cayley is know as the first real pioneer of aeronautics engineering. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/PMURF/124396690/ WILKINSON, RONALD S., AND JOHN F. BUYDOS. AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE. WASHINGTON DC: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 2007. PRINT.
  14. 14. Continued The Wright brothers first flight on December 17, 1903 sparked interest in aerospace engineering on a whole different level. Aeronautical technology advanced rapidly during HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ both World Wars. 35437908@N04/3441455285/ WILKINSON, RONALD S., AND JOHN F. BUYDOS. AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE. WASHINGTON DC: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 2007. PRINT.
  15. 15. Continued In 1958 the USA founded NASA because of the cold war, an organization that would go on to make huge advancements in Aerospace Engineering. The majority of the advancements in aerospace engineering have come from wartime HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ technology. 8490341@N04/4388535872/ WILKINSON, RONALD S., AND JOHN F. BUYDOS. AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL RESOURCES OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE. WASHINGTON DC: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 2007. PRINT.
  16. 16. Schooling The career path for an Aerospace Engineer starts with schooling. There are a variety of courses an engineer will take depending on what their career path is, including: Fluid Mechanics, Astrodynamics, Mathematics, Propulsion, Aircraft Structures, Avionics, Material Sciences, and many others. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/MZWP/312439334/ COHN, JESSICA. “REACH FOR THE STARS.” CAREER WORLD NOV.-DEC. 2007, 3RD ED.: 22+. SIRS DISCOVERER. WEB. 30 NOV.2009. <HTTP:// DISCOVERER.PROD.SIRS.COM.WF2DNVR11.WEBFEAT.ORG////?URN=URN%3ASIRS %3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000269745>. WWW.ERAU.EDU
  17. 17. Careers Within Aerospace Engineering A major in Aerospace Engineering can provide may different career opportunities including careers in: Software development Marketing and sales Management Research Design and development Field service Teaching HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ GSFC/2915118017/ RUDY, CAROL ANN. “CAREERS IN AVIATION: PART 6.” MIAMI HERALD [MIAMI] 15 MAY 2001: N. PAG. SIRS DISCOVERER. WEB. 30 NOV. 2009. <HTTP://DISCOVERER.PROD.SIRS.COM.WF2DNVR11.WEBFEAT.ORG////? URN=URN%3ASIRS%3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000136252>.
  18. 18. Aerospace Engineering Design Disciplines Thermodynamics Celestial mechanics Aerodynamics Propulsion Acoustics HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ Guidance and Control AIRPLANE/THERMO1.HTML Systems NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  19. 19. Thermodynamics and Celestial Mechanics HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ TOPTECHWRITER/338573258/ HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/THERMO.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  20. 20. Aerodynamics and Propulsion HTTP://WWW.NASA.GOV/AUDIENCE/ HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ FORSTUDENTS/K-4/DICTIONARY/ ROCKET/ROCKET.HTML AERODYNAMICS.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  21. 21. Acoustics, Guidance and Control Systems HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/BETH- 21582132@N02/3325879849/ HARPER/3883504562/ DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT.
  22. 22. Forces that act on Aircraft NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010. HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/FORCES.HTML      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/ K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  23. 23. Forces acting on a Rocket HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ ROCKET/RKTFOR.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/ K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  24. 24. Major Parts of an Airplane HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/AIRPLANE.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/ WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  25. 25. Major Parts of a Rocket HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ROCKET/ RKTPARTS.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  26. 26. Types of Propulsion Systems HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/ AIRPLANE/PROPELLER.HTML AIRPLANE/TURBINE.HTML NASA. "GUIDED TOURS OF THE BGA." NASA. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY 2010.      <HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/GUIDED.HTM>.
  27. 27. Career Outlook The number Aerospace Engineers is expected to increase by 2012. The cuts in military spending may cut back on aerospace engineers in the military, but the number of engineers in the private sector is expected to increase. The troubled economy is expected increase the number of aerospace engineers because airlines want new aircraft that are cheaper to run. "AEROSPACE ENGINEERS CAREER INFORMATION." COLLEGEGRAD. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY      2010. <HTTP://WWW.COLLEGEGRAD.COM/CAREERS/PROFT07.SHTML>.
  28. 28. Salaries The average aerospace engineer makes around $61,180 to $94,340 annually. The lower end of the spectrum makes less than $49,920 annually. The upper end of the spectrum makes upwards of $120,760 annually. "AEROSPACE ENGINEERS CAREER INFORMATION." COLLEGEGRAD. N.P., N.D. WEB. 15 MAY      2010. <HTTP://WWW.COLLEGEGRAD.COM/CAREERS/PROFT07.SHTML>.
  29. 29. Drafting Drafting is also known as Technical Drawing. All technical drawings have a standards and conventions that Drafters follow. Everything from lines to HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ angles to text must MATTHEWPIPER/2947273251/ measurable in some way. There is little to no freehand drawing in Drafting. DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  30. 30. Drafting Conventions Line Thickness. Text Size Dimensioning Layout View Projections Descriptive Geometry HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ CHRISTOPHERSCORTEZ/4268069348/ DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  31. 31. Steps of Drafting 1. Sketch overall drawing. 2. Begin to figure out overall dimensions for drawing. 3. Begin technical drawings by using overall dimensions as a guide. 4. After first drawing is complete, draw different perspectives of the HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ MSK13/4108482239/ object (Front, Side, Top Views). 5. Drafted drawings can then be put into computer programs by using CAD. DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  32. 32. Drafting Tools Drafting Table. T-Square. Compass. 30-60-90 triangle and 45-45-90 triangle. An array of different HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ numbered pencils with eraser. SHENGHAN/3388012454/ Straight Edge DYM, CLIVE L; AGOGINO, ALICE M; ERIS, OZGUR; FREY, DANIEL D; LEIFER,. "ENGINEERING DESIGN THINKING, TEACHING, AND LEARNING." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1(2005):103. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  33. 33. Change from Drafting to CAD With advancing technology drafting has become obsolete and CAD has become the new way to make technical drawings. REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  34. 34. CAD-Computer Aided Design With today’s technology engineers can use CAD to design all parts of an aircraft. CAD allows engineers to make 2D and 3D designs of aircraft. Engineers can make scale drawings with design programs that manufacturers then use to build the aircraft. REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  35. 35. Popular CAD Programs AutoCAD TurboCAD AutoDesk Inventor Pro/Engineer MicroStation (used in HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ our school) 38569128@N05/3861494801/ REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  36. 36. So what can CAD be used for? CAD can be used to design the layout of the structure, control systems, electrical systems, fuel systems, and the power plant. REESE, SUSAN. "CAD/CAM: A NEW DIMENSION IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING." TECHNIQUES. 01 JAN. 2005: 37. ELIBRARY. WEB. 23 MAY. 2010.
  37. 37. From Design to Production Once engineers finish design all the fundamentals of the aircraft they can give the design to a manufacturer to build a test aircraft. When the test aircraft is completed test pilots then HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ UNIT2345/4540861953/ test the aircraft rigorously to make sure it operates at full potential. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT
  38. 38. Continued If the aircraft passes the test will go into production and the manufacturer can than sell the aircraft. Each aircraft will still go through testing after it is built to make sure it preforms at maximum HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ 25616404@N05/4033280989/ potential. DAVIES, MARK. THE STANDARD BOOK FOR AERONAUTICAL AND ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERS. ED. MARK DAVIES. NEW YORK: MCGRAW HILL, 2003. PRINT
  39. 39. Application To apply what I learned in my research to everyday life, I built a model airplane and rocket. I also transferred the aircraft design to multiple CAD drawings.
  40. 40. Rocket The rocket I built is a standard rocket that can be bought at a hobby store. The complete assembly took around two hours and is fairly simple.
  41. 41. Airplane The model airplane I built was of a WWII aircraft called the Birddog. The model took around 25-30 hours to build because it is very complex.
  42. 42. CAD I made three perspectives of the airplane included Front, Side, and Top views. There is only one perspective of the rocket because it is symmetric from every view.
  43. 43. Class Activity We are going to go onto NASA’s website to use a virtual model that demonstrates the factors involved with lift. HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/FOILSIME.HTML
  44. 44. Works Cited Cohn, Jessica. “Reach for the Stars.” Career World Nov.-Dec. 2007, 3rd ed.: 22+. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 30 Nov.2009. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org////?urn=urn%3Asirs %3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000269745>. Colditz, Graham. “Aerospace Industry.” Encylopedia of Cancer and Society. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Excerpt from Encylopedia of Cancer and Sociey. Ed. Graham Colditz. Vol. 1. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc., 2007. 3 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http:// find.galegroup.com//infomark.do? &contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX2660500018&source=gal e&userGroupName=king46652&version=1.0>. Davies, Mark. The Standard Book for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers. Ed. Mark Davies. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003. Print “Doing Business with NASA.” SIRS Government Reporter Dec. 1996: 6-19. SIRS Government Reporter. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http://sks.sirs.com.wf2dnvr6.webfeat.org/bin/hst-article-display? id=SPL2957-0-8&artno=0000086177&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=&title=This%20Is %20NASA&res=Y&ren=Y&gov=Y&lnk=N&ic=N>. Wilkinson, Ronald S., and John F. Buydos. Aeronautical and Astronautical Resources of the Library of Congress: A Comprehensive Guide. Washington DC: The Library of Congress, 2007. Print.
  45. 45. Continued Pattillo, Donald M. Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2003. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Dec. 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com// infomark.do? &contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX3401800082&source=gale&userG roupName=king46652&version=1.0>. Rudy, Carol Ann. “Careers in Aviation: Part 6.” Miami Herald [Miami] 15 May 2001: n. pag. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com.wf2dnvr11.webfeat.org////?urn=urn%3Asirs%3AUS %3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000136252> Reese, Susan. "CAD/CAM: A New Dimension in Design and Manufacturing." Techniques. 01 Jan. 2005: 37. eLibrary. Web. 23 May. 2010. "Aerospace Engineers Career Information." CollegeGrad. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2010. <http:// www.collegegrad.com/careers/proft07.shtml>. NASA. "Guided Tours of the BGA." NASA. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2010. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/ K-12/airplane/guided.htm>. Dym, Clive L; Agogino, Alice M; Eris, Ozgur; Frey, Daniel D; Leifer,. "Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning." Journal of Engineering Education 1(2005):103. eLibrary. Web. 23 May. 2010. www.erau.edu
  46. 46. Conclusion In conclusion, Aerospace Engineers affect everyday life by making advancements in flight technology. Almost everyone will fly on an airplane at some point in their life and some people even fly everyday. These engineers help make the world run smoother by designing new and safe technology for everyday people to use.

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