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  1. 1. Chapter Three CREATING ANGLO-AMERICA (1660-1750)
  2. 2. KING PHILIP’S WAR <ul><li>King Metacom “Philip” was an Indian leader that organized a series of raids throughout the Massachusetts Bay colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More settlers were moving in and needing more farm land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They used force and violated several treaties to remove Metacom’s tribe from their land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the same time, colonists were setting up “Praying Towns” throughout the area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These were towns that wanted to enforce English religion, customs, and laws upon natives without granting citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The English used these towns as another excuse to encroach on their land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacom launched an offensive in 1675 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They attacked 52 villages and 13 Praying Towns throughout Massachusetts Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was the extent of his success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacom was quickly killed </li></ul>
  3. 4. KING PHILIP’S WAR <ul><li>Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonist’s counterattack in 1676 marked the end of Indian power in Massachusetts Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, Indians in the area no longer trusted English colonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the future, small, insignificant Indian raids would often set off waves of paranoia in English settlements </li></ul></ul>King Metacom
  4. 5. MAKING SENSE OF KING PHILIP’S WAR <ul><li>“ Each man calls barbarism whatever is not his own practice” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One man calls cruelty what another calls justice” – Thomas Hobbes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The memory of war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How does someone far from the scene of battle image “savage cruelty” except by thinking the worst?” -- Jill LaPore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truth in war in relative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War is often about propaganda: false reports, rumors, deceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bloody,” “cruel,” “brutal,” “savage,” and “atrocious” are all overused and typically imprecise </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. ENGLAND’S COMMERCIAL EMPIRE <ul><li>Commerce became the foundation of the new English empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth I was largely responsible for this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>England wanted to become the biggest player in the Atlantic trade game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first step was to solidify control of the eastern coast of North America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles II ruled over the colonists with an iron fist </li></ul><ul><li>After finding out that the colonists were not following the Navigation Acts, he tightened control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed new colonial governors who would be loyal to the King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created “dominions” over the colonies that would govern the colonies at large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severely limited the law-making ability of the colonies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This became an early form of the “federal system” that we know today </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. NEW NETHERLAND (NY AND NJ) <ul><li>The Dutch settled New Netherland in 1609 shortly after the voyages of Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>The colony was property of the Dutch West Indies Co. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York area received very little attention and had a series of incompetent leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants were primarily from Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Africa (most had little loyalties to the Dutch) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The English took notice and began attacking New Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They took control in 1664 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonies (NY, NJ, Delaware, and Maine) became personal property of James II, the Duke of York </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English began to occupy the area freely after learning how weak Dutch influence was in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch eventually surrendered the colonies, so they could retain their holdings in Africa, Asia, and South America </li></ul>
  7. 9. NEW YORK <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Duke of York introduced the “Duke’s Laws” which granted religious freedom and recognition of preexisting land titles (to those already in the colony) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the governor was appointed by the king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of the colonial government was chosen by the king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, he did allow for local government control by the colonists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists in New York demanded the same liberties as Englishmen under English Common Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They finally were recognized in the Charter of Liberties and Privileges in 1683 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New York also established an elected assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1700, the Duke of York divided up 2 million acres of land to roughly 5 elite New York families </li></ul>
  8. 10. NEW JERSEY <ul><li>The land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers became New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>The Duke of York sold this land to his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret </li></ul><ul><li>Carteret attempted to collect taxes from colonists, but gave up </li></ul><ul><li>He eventually sold half of his property to the Quakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They put in a democratic government in West Jersey </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. CAROLINA
  10. 12. CAROLINA <ul><li>Carolina was the first colony established after Charles II ascended the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Located between Virginia and Spanish Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Madrid made it possible for England to colonize this land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England used this as an opportunity to keep pressure on Spanish Florida and also prevent Spanish expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Locke and Sir Anthony Cooper devised a radical plan of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of the governmental power would rest with the hereditary elite, but the rights of common landowners would be protected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooper appealed to farmers in Barbados to colonize Carolina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous settlements sprung up around Charleston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government largely failed on the Locke/Cooper model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves were readily imported </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. CAROLINA <ul><li>A complicated feudal system resulted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious toleration and elected assemblies were included though </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall, Carolina became a significant importer of slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The climate and soil allowed for numerous kinds of plant cultivation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. QUAKERS <ul><li>Known also as the Religious Society of Friends </li></ul><ul><li>A Christian religious denomination that began in the early 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each man and woman could communicate directly with God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected the concept of predestination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believers emitted an ‘inner light’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English authorities considered them anarchists and dangerous to society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were persecuted heavily in the mid-17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regarding Liberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quakers believed that whites, blacks, and Indians were all entitled to liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed that religious freedom was a fundamental principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also had a strict moral code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William Penn attempted to use this as the foundation for his first government in Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. PENNSYLVANIA <ul><li>The last colony established in the 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania was established to alleviate a 16,000 pound debt owed by the Stuarts (Charles II’s family) to William Penn’s late father </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn got the land as a result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Penn envisioned a colony of harmony between colonists and Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haven for spiritual freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Penn was a member of the Quakers and Society of Friends (SoF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of his primary motives was to establish a haven for those trying to escape religious persecution in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Penn owned all of Pennsylvania’s land and sold it at very low prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very different because he did not grant land outright </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. WILLIAM PENN
  16. 19. PENNSYLVANIA <ul><li>Land Owners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 people initially bought land from Penn (roughly ¾ of a million acres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the buyers were Quakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn recruited immigrants from England, Ireland, Germany, and Wales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The population boomed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A majority of the male population could vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males only had to own 50 acres of land to be eligible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal laws were lax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital punishment for murder and treason only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn’s initial government was overly complicated </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. PENNSYLVANIA <ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became a booming port city built on a grid system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boasted wide roads and red brick homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The city prospered because it was in the middle of the booming Atlantic trade route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets did well because of the grid system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn did not make a lot of money, but Pennsylvania was successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He owned a wealthy colony, but eventually went broke and was thrown in debtor’s prison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He later marked the entire colony as a complete failure </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. SLAVERY IN AMERICA <ul><li>One of the primary reasons for the expansion of slavery in North America was the need for labor on tobacco plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery in North America would be very different from slavery throughout history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a small portion of the 8-11 million African slaves sold came to America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1720, 1 in 5 in the Chesapeake Bay colonies was black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, slavery expanded slower in North America due to expense and high mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Middle Passage was the worst part of the journey through the Atlantic Slave Trade route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space on ships was roughly the size of coffins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No bathrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost no food </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. SLAVERY IN AMERICA <ul><li>Race and Racism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These concepts did not exist at this point in history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The true battle was between Christians and barbarians, not white vs. black, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Africans fit the mold for the typical English interpretation of barbarians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Africans were seen as alien in color, religion, and social practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why slaves over indentured servants or Indians? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indentured servants were expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They eventually had to be paid off, given land, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were less willing to do hard labor on sugar and tobacco plantations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease and warfare killed off a great portion of the Indians </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. SLAVERY IN AMERICA <ul><li>Black Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed in Virginia for all tobacco growers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled that any person who killed a slave while punishing them would not be tried in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No black could strike a white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves are slaves from birth to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves could not hold property, testify in court, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious conversion did not warrant the freedom of a slave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia and Maryland began referencing these codes in 1660 </li></ul><ul><li>In cases where one part is free and the other is a slave, the offspring’s status would follow that of the mother </li></ul><ul><li>These restricts gave slaves a legitimate reason to consider rebellion </li></ul>
  22. 25. SLAVERY IN AMERICA <ul><li>Slave Resistance by Civil Disobedience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broke tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowed their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arson, theft, and murder (rare cases) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who owned slaves in the South? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of the upper class owned slaves, held large tracts of land, and did not do labor with their slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class – worked with their slaves and owned smaller portions of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Class – did not own slaves and were lucky to own a horse </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. BACON’S REBELLION <ul><li>Nathaniel Bacon was a young planter that was bent on gaining power and becoming one of the ‘elite planters’ in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>He gained a following by promising freedom and land those who joined him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He said that the colonial government was robbing and cheating everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also called for the removal of all Indians and lower taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specifically, Bacon was angry at Virginia Governor William Berkeley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley ran a corrupt government for 30 years in an alliance with Virginia’s wealthiest tobacco planters (Bacon was not invited to the club) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He gave them the best land grants, leaving new planters little choice on the land they received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also did not want to forcibly take Indian lands </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. BACON’S REBELLION <ul><li>The conflict began with a minor confrontation between Indians and settlers on the western frontier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacon was furious and began to raid Indian and settlers’ villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declared a traitor by Berkeley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians were his primary target, but settlers became collateral damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacon proceeded to march on Jamestown and burn it to the ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the de facto ruler of Virginia for a short time after he ran the governor off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control was finally restored after British warship came </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, he effectively pushed the Indians out of the Chesapeake Bay </li></ul>
  27. 30. BACON’S CASTLE
  28. 31. BACON’S REBELLION <ul><li>Threats of Civil War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacon’s Rebellion served as a rude awakening for many of the colonial elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The elite previously did not think the non-elite would attempt to revolt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was essentially a struggle between economic classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The elite slowly realized they had to improve their image and show some concern for the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, this was a perfect example of the danger of many land-less freemen in a society controlled by a few elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles Early Marxism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION <ul><li>Also called the Revolution of 1688 </li></ul><ul><li>It essentially established Parliamentary supremacy (over monarch supremacy) and secured a Protestant succession to the throne after Charles II </li></ul><ul><li>Charles II’s successor, James II was not very popular and thought about converted England back to Catholicism (bad idea) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Parliament did not worry too much as the throne would have passed to his daughter, Mary, a Protestant, and the wife of William of Orange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conflict began when James II had a son (which would potentially turn England Catholic again) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parliament forced James II into exile and invited his daughter Mary and her husband William to ascend the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Is this really a revolution or a Dutch take-over? </li></ul>
  30. 33. JAMES II
  32. 35. THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION <ul><li>Why is it called the glorious revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was a bloodless revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glorious because it was the first revolution England had without constant warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the English Civil War? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How did the revolution affect the colonies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay finally annexes Plymouth Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A new charter that tolerated religious freedom was developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some colonists became angry when the crown instituted a Lord of Trade to oversee the colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James II created a ‘super-colony’ called the Dominion of New England before his departure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basically all the colonies were viewed as one contiguous unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This made them easier to administrate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 37. WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND <ul><li>During the 17 th century, over 350 New Englanders were accused of witchcraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200 in Salem, Massachusetts alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtually no one was accused in the South; this was truly a Northern phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was accused? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically, older, outcast women were the primary targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They usually were post-menopausal, did not have sons, had economic autonomy, and were single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic autonomy alone gave men a reason to envy this women to some degree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Salem, an Indian slave woman named Tituba was blame for the outbreak of witchcraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to hysteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 women and 5 men were executed as a result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What ends the hysteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The governor’s wife eventually gets accused of witchcraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, the governor believe the hysteria had gone too far and ended the numerous trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spectral evidence is outdated and potentially dangerous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 38. WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND <ul><li>Potential Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong belief that Satan was acting in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The invisible world” – disease, natural catastrophes, and bad fortune </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that Satan recruited witches and wizards to work for him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that a person affected by witchcraft exhibits certain symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the symptoms could be faked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not a strong sense of scientific criticism/examination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of issues in Salem Village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox breakout </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congregational issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frontier wars with Indians </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 39. WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND <ul><li>Potential Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admission of spectral evidence by judges and magistrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Confessing witches” add credibility to the accusations </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND <ul><li>Procedure for the witchcraft trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The afflicted person submits a compliant to the Magistrate indicating a suspected witch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a third party made the complaint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Magistrate issues a warrant for the accused witch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The accused witch is taken into custody and examined by two or more Magistrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After listening to testimony, if the Magistrate believes the accused is guilty, the person is sent to jail for reexamination and trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The case is presented to the Grand Jury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the accused witch is indicted by the Grand Jury, he/she is tried before the Court of Oyer and Terminer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A jury decides the guilt of the accused </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If guilty, the accused receives a death sentence by hanging from the Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sheriff and his deputies carry out the execution </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. TITUBA
  39. 43. POPULATION DIVERSITY IN NORTH AMERICA <ul><li>Large scale migration began to drain England as everyone started to come to North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England began efforts to stop emigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 145,000 Scots and Scots-Irish migrated to the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Germans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 110,000 migrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They represented the largest group of immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They tended to travel in families and greatly enhanced the ethnic and religious diversity of the colonies </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. POPULATION DIVERSITY IN NORTH AMERICA <ul><li>Liberties that attracted settlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of a military draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little restraints on economic opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonial backcountry was the fastest growing region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers in the Middle Colonies enjoyed an especially high standard of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania became known as the best “poor man’s country” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the mid-18 th century, France had roughly 10,000 settlers left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain had less than 14,000 (mostly in Texas and Florida) </li></ul></ul></ul>