The Democratic Republic
Chapter 1
Politics and Government
 What is politics?
 The process of resolving conflicts and deciding “who gets what,
when, and ho...
Politics and Government
 What is the government?
 It is an institution – an ongoing organization that performs certain
f...
Why is Government Necessary?
 The Need for Security
 A primary purpose of government is to maintain order
 A state of p...
Why is Government Necessary?
 Limiting Government Power
 Protection from the violence of those outside the government is...
Why is Government Necessary?
 Limiting Government Power
 Liberty – the greatest freedom of the individual consistent wit...
Why is Government Necessary?
 Authority and Legitimacy
 Authority – the right and power to enforce its decisions
 Every...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 Types of Government Historically
 The Greeks were the first Western people to s...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 Types of Government
 Totalitarian Regime – a small group of leaders or a single...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 Types of Government
 Anarchy – Greek for “the absence of government”
 Advocate...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 Direct Democracy as a Model
 Direct Democracy – a system of government in which...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 Direct Democracy as a Model
 Direct democracy has been practiced in Switzerland...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 The Dangers of Direct Democracy
 The framers of the U.S. Constitution were oppo...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 A Democratic Republic
 The framers of the U.S. Constitution chose to create a r...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 A Democratic Republic
 Initially, the Constitution ensured that the Senate and ...
Democracy and Other Forms of
Government
 Principles of Democratic Government
 All representative democracies rest on the...
Check my SlideShare page
(rfair07) for more lectures
Lectures posted for:
 United States History before 1877 / after 187...
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Govt 2305-Ch_1

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  • Federalist #10
  • Federalist #10
  • Federalist #10
  • Federalist #10
  • Govt 2305-Ch_1

    1. 1. The Democratic Republic Chapter 1
    2. 2. Politics and Government  What is politics?  The process of resolving conflicts and deciding “who gets what, when, and how.”  The struggle over power and influence within organizations or informal groups that can grant or withhold benefits or privileges  Where are politics found?  Schools, churches, social groups, and any other organized group of people  Government is the most important though
    3. 3. Politics and Government  What is the government?  It is an institution – an ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society  An organization has a life separate from the lives of the individuals who are a part of it  Overall, the government can be defined as an institution in which decisions are made that resolve conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges.  The government is the preeminent institution in society  It has the ultimate authority for making decisions and establishing political values
    4. 4. Why is Government Necessary?  The Need for Security  A primary purpose of government is to maintain order  A state of peace and security  Protects its people from violence domestically or internationally  Dispenses justice  If order is not present, the government cannot provide other benefits
    5. 5. Why is Government Necessary?  Limiting Government Power  Protection from the violence of those outside the government is not enough  Citizens need protection from abuses of power by the government  Dictatorial governments often torture and execute political opponents  Restriction of free speech, habeas corpus, and the right to an impartial trial  To protect the liberties of the people, it is necessary to limit the powers of the government
    6. 6. Why is Government Necessary?  Limiting Government Power  Liberty – the greatest freedom of the individual consistent with the freedom of other individuals within a society  A second major political value  Summary  Major political values  Order  Liberty
    7. 7. Why is Government Necessary?  Authority and Legitimacy  Authority – the right and power to enforce its decisions  Every government must have authority.  Authority in government rests on the military and civilian law enforcement  Why do we defer authority to the government and its laws?  Legitimacy – Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government (or other entity) to exercise authority
    8. 8. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  Types of Government Historically  The Greeks were the first Western people to study politics systematically  Forms of governmental rule known to the Greeks  Aristocracy –”rule by the best”; rule by leading members of wealthy families  Historic: Republic of Rome  Contemporary: term evolved into monarchies  Theocracy – “rule by God”; rule by self-appointed religious leaders  Historic: Ancient Egypt; Puritans in the Mass. Bay Colony  Contemporary: Iran (the grand ayatollah Ali Khamenei)  Oligarchy – “rule by a few”  Historic: Sparta  Contemporary: South Africa, (“The Party” in George Orwell’s 1984)
    9. 9. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  Types of Government  Totalitarian Regime – a small group of leaders or a single individual (dictator) makes all political decisions for the society  Every aspect of political, social, and economic life are controlled by the government.  Authoritarianism – Similar to totalitarian regimes, but only the government is fully controlled by the ruler  Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government’s control
    10. 10. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  Types of Government  Anarchy – Greek for “the absence of government”  Advocates see a world in which free will and pure individualism create the rules and laws  In reality, anarchy typically results in armed factions competing for influence and authority  Democracy – a system of government in which political authority is vested in the people  Greek: demos “the people” and kratos “authority”
    11. 11. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  Direct Democracy as a Model  Direct Democracy – a system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by elected representatives  Would probably work easiest in small political communities  The Greek city-state of Athens is considered the purest model of direct democracy  Most important feature was the legislature – a governmental body primarily responsible for law making  This form of government requires a high level of participation from every citizen  As a result, citizens had to be informed and educated on the issues in order to make wise decisions
    12. 12. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  Direct Democracy as a Model  Direct democracy has been practiced in Switzerland and in New England (U.S.) town hall meetings  At these town hall meetings, issues such as local taxation, hiring city officials, and deciding local ordinances are made by majority vote  Modern adaptions to direct democracy in other states:  Initiative – a procedure by which voters can propose a law or constitutional amendment  Referendum – an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval  Recall – allows the people to vote to remove an official from state office
    13. 13. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  The Dangers of Direct Democracy  The framers of the U.S. Constitution were opposed to direct democracy  They felt that it was dangerous and could lead to instability  The masses were considered:  Too uneducated to govern directly  Prone to the influence of demagogues (manipulative political leaders)  Likely to shun minority rights for the tyranny of the majority  However, government based on the consent of the people became popular during the 1700s and 1800s  Idea that government and laws derive their legitimacy from the consent of the governed
    14. 14. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  A Democratic Republic  The framers of the U.S. Constitution chose to create a republic  A form of government in which sovereign power rests with the people rather than with a king or monarch  A republic is based on popular sovereignty  Concept that ultimate political authority is based on the will of the people  The U.S. Constitution created a form of republican government known as a democratic republic  A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies
    15. 15. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  A Democratic Republic  Initially, the Constitution ensured that the Senate and president would be selected by political elites  However, later changes to the Constitution allowed for voters to directly elect members of the Senate  Over the course of two centuries, democratic values grew in popularity, giving our system another name, representative democracy  Almost an exact meaning as democratic republic, but European nations interpreted our system of government to include a monarch in a ceremonial role (Great Britain)
    16. 16. Democracy and Other Forms of Government  Principles of Democratic Government  All representative democracies rest on the rule of the people as expressed through the election of government officials  Historically, only free white males that owned land could vote in the U.S.  Women gained the right to vote in 1920  Rights for African Americans were not secured until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s  Today, universal suffrage is the rule  Right of all adults to vote for their representatives
    17. 17. Check my SlideShare page (rfair07) for more lectures Lectures posted for:  United States History before 1877 / after 1877  Texas History  United States (Federal) Government / Texas Government  Slide 17 of 40  To download a full copy of the full PowerPoint presentation, please go to: https://gumroad.com/l/lkyvE  17

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