Chapter Ten THE AGE OF JACKSON
THE AGE OF JACKSON <ul><li>Andrew Jackson campaigns against John Quincy Adams in 1828 </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most bi...
 
ELECTION OF 1828
WHIGS <ul><li>Were considered the revised Federalist party  </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the old Federalists joined  </li></u...
DEMOCRATS <ul><li>After 1830, becomes a coalition of farmers, city laborers, and Irish Catholics  </li></ul><ul><li>Oppose...
 
THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS <ul><li>Jackson's first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over st...
THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS <ul><li>South Carolina's politicians believed that the federal tariffs in conjunction with the ec...
INDIAN REMOVAL <ul><li>The expansion of cotton and slavery forced the relocation of Indians  </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Jacks...
 
INDIAN REMOVAL <ul><li>Indian responses to removal  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cherokees go to court to protect their rights ( ...
THE BANK WAR <ul><li>The Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution  </li>...
 
<ul><li>Martin Van Buren becomes President (with Jackson’s help) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Martin Van Buren </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson’s hand-picked successor </li></ul><ul><li>First president to be ...
THE PANIC OF 1837 <ul><li>Origins  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially is caused by a speculative fever  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Anti-Van Buren Propaganda (circa 1837) </li></ul>
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CH_10_b_the age of jackson

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CH_10_b_the age of jackson

  1. 1. Chapter Ten THE AGE OF JACKSON
  2. 2. THE AGE OF JACKSON <ul><li>Andrew Jackson campaigns against John Quincy Adams in 1828 </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most bitter elections in U.S. history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson’s wife is publically criticized by Adams and his supporters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jackson wins the election and ushers in a new age for the “common man” or “self-made man” </li></ul><ul><li>At this point in U.S. history, political parties had become a spectacle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National political conventions elected candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defining Freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party battles reflected the conflict between public and private definitions of freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship of freedom to government power was crucial </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. ELECTION OF 1828
  4. 5. WHIGS <ul><li>Were considered the revised Federalist party </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the old Federalists joined </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the party of progress and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted a strong federal government and believed it was necessary to promote liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the role of government was to promote the welfare of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Aligned with the North </li></ul><ul><li>Harrison and Tyler are the party’s only two elected Presidents </li></ul><ul><li>Party eventually dies because of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Most defect to the new Republican Party </li></ul>
  5. 6. DEMOCRATS <ul><li>After 1830, becomes a coalition of farmers, city laborers, and Irish Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed elites, aristocrats, and the Bank of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Favored expansion to the west </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on society </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to build up industry at the expense of the taxpayer </li></ul><ul><li>Supported a weak federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Championed individual and states' rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished the national bank </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS <ul><li>Jackson's first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state law. </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff of 1828 (and 1832) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A continuation of the national tariff policy that resulted after the War of 1812 (boost business in the North by promoting American manufacturing over British competition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal government via nullification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nullification is the concept that the power of state government could rule a law unconstitutional, therefore, a law could become null and void within the boundaries of the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John C. Calhoun (Jackson's Vice President) led the charge for nullification and became a prominent theorist on the concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He resigns as VP to run for Senate in order to better defend nullification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He later leaves the Democratic Party to join the Whigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, the states created the Constitution, therefore, the states had the right to declare some aspects unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Webster (a Northerner) argued that the people, not the states, created the Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS <ul><li>South Carolina's politicians believed that the federal tariffs in conjunction with the economic downturn of the 1820s was responsible for the growing problems in South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>The issue reaches a boiling point when South Carolina makes military preparations to resist federal authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passes a Force Bill to authorize Jackson to use military force against South Carolina if it resisted federal law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, a new treaty was negotiated that was satisfactory to South Carolina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The crisis ends with both sides finding reasons to believe they were victorious </li></ul>
  8. 10. INDIAN REMOVAL <ul><li>The expansion of cotton and slavery forced the relocation of Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Jackson's personal hatred against Indians led him to insist upon calling on politicians to support the Indian Removal Acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act of 1830 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The &quot;Five Civilized Tribes&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cherokee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chickasaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choctaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Indian Removal law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that civilized Indians could be assimilated into the American population </li></ul>
  9. 12. INDIAN REMOVAL <ul><li>Indian responses to removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cherokees go to court to protect their rights ( Cherokee Nation v. Georgia; Worcester v. Georgia ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Seminoles fought a war against removal (one of the tribes that Jackson particularly disliked) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Ross led Cherokee resistance (resulted in the Trail of Tears) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others argue for harmony between white Americans and Indians </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. THE BANK WAR <ul><li>The Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bank that was mostly privately owned, but supporting the needs of an entire nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolas Biddle (Pennsylvania) was the head of the bank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jackson's distrust of the bank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owed debts to banks in his youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was an ardent supporter of &quot;hard money&quot;; coinage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Second Bank of the United States as a result of his distrust and personal bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biddle threatened to compromise Jackson's reelection campaign as a result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jackson's &quot;Pet Banks&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft money and hard money advocates supported Jackson's veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and deposited them into local &quot;pet&quot; banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, prices rose dramatically, but real wages declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This sets up the perfect storm for the Panic of 1837 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Martin Van Buren becomes President (with Jackson’s help) </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Martin Van Buren </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson’s hand-picked successor </li></ul><ul><li>First president to be born an American citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party </li></ul><ul><li>Continued most of Jackson’s policies; kept all but one of Jackson’s cabinet members </li></ul><ul><li>“ Independent Treasury Plan” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public funds were passed from the National to State level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave the Treasury control of all federal funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan did not work as Whigs were gaining ground at the local level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later repealed in 1841 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Van Buren advocated lower tariffs and free trade, all in an attempt to maintain the Southern Democrats </li></ul>
  13. 17. THE PANIC OF 1837 <ul><li>Origins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially is caused by a speculative fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of money had been loaned to the U.S. by Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ton of U.S. crops failed during 1837 and the money was lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain demands repayment, Southerners cannot pay back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners’ credit levels and agriculture bomb as a result. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 year depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of many banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record high unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whigs blame Van Buren for the panic, but he inherited it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson’s economic policies were an issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His refusal to reinstate the Second Bank of the United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coinage Act (everything must be paid in gold and silver to the government) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Anti-Van Buren Propaganda (circa 1837) </li></ul>

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