Chapter 28<br />The dawn of the 21st Century<br />
September 11, 2001<br />Series of coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States<br />19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked ...
The War on Terrorism<br />In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, President Bush declared a war on ter...
The PATRIOT ACt<br />In the aftermath of September 11, Congress rushed to pass the PATRIOT Act<br />Expanded the rights of...
War with Iraq<br />The Clinton administration occasionally ordered Iraq to be bombed in retaliation for Saddam Hussein’s l...
War with Iraq<br />The decision split the Western alliance and inspired a massive antiwar movement throughout the world<br...
War with Iraq<br />Baghdad was captured within a month<br />President Bush announced “mission accomplished” shortly afterw...
War with Iraq:  Numbers<br />The war soon cost more lives and dollars than any policymaker (regardless of political affili...
Ranking U.S. casualties<br />
21st Century Supreme Court<br />Affirmative Action<br />Gratz v. Bollinger – the University of Michigan’s admission proces...
2004 Presidential Election<br />Candidates<br />Republican incumbent George W. Bush<br />Democratic Senator from Massachus...
Hurricane Katrina<br />In August 2005, New Orleans was devastated when Hurricane Katrina hit the coastline<br />The levee ...
Ch 28 dawn of the 21st century
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Ch 28 dawn of the 21st century

  1. 1. Chapter 28<br />The dawn of the 21st Century<br />
  2. 2. September 11, 2001<br />Series of coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States<br />19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners<br />2 airliners crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City<br />Both buildings collapsed within 2 hours<br />The 3rd airliner crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia<br />The 4th plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania<br />It was enroute to Washington, D.C.<br />Casualties<br />3,000 victims of the initial attacks and airliner crashes<br />2,752 civilians; 343 firefighters; 60 police officers<br />836 first responders (Police/Fire/EMS) as of June 2009<br />
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  6. 6. The War on Terrorism<br />In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, President Bush declared a war on terrorism<br />Bush told Americans that “freedom and fear are at war”<br />An outpouring of popular patriotism followed the attacks<br />The Bush administration benefited from this patriotism and identification with the United States’ history and government<br />Operation Enduring Freedom<br />The Bush administration targeted Afghanistan and its regime, the Taliban, after intelligence revealed the country harbored Al Qaeda and bin Laden<br />The United States launched a military offensive against Afghanistan in October 2001<br />
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  8. 8. The PATRIOT ACt<br />In the aftermath of September 11, Congress rushed to pass the PATRIOT Act<br />Expanded the rights of law enforcement agencies to conduct secret searches and detain suspected aliens<br />The Bush administration made a point to discourage anti-Arab and anti-Muslim sentiment that resulted from the passage of the act<br />A detention camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba was established<br />In November 2001, the Bush administration issued an executive order authorizing the holding of secret military tribunals<br />Target was to hold trial for noncitizens deemed to have assisted terrorism and/or enemy combatants<br />President Bush also authorized the National Security Agency (NSA) to listen to domestic domestic telephone conversations without a court warrant is an individual is suspected of terrorism<br />
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  10. 10. War with Iraq<br />The Clinton administration occasionally ordered Iraq to be bombed in retaliation for Saddam Hussein’s lack of cooperation with U.N. weapons inspectors<br />A conservative group within the Bush administration welcomed an American invasion of Iraq to oust Hussein from power<br />This group seized on the attacks of September 11 to press their case for an Iraq invasion<br />In 2002, the Bush administration announced that a regime change was necessary in Iraq<br />The United States charged Hussein with amassing weapons of mass destruction and hindering U.N. weapons inspectors<br />
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  12. 12. War with Iraq<br />The decision split the Western alliance and inspired a massive antiwar movement throughout the world<br />Critics within the Bush administration argued that a war with Iraq deflected attention away from apprehending Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda<br />China, Russia, Germany, and France refused to support a preemptive strike against Iraq<br />Many Americans resented international criticism from the former Soviet Union and France<br />Great Britain was the only nation to lend full support to the United States<br />President Bush called the war “Operation Iraqi Freedom”<br />Identified the purpose to “defend our freedom” and “bring freedom to others”<br />
  13. 13. War with Iraq<br />Baghdad was captured within a month<br />President Bush announced “mission accomplished” shortly afterwards<br />Looters and insurgents took control of Iraq<br />In early 2003, there were not enough American troops in the country to keep order<br />Sectarian violence swept the country<br />
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  15. 15. War with Iraq: Numbers<br />The war soon cost more lives and dollars than any policymaker (regardless of political affiliation) had estimated<br />As of November 2010, the total cost of wars since 2001 is roughly $1.1 trillion dollars in war costs<br />Arguably, $3 to 5 trillion if the effects are the U.S. economy are calculated<br />Cost of war in Iraq: $744 billion<br />Cost of war in Afghanistan: $369 billion<br />State-wide: $91 billion overall; <br />$421 million overall in Waco<br />$3,600 per person <br />
  16. 16. Ranking U.S. casualties<br />
  17. 17. 21st Century Supreme Court<br />Affirmative Action<br />Gratz v. Bollinger – the University of Michigan’s admission process used a points system that made race too decisive a factor and violated the Equal Protection Clause for undergraduate admissions<br />Basically, “minimally qualified underrepresented minorities” were guaranteed admission under the U of M’s point system<br />Homosexuality<br />Lawrence v. Texas<br />The S.C. overruled a Texas court ruling that held that Texas statue can prohibit certain sexual acts – namely those between same-sex partners<br />The S.C. ruled that the Texas ruling and statute violated the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment<br />Retirement of Sandra Day O’Connor<br />O’Connor retired in 2005; the first female member of the Supreme Court<br />
  18. 18. 2004 Presidential Election<br />Candidates<br />Republican incumbent George W. Bush<br />Democratic Senator from Massachusetts John Kerry<br />Independent Ralph Nader<br />Like the 2000 election, voting controversies and irregularities plagued the election<br />The election was not decided until the day after voting <br />Kerry and Democratic National Committee Chairman Howard Dean felt that voting in Ohio did not proceed fairly<br />However, Kerry did not dispute Bush’s win in the state<br />
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  21. 21. Hurricane Katrina<br />In August 2005, New Orleans was devastated when Hurricane Katrina hit the coastline<br />The levee system broke and the city began to flood<br />At the time of the hurricane, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was charged with the responsibility of disaster planning and relief for the United States<br />However, FEMA was poorly prepared for the hurricane and led to a city-wide disaster in New Orleans<br />The New Orleans Disaster<br />Poor residents of the city were left abandoned amid floodwaters<br />City services and local government failed in the wake of the hurricane<br />Social class division became apparent after the disaster<br />President Bush called for aggressive action that led the Republican Congress to cut social welfare programs to pay for hurricane relief<br />

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