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Ch 27 the 1990s


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Ch 27 the 1990s

  1. 1. The 1990s<br />Chapter 27<br />
  2. 2. George H. W. Bush<br />
  3. 3. George H. W. Bush<br />A New World Order<br />Bush calls for a “new world order” as the Soviet Union begins its decline<br />Malta Conference<br />Bush and Gorbechev discuss superpower cooperation<br />Reduction of troop deployments<br />Reduction of arms<br />Settling regional disputes<br />Stimulating East/West trade<br />German reunification was seen as a part of this new world order<br />START I treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)<br />Marked the beginning of an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Soviets<br />
  4. 4. George H. W. Bush<br />Domestic Issues<br />Tax reform: “Read my lips, no new taxes!”<br />Sounded good in principle, but his administration struggled with the enormous deficit from the Reagan years<br />Bush gives in to Democrats and raises taxes<br />Ruins his credibility and his approval rating<br />Other domestic reform<br />Americans with Disabilities ACT of 1990 (ADA)<br />Clean Air Act<br />Both were fairly progressive for a conservative president<br />
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  6. 6. George H. W. Bush<br />The Persian Gulf War (Gulf War I)<br />Bush intervenes when Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait in 1990<br />First international crisis since the end of the Cold War<br />Bush identifies the Gulf War as the first step to create a world based on democracy and global free trade<br />Manifest Destiny continuing into another century<br />Bush launches 4,000 bombing runs and a successful ground offensive<br />His ratings skyrocket as a result<br />The 1992 election looked promising for him<br />
  7. 7. William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton<br />
  8. 8. The Clinton Years<br />Election of 1992<br />Initially, the election looked promising for incumbent George H. W. Bush<br />Successful offensive in the Gulf War<br />Economy was relatively stable<br />However, the economy began to recess as the election season started<br />Clinton wins the election with 43 %<br />Texas billionaire (and independent populist) Ross Perot split some of the vote between Clinton and Bush<br />
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  10. 10. The Clinton Years<br />Domestic Policies<br />FLMA Act (Family and Medical Leave Act)<br />Brady Bill<br />Five day waiting period on handgun purchases<br />Assault weapons ban<br />First White House website launched in 1994<br />Gays’ rights in the military<br />Clinton argued for this in his campaign<br />The public was hostile to the issue<br />Settled on the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy<br />
  11. 11. The Clinton Years<br />NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement)<br />Agreement that would greatly reduce and/or eliminate the majority of tariffs for products traded between the United States, Canada, and Mexico<br />Essentially a free-trade zone for the United States, Mexico, and Canada<br />Democrats charge it caused the loss of jobs (no labor provisions)<br />Some say our deficit has ballooned 11 times over what it was before NAFTA<br />However, the American economy has grown 54% since its inception<br />Overall, more time is needed to judge its successes and failures<br />
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  13. 13. The Family Unit in the 1990s<br />Decline of the traditional family<br />After 1970, fewer American families had a father who was the sole breadwinner<br />Cohabitation without marriage became common<br />Divorce rates doubled<br />More unmarried women (especially teenagers) having children<br />Quality of public education declines after the 1980s<br />Movement to return to “traditional family values” began<br />Nostalgic return to the 1950s begins as a result of the Christian Right movement<br />Others gravitate toward alternative lifestyles<br />
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  15. 15. Women in the 1990s<br />More married women entered the workplace<br />Some achieved remarkable success<br />Most were relegated to low paying jobs or “female” jobs<br />Women on average made around 75% of men’s salaries throughout the 1990s<br />NOW (National Organization for Women) push for another Equal Rights Amendment for women, but ultimately fail<br />
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  17. 17. Election of 1996<br />Clinton easily defeated Republican Bob Dole<br />Becomes the first Democrat elected to two terms since FDR<br />Ross Perot runs again as a Reform Independent<br />Only garners 8.4% of the popular vote<br />Clinton embraced the most popular Republican policies like welfare reform<br />Left Dole with extreme positions that were unpopular among suburban middle-class voters<br />Hostility to abortion rights and environmental protection<br />
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  19. 19. The Computer Revolution<br />The rise of the computer industry and the Internet produced a new economy<br />Steve Jobs (Apple) and Bill Gates (Microsoft) quickly became guiding forces for the future of computer-based technology<br />The Internet expanded the flow of information and communications more radically than any invention since the printing press<br />
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  22. 22. Globalization<br />Globalization became the new concept of the 1990s<br />The process by which economies, cultures, and societies are linked through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade<br />Term is typically used to refer to economic globalization<br />Integration of national economies through trade, foreign investment, capital flow, technological integration, and migration<br />
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  24. 24. The Clinton Scandals<br />In the 1980s and 1990s scrutiny of politicians’ private lives became far more intense than in the past<br />Whitewater Scandal<br />Real estate controversy involving Bill and Hillary Clinton<br />The Clintons partnered with James and Susan McDougal to purchase 220 acres of land in Arkansas to become the Whitewater Development Corp.<br />The venture failed, the McDougals entered the banking industry, and began another real estate investment that caught the attention of federal regulators<br />After Clinton took the presidency, an independent investigation found that Clinton pressured a supporter, David Hale, into making a loan that benefitted Clinton and the McDougal’s Savings and Loan<br />
  25. 25. The Clinton Scandals<br />Whitewater Scandal<br />Initially, the Clintons were cleared of wrongdoing, but Kenneth Starr (President of Baylor U.) took over and used David Hale as a key witness against the Clintons<br />Alleged that Clinton pressured Hale to illegally loan $300,000 of federally-backed money to Susan McDougal<br />Hale was convicted of numerous felonies and the allegation lost its credibility<br />However, Starr’s investigation led to the numerous sex scandals involving Bill Clinton<br />Paula Jones (former government employee in Arkansas)<br />Monica Lewinsky (White House intern) <br />
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  27. 27. Clinton’s Impeachment<br />After Whitewater, Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr conducted an investigation of Clinton that included abuses of:<br />Improper firing of White House travel agents<br />Alleged misuse of FBI files<br />Sexual harassment claims from Paula Jones<br />Perjury statements dealing with his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky<br />Overall, Starr’s report indicated that impeachment proceedings should proceed<br />Clinton was charged with perjury and obstruction of justice<br />
  28. 28. Clinton’s Impeachment<br />After a month of deliberation, the Senate acquitted Clinton of both charges<br />In April 1999, Clinton was cited for contempt of court regarding his “willful failure” to tell the truth in the Paula Jones lawsuit<br />He was assessed a $90,000 fine, had his Arkansas law license suspended for 5 years, and resigned from the United States Supreme Court bar<br />Out of court, he settled with Paula Jones for $850,000 in damages<br />
  29. 29. Clinton’s Impeachment<br />Publically, 50% of Americans supported Clinton’s impeachment and 42% disapproved of Clinton’s acquittal<br />Clinton’s job approval rating rose during the impeachment scandal, but his poll numbers regarding honesty, integrity, and moral character sharply declined<br />As a result, “moral character” was a significant issue in the 2000 election<br />Post-election results from the 2000 election indicated that the single most significant reason people voted for George W. Bush was for his moral character and his image as a “compassionate conservative”<br />The association between Clinton and Al Gore (Clinton’s Vice President) greatly impacted Gore’s campaign<br />
  30. 30. The 2000 Presidential Election<br />Al Gore (D)<br />George W. Bush (R)<br />
  31. 31. The 2000 Presidential Election<br />This election proved to be one of the closest in the nation’s history<br />Second to the election of 1877<br />The election was notable because of the controversial voting recount in Florida<br />Gore requested hand recounts in 4 counties<br />Results indicated Bush won Florida and Gore appealed to the Florida Supreme Court<br />The Florida Supreme Court ordered a total state recount<br />
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  33. 33. The 2000 Presidential Election<br />The U.S. Supreme Court immediately struck down the Florida Supreme Court’s recount<br />In December 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled:<br />7 to 2 that the Florida Supreme Court’s ruling for a complete recount was unconstitutional<br />5 to 4 that the Florida recounts could not be done before a “safe harbor” deadline and should cease<br />Subsequently, the previously certified total (that indicated Bush won Florida) should hold.<br />Overall, like in 1877, the U.S. Supreme Court had to decide the outcome of the presidential election<br />
  34. 34. Results of the Election<br />One of the more remarkable things about the election was not so much its controversial ending, but the even division of the country it revealed<br />Democrats blamed the Supreme Court, Ralph Nader, and sheer bad luck for Bush’s narrow victory<br />The election also revealed a broad disengagement from public life<br />Primarily, low voter turn-out<br />Roughly 100 million show up to vote<br />Over 280 million people in the U.S. (2000 Census)<br />