Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations


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Ch 1 Contact Of Civilizations

  1. 1. Contact of Civilizations<br />Chapter One<br />
  2. 2. Contact of Civilizations<br />Origins of Texas date back 30,000 years<br />Ice Age Migration<br />Land Bridge across the Bering Sea<br />Asiatic nomads; hunted for plants and animals<br />Agriculture Develops<br />Roughly 7000 B.C.E.<br />Regional distinctions in cultural and linguistics develop as a result<br />
  3. 3. Early Indian Migration<br />
  4. 4. Pre-Columbian Cultures<br />12 million people migrate to North America<br />Iroquois (Northeast Woodlands)<br />Recognized warriors<br />Created the “League of the Iroquois” – alliance that ended conflicts among member tribes<br />“Five Civilized Tribes” – adopted European cultural ways (Atlantic Coast to Mississippi Valley)<br />Choctaws, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Cherokees<br />Pueblos (West Texas to Arizona)<br />Lived similarly to European peasants<br />Built adobe villages on rock walls for defense purposes<br />
  5. 5. Pueblo Settlement (Arizona)<br />
  6. 6. Pre-Columbian Cultures<br />Central American Indians<br />Mayans<br />Most intellectually advanced<br />Cipher coding, architecture, astronomy, and calendars<br />Speculation on the reasons for their decline<br />Disease, food shortages, and/or social revolution<br />Aztecs<br />Capital in present-day Mexico City known as “Tenochtitlan”<br />War-like culture, but had an efficient political and legal system<br />Excelled in the arts and architecture<br />
  7. 7. Inca Civilization<br />
  8. 8. Pre-Columbian Cultures<br />Central American Indians<br />Incas<br />Capital in Cuzco (present-day Peru)<br />Efficient system of civil administration and road system superior to any in Europe at the time<br />Best architectural skills of any Native American civilization<br />Designed structures that could withstand earthquakes<br />Advanced scientific skills<br />Possibly had success in performing brain surgeries<br />
  9. 9. Inca Architecture at Cuzco<br />
  10. 10. Indigenous Peoples of Texas<br />Coastal Tribes<br />Karankawa(Matagorda to Corpus Christi)<br />Migrated on and off the coast for a constant food supply<br />Practiced ritual cannibalism<br />Acknowledged three gender roles<br />Male, Female, and berdache (men who took on female roles)<br />Coahuiltecan(Gulf Coast Plain/South TX)<br />Hunted and gathered in South Texas during the summer months<br />Commonality<br />Both groups had common roots in Northern Mexico<br />Lacked political organization<br />Religion was primitive and animistic<br />Both groups moved frequently<br />Used dome-shaped wigwams covered by animal skins for shelter<br />
  11. 11. Karankawas<br />
  12. 12. Indigenous Peoples of Texas<br />Caddos(Northeast Texas)<br />Originated from the Mississippi River Valley<br />Dome-shaped housing made of grass and cane<br />Primarily an agricultural group; planted twice a year<br />Caddo chiefs were known as xinesi<br />Served as political and religious leaders<br />A stable group that traded extensively<br />Bartered baskets, tools, ceramics, art, and weapons<br />
  13. 13. Caddo Housing<br />
  14. 14. Indigenous Peoples of Texas<br />Jumanos (Trans-Pecos area)<br />People of a shared cultural background, primarily with a common language or specific livelihood<br />Indigenous to modern-day Arizona and New Mexico<br />Fairly nomadic tribe that hunted primarily along the West Texas plains<br />Some permanent agricultural settlements<br />Known as accomplished merchants<br />
  15. 15. Indigenous Peoples of Texas<br />Plains Indians<br />Apaches, Comanches, Kiowas, and Tonkawas<br />Had a secondary role in Texas history during the 18th and 19th centuries<br />Apaches related to tribes from Alaska and Canada<br />These tribes utilized the horse after its introduction by Spaniards in the 17th century<br />Warfare led to the tribes migration to Texas<br />Dependant on buffalo fro almost all living essentials<br />The family was the primary social structure<br />Families loosely cooperated under a chief<br />No political structure<br />Religion allowed for individual relationships with deities<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. The First Europeans<br />The Spanish Reconquista<br />Early Spain was controlled by Muslims from Northern Africa<br />Spain was in a constant state of warfare to oust Muslims that were viewed as intruders<br />Reconquista – general term used to recognize the centuries of struggle to regain Spain from Muslim control<br />Kings were typically responsible for this<br />However, Spain benefitted economically from Muslim control<br />
  18. 18. Castile and the Reconquista<br />
  19. 19. The First Europeans<br />Castile and the Reconquista<br />Castile’s Reconquista was essentially a religious crusade<br />900 A.D. – Spainards believed they found the burial site of apostle Santiago (St. James)<br />Inspired religious fervor in Spain and essentially made the Catholic Church a crucial ally to the Spanish Crown<br />Catholic religious orders such as the Franciscans and Dominicans began proselytizing in the 13th century<br />
  20. 20. The First Europeans<br />Agrarian Castile<br />Reconquista encouraged the raising of sheep in rural areas of Castile<br />Higher and quicker profits than crops<br />Cattle raising flourished in southern Castile<br />Vaqueros – mounted cattle herders that drove cattle cross-country from northern grazing lands to southern pastures seasonally<br />Began cattle ranching traditions, the rodeo, cattle branding<br />This later was transplanted to North America under areas of Spanish control<br />
  21. 21. Vaquero<br />
  22. 22. The First Europeans<br />“Los Reyes Catolicos” The Catholic Kings<br />Iberian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon united in 1479 under Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon<br />Wanted to consolidate their power over the entire Iberian peninsula <br />They first had to pacify the kingdoms, especially the nobles, Catholic Church, and military<br />These groups had gained power during the final days of the Spanish Reconquista<br />Isabella used the institution of the hermandad (brotherhoods responsible for maintaining the peace) to pacify the nobles<br />Also used influence at the local level for a grass-roots approach to regain control<br />After regaining peace and control of the Iberian peninsula, the Catholic monarchs focused their attention on foreign policy<br />Spain had to compete with Portugal who was technologically advanced and already sending Prince Henry the Navigator to the African coast<br />
  23. 23. New World Contacts<br />Christopher Columbus<br />Italian navigator that convinced Queen Isabella to fund his journey to the “West Indies”<br />Columbus was motivated by economic and political gain<br />Landed in Hispaniola on 12 October 1492 (modern-day Bahamas)<br />Named the first island San Salvador (Holy Savior)<br />He did not find the West Indies, but reported that he had discovered a new continent<br />
  24. 24. Christopher Columbus<br />
  25. 25. New World Contacts<br />The Conquistadors<br />After Columbus’s discovery, Spain quickly sent explorers to make the country rich<br />Vasco Nunez de Balboa – crossed the Central American Isthmus and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain in 1513<br />Juan Ponce de Leon – reached Florida and claimed the peninsula for Spain, but the Spanish did not successfully settle until the 1560s<br />Hernan Cortes – conquered the Aztec empire and paved the way for Spanish domination of present-day Mexico<br />Francisco Pizarro – conquered the Inca empire in present-day Peru<br />
  26. 26. New World Contacts<br />Fortune in Texas<br />Cabeza de Vacawas involved in an expedition to Florida in search of gold<br />Pillaged a native tribe and became stranded on Florida’s west coast<br />Sailed to the Gulf of Mexico, captured by the Karankawa Indians, and finally escaped after years of captivity<br />Sailed around the Rio Grande and finally made it to Mexico<br />Friar Marcos de Niza was sent by the Spanish Crown to investigate de Vaca’s claims in 1539<br />Later traveled to western New Mexico and discovered a “glittering city of silver and gold”<br />Actually a Pueblo village with quartz imbedded in the walls of the adobe structures<br />de Niza somehow convinced the Crown that he had evidence of the Seven Cities of Gold<br />
  27. 27. Coronado’s Expedition<br />
  28. 28. New World Contacts<br />Vasquez de Coronado’s Expeditions<br />Assigned to explore Texas and the Southwest after de Niza’s report to the Crown<br />Discovered that de Niza’s “city of gold” was just an adobe complex<br />Refused to be discouraged and traveled for two years throughout the Southwest and Texas Panhandle, but did not find anything of value to the Crown<br />Discouraged explorations to the north for another 50 years<br />Hernando de Soto’s Expedition<br />Traveled from Florida to Alabama, and later to the Mississippi Valley looking for the cities of gold<br />Did not find anything and later died from fever<br />His party traveled onward to eastern Texas, near present-day Houston County and as far west as the Trinity River<br />de Soto and his party’s reports later reinforced the Spanish Crown’s decisions to stop exploration in Texas<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. New World Contacts<br />Northern Competition<br />French<br />Founded Quebec in Canada<br />Began occupying Nova Scotia<br />Traveled as far south as present-day Wisconsin<br />Dutch<br />Claimed the Hudson Valley and New Netherlands, which later became New York<br />English<br />Explored along the Atlantic Coast<br />By the 1640s, the English had possession of the Atlantic seaboard between Spanish controlled Florida and New England<br />
  31. 31. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas<br />Three structures crucial to colonization<br />The Presidio<br />The Mission<br />Settlements<br />
  32. 32. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas<br />The Spanish Crown attempted to bring Indian lands into Spanish influence by an orderly process of expansion and settlement<br />The Presidio<br />Usually the first structure established<br />Served numerous functions<br />Prison<br />Garrison to train soldiers for warfare<br />Protected the mission<br />Walled courtyard to conduct peace talks with Indians<br />
  33. 33. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas<br />The Mission<br />Priests staffed the mission and attempted to perform functions relevant to exploration, conquest, and Christianization<br />Attempted to convert the Indians to Catholicism<br />Tried to maintain friendly relations with hostile tribes<br />Assisted in maintaining conquered territories<br />
  34. 34. Mission San Jose, San Antonio<br />
  35. 35. Colonization Process in Spanish Texas<br />Settlements<br />Civilian Settlements<br />Another way to hold conquered territory; used during the reconquista<br />Used to populate the frontier and integrate their resources into the Spanish colonization system<br />Settlers were known as Pobladores<br />Ranchos (ranches)<br />Provided settlements with resources such as beef, pork, wool, and byproducts such as hide and tallow on the frontier<br />Played a supporting role in Christianizing Indians<br />Furnished soldiers with live animals<br />
  36. 36. Spanish Texas<br />Western Texas<br />Jumano Indians invited the Spanish to visit after a miraculous visit by the “Lady in Blue”<br />Spanish nun Madre Maria de Agreda takes credit for her spiritual visit<br />Spanish explorers were primarily interested in freshwater pearls and buffalo; also saw it as a base of trade with the Caddo Indians<br />Pueblo Revolt of 1680<br />Pueblo tribes attacked and destroyed Spanish settlements of the upper Rio Grande<br />Many displaced settlers came to El Paso<br />Spanish Return<br />Jumano Chief requested priests (and explorers followed)<br />Jumanos were secretly seeking protection from the Apaches<br />Spanish fended off the Apaches, hunted countless buffalo, and promised to return again<br />
  37. 37. Spanish Texas<br />Eastern Texas: The French Threat<br />French explorer La Salle wanted to stake a claim in the Mississippi Valley; travelled down the river to present-day Matagorda Bay<br />Was marooned and established Fort St. Louis near present-day Vanderbilt, Texas<br />Explored Texas, but attempted to meet up with other Frenchmen coming down the Mississippi<br />His settlers later killed him<br />Indians killed the remaining survivors at Fort St. Louis and destroyed the fort<br />
  38. 38. Spanish Texas<br />Eastern Texas: The Caddos<br />Spain responded to the French threat by sending Alonso de Leon on several expeditions<br />Explored Fort St. Louis and then made contact with the Caddos<br />Seen as the “great kingdom of Tejas” to the Spanish; Tejas – friend<br />Caddos accepted the Europeans as potential allies and trading partners<br />de Leon and missionaries set up two missions<br />However, the Caddos were not willing converts<br />Christianity clashed with their religion<br />Spanish disrupted their traditional way of life<br />They did not like the “unruly” Spanish soldiers<br />Became resentful and attacked Spanish livestock<br />Spanish later retreat and leave East Texas in 1693<br />
  39. 39. Spanish Texas<br />Eastern Texas: The French and Spanish Alliance<br />French Canadian Louis Jucherau de St. Denis came to the Spanish on the Rio Grande looking for trade<br />Arrested and later convinced the Spanish that the Caddo wanted missionaries<br />The Spanish viceroy ordered Spanish Captain Domingo Ramon to convert East Texas into a buffer zone<br />Rebuild Spanish missionaries<br />Assigned St. Denis as his second in command<br />Somewhat uneasy alliance, but the Spanish benefitted from St. Denis’s knowledge of Texas terrain, command of Indian languages, and his ability to befriend the Indians<br />
  40. 40. San Antonio de Bexar<br />
  41. 41. Spanish Texas<br />Settlements<br />San Antonio de Bexar (present-day San Antonio)<br />Served to Christianize the Coahuiltecan Indians<br />Also, the midway point between Rio Grande and East Texas; served as a supply station<br />By the 1730s, a presidio, municipality, and five missions constituted the San Antonio complex<br />Presidio de La Bahia<br />Initially established as a Gulf Coast deterrent to the French<br />Moved inland toward the San Antonio River to present-day Goliad<br />
  42. 42. Presidio de La Bahia (Goliad)<br />
  43. 43. Spanish Texas<br />Failed Settlements<br />San Gabriel River settlement (near Rockdale)<br />Established to convert the Tonkawas<br />Given little attention, abandoned in 1755<br />San Saba River settlement (near Menard)<br />Established to convert the Apaches<br />Failed due to Indian attacks; abandoned in 1769<br />Incorporation<br />The Spanish colonization system would be crucial to the success of Spain in the Texas frontier<br />Two choices for dealing with Indians<br />Assimilate or annihilate<br />