A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 1A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS)WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKREZAUL ISLAM ; DC2009BTE4107; Electronics & Communication Engineering; DBCET, Guwahati-17;email@example.comINTRODUCTIONThis is a literature survey on high speed wireless communication in which I will discussabout the high speed wireless communication of speed more than 100 Gbps. This paper consistsof details on the recent works and findings in the field of designing of the mentioned subject.Todays wireless world uses several communication infrastructures such as Bluetooth forpersonal area, IEEE 802.11 for local area, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System(UMTS) for wide area, and Satellite networks for global networking other hand, since thesewireless networks are complementary to each other, their integration and coordinated operationcan provide ubiquitous ―always best connection" quality mobile communications to the users. Inthe last decade or two, the list of bandwidth intensive applications has exploded. Video-on-demand, voice-over-IP, cloud based computing and storage have created a ravenous bandwidthappetite that is rushing deployment of 100 Gbps technology or the age of an ultra wide band.Corporate giants like Mitsubishi, Ericson etc are making a lot of efforts in order to designefficient systems working at high speeds of 100 Gbps so that they can provide these muchdesired facilities to the customer. But, till date such systems are still in development phase andnot fully implemented. However, in this survey we have tried to enlist a number of such worksand tried to explain the overall technologies involved in such systems. If we look at this moreclosely, the terms 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps are general terms for comprehensive technologicalchanges in transmission technology. Particularly during this phase of implementing newtechnology, measurement technology plays an extraordinarily important role. On the surface,everything looks simply like a change of generations is taking place and 40 Gbps seems to beoutdated already. However, the introduction of 100 Gbps technology is quite different from theintroduction of previous generations.
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 2STANDARDISATION FOR 100 GIGABIT ETHERNET:The initial position for the standardization of 100 GigE specified retaining the past frame sizesand frame formats of the IEEE 802.3 standard. For the MAC layer, the target was a transmissionquality with a bit error rate of less than BER = 10- 12. Efforts would be made to use the OTNtechnology as a transport medium and to support it with corresponding specifications.For now, 100 GigE is transmitted via several optical channels using the multi-lane concept. Tworanges are defined for transmission via a single-mode fiber:• 100GBase-LR4 (long range) describes the optical interface for four wavelengths within therange of 1310 nm with a channel spacing of 4.5 nm with an attainable transmission range of10 km and 100GBase-ER4 (extended range) for a range of 40 km.• For the first tests, yet another optical interface with ten wavelengths in the range of 1550 nm isavailable. This variant, which was not standardized, however, is technically the simplersolution since the multiplexers can be omitted in these transponders.For short connections within a computer center, another interface for multimode fibers is definedin the wavelength range of 850 nm. Here, ten transmission channels run parallel in a cable bymeans of ribbon fibers. The transmission channels are plugged together in an optical plug. Byusing OM-3-fibers, transmission lengths of at least 100 m can supposedly be achieved.In addition to the optical interfaces, an electrical interface was also defined for both datatransmission rates. Thus, a maximum transmission range of 10 m should be obtainable by four orten parallel signals.The optical interfaces for transmitters and receivers are integrated in so-called CFP modules (100Gigabit small-form-factor pluggable). Similar to the pluggable XFP modules (10 Gigabit small-form-factor pluggable), they are also transponders that can be changed during operation (―hotswappable‖) and that are independent of protocol. The four DFB(Dristibuted Feedback) lasers
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 3with their corresponding higher optical power output require efficient heat management for theCFP module. It is plugged into a precision shaft, its connection ensuring correspondingtemperature heat dissipation. Fig. shows the OSI reference model as per IEEE 802.3ba for 100Gigabit Ethernet.Besides the optical transmitters and receivers, CFP modules also containmultiplexers/demultiplexers. Thus, the 20 virtual data streams, which are structured in 10physically parallel data streams of 10 Gbps each, are combined by the MAC layer into fourphysical data streams of 25 Gbps each. Multiplexers and demultiplexers require space in the CFPmodule and contribute significantly to the temperature budget. Long term, these functions willmigrate to the ASIC(Application Specific Integrated Circuit) of signal processing. This requiresan appropriate board layout and a connecting path for transferring to the optical interfaces for 25Gbps or 28 Gbps in place of 10 Gbps. Therefore, the optical interfaces can end up beingsignificantly smaller than today’s CFP modules and the overall design becomes significantly lessexpensive. Possible names for it are CxFP and QSFP.The standard supports only full-duplex operation. Other electrical objectives of it are:Preserve the 802.3 / Ethernet frame format utilizing the 802.3 MAC
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 4Preserve minimum and maximum FrameSize of current 802.3 standardSupport a bit error ratio (BER) better than or equal to 10−12at the MAC/PLS serviceinterfaceProvide appropriate support for OTNSupport MAC data rates of 40 and 100 Gbit/sProvide Physical Layer specifications (PHY) for operation over single-mode optical fiber(SMF), laser optimized multi-mode optical fiber (MMF) OM3 and OM4, copper cableassembly, and backplane.Although 100GE is a commodity interface in 2012 and beyond, it helps to understand thetimeline and drivers behind the commercial adoption of technology. Unlike the "race to 10Gbps"that was driven by the imminent needs to address growth pains of the Internet in late 1990s,customer interest in 100Gbit/s technologies was mostly driven by economic factors. Amongthose, the common reasons to adopt 100GE were:to reduce the number of optical wavelengths ("lambdas") used and the need to light newfibre.to utilize bandwidth more efficiently than 10Gbit/s link aggregatesto provide cheaper wholesale, internet peering and data centre interconnect connectivityto skip the relatively expensive 40Gbit/s technology and move directly from 10Gbit/s to100Gbit/sSome Telecommunication organisations had already demonstrated practically and someare on the process are:ALCATEL LUCENT:Alcatel-Lucent kicked off the 100G era in November 2007 with the industry’s first field trial of100 Gb/s optical transmission. Completed over a live, in-service 504-km portion of theVerizon® network, it connected the Florida cities of Tampa and Miami. 100GbE interfaces forthe 7450 ESS/7750 SR service routing platform were first announced in June 2009, with fieldtrials with Verizon.Alcatel-Lucent announced a packet processing architecture dubbed FP3,thefirst 400G network processor silicon in the industry.
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 5DARP WORK ON 100GBPS WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY:DARPA has begun development of a wireless communications link that is capable of 100gigabits per second over a range of 200 kilometers (124mi). DARPA wants to give deployedsoldiers the same kind of connectivity as a high-bandwidth, low-latency fiber-optic network.DARPA’s 100G program will probably use the lower-frequency Ku band, which is lesssusceptible to rain fade.Suffice it to say, transmitting 100Gbps through the air is rather difficult;your home WiFi network probably maxes out at around 100Mbps, some thousand times slower.We’ve written about visible light links that operate at speeds up to 2.5Tbps — but only over adistance of one meter. Free-space optical communication isn’t viable though, because cloudstend to get in the way when you’re talking about 200-kilometer-long links. The only real optionis RF, but again, transmitting 100Gbps over a 200-kilometer RF link is very tough.DARPA’s 100G program will probably use the lower-frequency Ku band, which is lesssusceptible to rain fade (or degradation caused by other inclement atmospheric conditions).Assuming the right encoding/multiplexing techniques can be discovered, there should be plentyof bandwidth in either the Ka or Ku bands to hit 100Gbps.DARPA clearly states that the 100Gprogram is for US military use — but it’s hard to ignore the repercussions it might have oncommercial networks, too. I’m surprised that it has fallen to DARPA to develop an ultra-high-speed point-to-point wireless technology. 100Gbps wireless backhaul links between cell towers,rather than costly and cumbersome fiber links, would make it much easier and cheaper to roll outadditional mobile coverage. Likewise, 100Gbps wireless links might be the ideal way to providebackhaul links to rural communities that are still stuck with dial-up internet access, or additionalbackbone bandwidth during peak periods.MITSUBISHI 100GBPS SYSTEM:
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 6Mitsubishi Electric Corporation announced that today it has developed an optical transceiverand integrated optical transmitter module for 100 Gbps optical transmission per wavelength thatrealizes 2.5 times the capacity of conventional inter-city optical networks. The technologies,which will help to meet fast-expanding demands for inter-city communication capacity, will becommercialized within the fiscal year ending in March 2014. Mitsubishi Electric’s opticaltransmission technologies enable 100Gbps optical transmission per wavelength, they thanked totheir newly developed integrated optical transmitter module and optical transceiver, which areinstalled to 100 Gbps optical transmission equipment. Transmission capacity per powerconsumption is 40% more efficient compared to existing devices due to effective integration ofthe optical module and other key components.Mitsubishi Electric mainly emphasizes on optical transmitter technology, because OFC cablegives extra speed to the data. They will make the system in such a way that after achieving100Gbps for OFC, they replace OFC by wireless channel.100GBPS JAPAN DWDM:NEC Corporation announced that Japan is participating in Japans first DWDM transmission of100Gbps per wavelength, realized using commercial fiber cable along Japans highest volumetransmission route connecting the 710km between Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka. These results wereaccomplished through 100Gbps optical transmission trials carried out by NTT CommunicationsCorporation. Tests were conducted using existing commercial cable with the intention ofintroducing 100Gbps-DWDM systems to backbone networks in the near future. These actualoperating conditions present a variety of operational challenges, including fluctuations in opticalsignal loss due to transmission route changes and variability in optical fiber characteristics(Chromatic Dispersion, Polarization-Mode Dispersion. NECs 100Gbps-DWDM systemaddressed these issues by utilizing a transponder equipped with its internally developed 100GDP-QPSK digital coherent optical transceiver module, which demonstrated stable, error-freetransmission of 100 Gigabit Ethernet signals between Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka. The 100Gbps-DWDM transmission system used for these tests demonstrated both a transmission capacity thatis 5.5 times greater and a transmission distance of almost 2 times longer than existing"SpectralWave DW4200" equipment using the same transmission route.
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 7HIBERNIA NETWORKS TO SUPPLY 100-GBPS TO NTT COMMUNICATIONS:Fiber-optic network services provider Hibernia Networks (formerly Hibernia Atlantic) says itwill supply 100-Gbps network capacity to NTT Communications. NTT Communications will usethe capacity to support its European expansion plans as well as its Global IP Network (GIN).Hibernia Networks says it will leverage multiple terrestrial and subsea fiber-optic cable links toensure network diversity.TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR CFP MODULES FOR 100 GBPS:More than ever, the introduction of 100 GigE requires a measurement technology that has beencustomized appropriately in order to accompany the stage-by-stage introduction. Manufacturersof components and systems require measurement engineering for 100 Gbps. For testing the CFPmodules used in the transmission systems, a 100 GigE signal must be produced with ten parallelelectrical connections that are coded as 20 virtual channels. The Ethernet signal coming from theMAC(Medium Access Control) layer is not firmly allocated to the virtual channels. Inaccordance with the specification, the virtual channels on the transmitting end can be shifted asdesired at the entry of the multiplexer. They are being sorted as per the so-called round-robinprinciple. The receiver must synchronize itself automatically. It must be possible to set anyconfiguration at the time of the test.At the optical interfaces of the CFP, the analyzer verifies the multiplex function andcorrespondingly tests the bit error rate of the client signal. The value of BER = 10–12 must beadhered to, which is possible only by using forward error correction (FEC). This can be checkedby displaying the bit errors in the PCS(Physical Coding Sub) layer. The analyzer must, of course,make the optical parameters of its own CFP available over the MDIO(Management DataInput/Output) management interface, as the information about the exact wavelength and theoptical output levels should be known.
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 8For IEEE-compliant CFPs, it is extremely important to test the skewing for each individualoptical channel as well as the error-free acceptance on the receiver side. This is staticallypossible by inputting the number of bits to be moved in the individual physical channels; as perthe 802.3ba IEEE recommendation, dynamic skewing is also described, which requires anexternal timing distribution method.All these tests, which are required for 100 GigE because of the parallel transmission, are integralpart of testing the function of CFP modules. Using one of the first CFPs commercially availablefrom a reputable manufacturer.BROCAD 100GBPS SR10 OPTICAL TRANSCEIVER:Today’s service provider networking environments and enterprise data centers are undergoing aninfrastructure transformation, requiring higher speeds, greater scalability, , and higher levels ofperformance and reliability to better meet the demands of business. As speed and performanceneeds increase, optical transceivers have become an integral part of overall system design.However, optical transceiver design margins and parameters vary widely, and can be thedifference between an optimized, highly reliable fabric and incompatibility issues that drive upsupport costs. The Brocade 100 Gbps SR10 Ethernet optical transceiver, part of the Brocadefamily of optical transceivers, is optimized to fully leverage the Brocade MLXe 100 Gbps router.Together, these optical transceivers provide state-of-the-art performance, helping ITorganizations achieve new levels of infrastructure consolidation while expanding the capabilitiesof their applications and services.Brocade 100 Gbps SR10 C Form-Factor Pluggables (CFPs) are hot-swappable, low-voltage (3.3V) digital diagnostic Ethernet optical transceivers that support high-speed serial links over 2×12multi-mode fiber at a signaling rate of 10×10.3125 Gbps. They comply with the CFP MSA andoptical (IEEE 802.3ba) specifications.The Brocade 100 Gbps SR10 Ethernet optical transceiver is a 10-lane × 10 Gbps CFP thatcomplies with 100GBASE-SR10 specifications. Highlights include:10×10 Gbps 850 nm lasersOptical interface specifications per IEEE 802.3ba 100GBASE-SR10Diagnostic features per CFP MSA, providing real-time monitoring of:
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 9TemperatureSupply voltageIndustry-standard MPO24 connector100 m link length on OM3 multi-mode fiber; 150 m link length on OM4 multi-modefiber. EXTREME NETWORKS:Extreme Networks announced its first 100GbE product on November 13, 2012, a four-port100GbE module for the Black Diamond X8 core switch. Customer trials are expected tocommence during 2013.100 GIGE STILL HAS A LONG WAY TO GO:In contrast to all other earlier generation steps, the 100 Gbps technology is being realized for thefirst time for short transmission paths and first will be applied in computer centers fornetworking powerful computers. Interfaces defined for ranges of 10 km and 40 km will first begeared for use in the MAN. But whether in computer centers or in the MAN, 100 Gbpstechnology will be introduced with parallel transmission and for that to happen, a workableconcept is required for the integration of a multi-lane system into the existing optical DWDMnetworks. In the next generation, it will be possible to use 100 Gbps for serial transmissions.However, many development steps are necessary in order to achieve these goals. These includethe cost-effective implementation of higher-level optical-modulation procedures (includingpolarization multiplexing) and the realization of fast signal processors to smooth the way forcoherent receivers.
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 10CONCLUSIONIf the relentless advances in wireless communications in the past decade are an indicator ofthings to come, then it is clear that we will witness not only faster ways to communicate, butalso newer modes of communication. Thus, it will be safe to conclude that the actual physicallimits of wireless communication are still unknown and it is for us to exploit that untappedpotential with a mix of creativity and serendipity. In contrast to all other earlier generation steps,the 100 Gbps technology is being realized for the first time for short transmission paths and firstwill be applied in computer centers for networking powerful computers. . For getting thatdifferent people take different approach, but yet to get the success. But whenever it is achieved itwill be very helpful for all of us.
A LITERATURE SURVEY ON HIGH SPEED(>100GBPS) WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 2013DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Page 11REFERENCES: Gavioli, G. u. a.: 100Gb/s WDM NRZ-PM QPSK Long-Haul Transmission Experiment overInstalled Fiber Probing Non-Linear Reach With and Without DCUs. Proc. ECOC 2009. Berlin •Offenbach: VDE VERLAG, 2009 IEEE Computer Society. IEEE Std 802.3an- 2006.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/11160/35821/01700008.pdf?tp=&isnumber=35821&arnumber=1700008. Cited 3/18/2007. ITU-T Document G.Sup43: Transport of IEEE 10GBase-R in optical transport networks(OTN) Ziemann, O.: When comes the Terabit-Ethernet – or the mathematical gadget of theextrapolation. Trade journal for information and communication technology62 (2009) H. 5, S. 26– 27 Juniper networks introduces breakthrough 100 gigabit ethernet interface for t series routers". P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B.Zhu,―Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448 Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16QAM usinga single I/Q modulator,‖in Proc. ECOC 2010 Symp. Toward 1 Tb/s, Torino, Italy, paper PDP2.2.Chandra, A., Bose C., Bose,M.K.(2011): Wireless Relays for Next Generation BroadbandNetworks, IEEE PotentialsCFP MSA Management Interface Specification. www.cfp-msa.org/Documents/CFP_MSA_Management_Interface_Specification_Draft_1_2_Public_B.pdf Winterling, P.: OTN as Transport medium of the future and requirements of the measuringtechnology. Trade journal for information and communication technology 62 (2009) H. 6, S. 28– 32 . Seimetz, M.: High-value modulation procedure in the optical glass-fiber transmissiontechnology. Part 1 and part 2. Trade journal for information and communication technology 62(2009) H. 6, S. 34 – 36 and H. 7-8, S. 20 – 23. Van den Borne, D. u.a.: Polmux-QPSK modulation and coherent detection: the challenge oflong-haul 100G transmission. Proc. ECOC 2009. Berlin • Offenbach: VDE VERLAG, 2009 . Brooks, P.: Meeting the test challenges of 100-Gigabit Ethernet. Lightwave 26 (2009) H.12, S. 29 – 31, 35 and 39.
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