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General anesthesia

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General anesthesia

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A brief review of general anesthesia, it's principles and framework

A brief review of general anesthesia, it's principles and framework

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General anesthesia

  1. 1. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA Dr. Reza Aminnejad Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Qom University of Medical Sciences
  2. 2. ANAESTHESIA – is the reversible loss of response to noxious stimuli. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA – when anaesthesia is associated with loss of consciousness. LOCAL ANAESTHESIA – when consciousness is maintained during anaesthesia. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 2
  3. 3. BALANCED ANAESTHESIA Unconsciousness Analgesia Muscle relaxation Abolition of compensatory reflex response DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 3
  4. 4. PREANAESTHETIC MEDICATION It is the use of drugs prior to anesthesia to make it more safe and pleasant. To relieve anxiety – Benzodiazepines To prevent allergic reactions – Antihistaminics To prevent nausea and vomiting – Antiemetics To provide analgesia – Opioids  To prevent acidity – Proton Pump Inhibitor To prevent bradycardia and secretion – Atropine DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 4
  5. 5. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 5
  6. 6. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 6
  7. 7. STAGES OF ANESTHESIA DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 7
  8. 8. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 8
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  11. 11. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF GENERAL ANESTHESIA GABA –A : Potentiation by Halothane, Propofol, Etomidate NMDA receptors : inhibited by Ketamine & N2O DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 11
  12. 12. THE MAIN TARGET OF ANESTHETICS IS THE BRAIN! DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 12
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION There are two types of anesthetics :  Inhalational --- for maintenance  Intravenous --- for induction and short procedures Inhalation anesthetics:  Advantage of controlling the depth of anesthesia  Metabolism is very minimal DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 13
  14. 14. INHALATIONAL ANAESTHETICS Non-halogenated gas Nitrous oxide Halogenated hydrocarbons Halothane Enflurane Isoflurane Desflurane Sevoflurane Methoxyflurane DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 14
  15. 15. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 15
  16. 16. THE IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF INHALATIONAL ANESTHETICS WHICH GOVERN THE ANAESTHESIA Partial pressure of anesthetic in inspired gas Pulmonary ventilation Alveolar exchange Solubility in the blood (blood : gas partition co-efficient) Solubility in the fat (oil : gas partition co-efficient) DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 16
  17. 17. BLOOD : GAS PARTITION CO-EFFICIENT It is a measure of solubility in the blood. It determines the rate of induction and recovery of Inhalational anesthetics. Lower the blood : gas co-efficient – faster the induction and recovery (Nitrous oxide) Higher the blood : gas co-efficient – slower induction and recovery (Halothane) DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 17
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  21. 21. OIL: GAS PARTITION CO-EFFICIENT It is a measure of lipid solubility. Lipid solubility correlates strongly with the potency of the anesthetic. Higher the lipid solubility, more potent anesthetic (e.g., halothane) DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 21
  22. 22. MAC VALUE MAC value is a measure of inhalational anesthetic potency. It is defined as the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (% of the inspired air) at which 50% of patients do not respond to a surgical stimulus. MAC values are additive and lower in the presence of opioids. MAC values 1.1 to 1.2 used during surgery. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 22
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  26. 26. SECOND GAS EFFECT Nitrous oxide is very insoluble in blood and other tissues. This results in rapid equilibration. The rapid uptake of N2O from alveolar gas serves to concentrate coadministered halogenated anesthetics. This effect (the "second gas effect") speeds induction of anesthesia. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 26
  27. 27. DIFFUSIONAL HYPOXIA On discontinuation of N2O administration, nitrous oxide gas can diffuse from blood to the alveoli, diluting O2 in the lung. This can produce an effect called diffusional hypoxia. To avoid hypoxia, 100% O2 should be administered when N2O is discontinued. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 27
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  29. 29. INHALATIONAL ANESTHETICS Nitrous oxide: Safest inhalational anesthetic Noninflammable, nonirritating Low potency anesthetic, poor muscle relaxant but a good analgesic. No toxic effect on the heart, liver and kidney A/E- diffusional hypoxia, megaloblastic anemia DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 29
  30. 30. Ether Potent anesthetic, good analgesic, good muscle relaxant Irritant, inflammable, explosive Induction is very slow and unpleasant (highly soluble in blood) Recovery is slow DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 30
  31. 31. Halothane: Potent anesthetic Poor analgesic, poor muscle relaxant Induction is pleasant It sensitizes the heart to catecholamines. It dilates bronchus (preferred in asthmatics) It inhibits uterine contractions Halothane hepatitis and malignant hyperthermia can occur. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 31
  32. 32. Enflurane: Sweet and ethereal odor Generally do not sensitizes the heart to catecholamines Seizures occurs at deeper levels (contraindicated in epileptics) Caution in renal failure due to fluoride DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 32
  33. 33. Isoflurane: It is commonly used with oxygen or nitrous oxide. It doesn’t sensitize the heart to catecholamines. Its pungency can irritate the respiratory system. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 33
  34. 34. Desflurane: It is delivered through special vaporizer. It is a popular anesthetic for day care surgery. Induction and recovery is fast, cognitive and motor impairment are short lived It irritates the air passages producing cough and laryngospasm. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 34
  35. 35. Sevoflurane: Induction and recovery is fast It is pleasant and acceptable due to lack of pungency. It does not cause air way irritancy. Concerns about nephrotoxicity DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 35
  36. 36. PARENTERAL ANAESTHETICS (IV) These are used for induction of anesthesia. Rapid onset of action Recovery is mainly by redistribution. Also reduce the amount of inhalation anesthetic for maintenance. Examples are Thiopental, Midazolam, Propofol, Etomidate & Ketamine. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 36
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  39. 39. PARENTERAL ANAESTHETICSThiopental (Pentothal): It is an ultra short acting barbiturates. Consciousness regained within 10-20 mins by redistribution to skeletal muscle. It do not increase ICT. It is eliminated slowly from the body by metabolism and produce hang over. It can be used for rapid control of seizures. A/E – Laryngospasm, AIP, Pain, Necrosis, Gangrene on extravasation & inadvertant arterial injection DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 39
  40. 40. Propofol : Most commonly used IV anesthetic Unconsciousness in ~ 45 seconds and lasts ~15 minutes Anti-emetic in action Non-irritant to airways Suited for day care surgery (residual impairment is less marked) A/E- Pain during injection, Fall in BP DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 40
  41. 41. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 41
  42. 42. Ketamine : Dissociative anesthesia Produce - profound analgesia, immobility, amnesia with light sleep. Acts by blocking NMDA receptors Heart rate and BP are elevated due to sympathetic stimulation Respiration is not depressed and reflexes are not abolished. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 42
  43. 43. Ketamine Emergence delirium, hallucinations and involuntary movements occurs during recovery (can be minimized by diazepam or midazolam). It is useful for burn dressing and trauma surgery. Dangerous for hypertensive and IHD patients. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 43
  44. 44. Dexmedetomidine Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenergic agonist. It is a drug of choice for conscious sedation. Tolerance and dependence can develop. Dexmedetomidine is principally used for the shortterm sedation of tracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care setting. It may be beneficial for prevention of emergence Delirium. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 44
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  46. 46. NEUROLEPT ANALGESIA It is characterized by calmness, psychic indifference and intense analgesia without total loss of consciousness. Combination of Fentanyl and Droperidol A/E- chest wall rigidity It is associated with decreased motor functions, suppressed autonomic reflexes, cardiovascular stability with mild amnesia. It causes drowsiness but respond to commands will be preserved. DR. REZA AMINNEJAD 46
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  49. 49. ANY QUESTION? THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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