Computer 1 Introduction to Microcomputers with Microsoft Word Next
Introduction to Microcomputers Next
Definition of a Computer <ul><li>A computer is a fast and accurate manipulating electronic device that is organized to acc...
Computer Generations <ul><li>“ Consider the past and you’ll know the future.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Chinese Proverbs </li></...
<ul><li>3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abacus , the first man-made device was invented.  It marked the beginning of compu...
<ul><li>1801 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Jacquard  developed the  mechanical loom  that uses  punched cards . </li></ul><...
<ul><li>1890 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herman Hollerith  adopted the punched card concept of Joseph Jacquard and invented a  t...
First Generation: The Vacuum Tubes <ul><li>Computers built in the technological era of development when the  vacuum tube  ...
Second Generation: The Transistors <ul><li>Describes computers in the second era of computer technology development in whi...
Third Generation: The Integrated Circuits <ul><li>Describes computers in the third era of computer technology development ...
Fourth Generation: The Microprocessors <ul><li>The fourth generation computers were characterized by the use of microproce...
Fifth Generation: Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>They will be able to take commands in a audio visual way and carry out i...
Characteristics of a Computer <ul><li>It is a machine.   It is an inanimate object.  Machines do not feel pain and are sen...
Continuation... <ul><li>It is automatic.   Once started, it continues to run without outside assistance.  The moment a par...
Continuation... <ul><li>It has memory.   It has the capacity to remember what it has done.  It can store instructions in i...
Classification of Computers <ul><li>According to Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>According to Data Handled </li></ul><ul><li>Acc...
According to Purpose <ul><li>Special Purpose Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers designed to perform only one specif...
Types of Data <ul><li>Discrete Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A representation of a variable that may assume any of several di...
According to Data Handled <ul><li>Analog Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers that operate on continuous data. </li><...
According to Size / Performance <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li><...
Supercomputers <ul><li>The fastest, most powerful type of computer, capable of performing its basic operations in picoseco...
Supercomputers <ul><li>To achieve these extraordinary speeds, supercomputers use several processors working together and t...
Supercomputers <ul><li>Supercomputers have the highest processing speeds and the largest primary memories, and they are re...
Mainframes <ul><li>Large computer used for commercial data processing and other large-scale operations. Because of the gen...
Minicomputers <ul><li>A small digital computer not usually based on a single processor chip, which is larger than a microc...
Microcomputers <ul><li>Microcomputers are the smallest of the four classes of computer. Since the appearance in 1975 of th...
Microcomputers <ul><li>A computer whose processing unit is based on a microprocessor chip.  Microcomputers originally had ...
Microcomputers <ul><li>Small desktop or portable computer, typically designed to be used by one person at a time, although...
Capabilities of Computers <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers can do billions of operations in a second. </li></...
Applications of Computers <ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Military </...
Overview of a Computer System <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical components of a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
Organization of a Computer Hardware System
Abacus Return
Blaise Pascal <ul><li>French mathematician and philosopher.  He made the Pascaline to help his father who is a tax collect...
Pascaline Return
John P. Eckert and John Mauchly Return
ENIAC Return
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz <ul><li>A German who advocated the binary system – now a foundation of computing- and was one of...
Joseph Marie Jacquard <ul><li>A French weaver who revolutionalized the weaving industry when he developed the mechanical l...
Transistors Return
Vacuum Tubes Return
Integrated Circuit Return
Punched Card Return                                            
UNIVAC Return
Herman Hollerith <ul><li>New York-born engineer who used his tabulating machine to tabulate data for the U.S. Census Burea...
Mechanical Loom Return Woven silk produced on a Jacquard loom .
Charles Babbage <ul><li>An English mathematician who is generally considered as the “Father of Computers” because he was a...
Tabulating Machine Return
William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain Return
Thomas Alva Edison Return
Difference Machine Return
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SRAS Computer 1

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PowerPoint presentation of the history of computer by Mr. Rey Belen for the First Year students of Southridge Afternoon School

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  • SRAS Computer 1

    1. 1. Computer 1 Introduction to Microcomputers with Microsoft Word Next
    2. 2. Introduction to Microcomputers Next
    3. 3. Definition of a Computer <ul><li>A computer is a fast and accurate manipulating electronic device that is organized to accept, store and process data, and produce output results under the supervision of stored program of instructions. </li></ul>Next
    4. 4. Computer Generations <ul><li>“ Consider the past and you’ll know the future.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Chinese Proverbs </li></ul>Next
    5. 5. <ul><li>3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abacus , the first man-made device was invented. It marked the beginning of computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1642 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blaise Pascal designed an adding machine called the Pascaline . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1674 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz made improvements on Pascal’s machine and developed a mechanical calculating machine that can also divide and multiply and called it the Stepped Reckoner. </li></ul></ul>Next
    6. 6. <ul><li>1801 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Jacquard developed the mechanical loom that uses punched cards . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1822 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage designed an automatic mechanical calculating machine called Difference Engine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1833 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage designed the Analytical Engine which is the prototype of the modern computer. </li></ul></ul>Next
    7. 7. <ul><li>1890 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herman Hollerith adopted the punched card concept of Joseph Jacquard and invented a tabulating machine . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1943 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A team composed of John P. Eckert and John W. Mauchly started building a machine using electronics capable of doing rapid calculations of large quantities of information. It was called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator/Computer). </li></ul></ul>Next
    8. 8. First Generation: The Vacuum Tubes <ul><li>Computers built in the technological era of development when the vacuum tube was the main electronic component. It was invented by Thomas Alva Edison . </li></ul><ul><li>1946, the ENIAC was completed. It was the first electronic digital computer without moving parts. It was programmable and capable of storing problem calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>1950, Remington Rand manufactured the first commercially available first generation computer. It was called UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Calculator). </li></ul>Next
    9. 9. Second Generation: The Transistors <ul><li>Describes computers in the second era of computer technology development in which the transistor was introduced and quickly replaced the thousands of vacuum tubes used in electronic computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors are smaller, lighter, less expensive to produce, cheaper to operate, more reliable than vacuum tubes and consume less power. </li></ul><ul><li>It was invented by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in 1948. </li></ul>Next
    10. 10. Third Generation: The Integrated Circuits <ul><li>Describes computers in the third era of computer technology development in which Integrated Circuit (IC) and miniaturization replaced the transistor-based computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers with micro-circuits. It is a complete electronic circuitry on a small chip of silicon. </li></ul>Next
    11. 11. Fourth Generation: The Microprocessors <ul><li>The fourth generation computers were characterized by the use of microprocessor and further miniaturization of circuits, an increased in multiprogramming and the use of virtual storage memory. </li></ul>Next
    12. 12. Fifth Generation: Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>They will be able to take commands in a audio visual way and carry out instructions. Many of the operations which require low human intelligence will be performed by these computers. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal for fifth generation computers is the ability to sense, reason and interact with people and the physical world. </li></ul>Next
    13. 13. Characteristics of a Computer <ul><li>It is a machine. It is an inanimate object. Machines do not feel pain and are senseless. It needs outside intervention for it to run. It can only do things for which it was designed. </li></ul><ul><li>It is electronic. It runs only on electrical energy. It is made up of electronic circuits. </li></ul>Next
    14. 14. Continuation... <ul><li>It is automatic. Once started, it continues to run without outside assistance. The moment a particular computer, programmed to perform a task, is switched on, it will promptly do its job minus human interference. </li></ul><ul><li>It can manipulate data. Following specific rules, it can perform arithmetic functions. Also, it can compare data. </li></ul>Next
    15. 15. Continuation... <ul><li>It has memory. It has the capacity to remember what it has done. It can store instructions in its memory and follow these through unaided. </li></ul><ul><li>It has logical functions. It can be given a set of instructions that tells what it must do and how it must be done. It can produce results upon completion of these instructions. </li></ul>Next
    16. 16. Classification of Computers <ul><li>According to Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>According to Data Handled </li></ul><ul><li>According to Size/Performance </li></ul>Next
    17. 17. According to Purpose <ul><li>Special Purpose Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers designed to perform only one specific task. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Purpose Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers designed to perform countless applications and can store different programs. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Types of Data <ul><li>Discrete Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A representation of a variable that may assume any of several distinct states and is usually coded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data that can be obtained through simple counting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data that can be ascertained continuously in time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data that can be obtained through measurement. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. According to Data Handled <ul><li>Analog Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers that operate on continuous data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers that operate on discrete data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers that carries the features of both analog and digital computers. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. According to Size / Performance <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers </li></ul>
    21. 21. Supercomputers <ul><li>The fastest, most powerful type of computer, capable of performing its basic operations in picoseconds (trillionths of a second), rather than nanoseconds (billionths of a second), like most other computers. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Supercomputers <ul><li>To achieve these extraordinary speeds, supercomputers use several processors working together and techniques such as cooling processors down to nearly absolute zero temperature, so that their components conduct electricity many times faster than normal. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Supercomputers <ul><li>Supercomputers have the highest processing speeds and the largest primary memories, and they are required for modeling very complex phenomena such as the weather. The semicircular arrangement of the processors in this Cray-2 supercomputer is meant to keep interconnecting wire lengths at a minimum and the speed of signal transfers at a maximum. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the world's 500 most powerful supercomputers 232 are in the US, 109 in Japan, and 140 in Europe, with 23 in the UK. Fujitsu announced the launch of the world's most powerful computer 1992; it can perform 300 billion calculations a second. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Mainframes <ul><li>Large computer used for commercial data processing and other large-scale operations. Because of the general increase in computing power, the differences between the mainframe, supercomputer, minicomputer, and microcomputer (personal computer) are becoming less marked. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Minicomputers <ul><li>A small digital computer not usually based on a single processor chip, which is larger than a microcomputer and smaller than a mainframe computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-user computer with a size and processing power between those of a mainframe and a microcomputer. Nowadays almost all minicomputers are based on microprocessors. </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers are often used in medium-sized businesses and in university departments handling database or other commercial programs and running scientific or graphical applications. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Microcomputers <ul><li>Microcomputers are the smallest of the four classes of computer. Since the appearance in 1975 of the first commercially available microcomputer, the Altair 8800, micros have become widely accepted in commerce, industry, and education. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Microcomputers <ul><li>A computer whose processing unit is based on a microprocessor chip. Microcomputers originally had an increasing variety of applications in the home, office, and many other areas. Although they are smaller than minicomputers and mainframe computers, multiprocessor and parallel micro systems now compete in power and price. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Microcomputers <ul><li>Small desktop or portable computer, typically designed to be used by one person at a time, although individual computers can be linked in a network so that users can share data and programs. Its central processing unit is a microprocessor, contained on a single integrated circuit. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Capabilities of Computers <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers can do billions of operations in a second. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failures are usually due to human errors, one way or the other. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers can keep huge amounts of data. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Applications of Computers <ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Banks </li></ul><ul><li>Airlines </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul>                              
    31. 31. Overview of a Computer System <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical components of a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs we feed to a computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peopleware / Human Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel who use the computer. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Organization of a Computer Hardware System
    33. 34. Abacus Return
    34. 35. Blaise Pascal <ul><li>French mathematician and philosopher. He made the Pascaline to help his father who is a tax collector. </li></ul>Return
    35. 36. Pascaline Return
    36. 37. John P. Eckert and John Mauchly Return
    37. 38. ENIAC Return
    38. 39. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz <ul><li>A German who advocated the binary system – now a foundation of computing- and was one of the inventors of calculus. He is widely known for his work in philosophy, too. </li></ul>Return
    39. 40. Joseph Marie Jacquard <ul><li>A French weaver who revolutionalized the weaving industry when he developed the mechanical loom. </li></ul>Return
    40. 41. Transistors Return
    41. 42. Vacuum Tubes Return
    42. 43. Integrated Circuit Return
    43. 44. Punched Card Return                                            
    44. 45. UNIVAC Return
    45. 46. Herman Hollerith <ul><li>New York-born engineer who used his tabulating machine to tabulate data for the U.S. Census Bureau’s 1890 census. He is the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company which eventually became IBM (International Business Machines). </li></ul>Return
    46. 47. Mechanical Loom Return Woven silk produced on a Jacquard loom .
    47. 48. Charles Babbage <ul><li>An English mathematician who is generally considered as the “Father of Computers” because he was able to conceptualized the modern computer. </li></ul>Return
    48. 49. Tabulating Machine Return
    49. 50. William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain Return
    50. 51. Thomas Alva Edison Return
    51. 52. Difference Machine Return

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