Geographyof China


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Geographyof China

  1. 1. The Geography of China M r. R e y B e l e n
  2. 2. Satellite View of China
  3. 3. China’s Provinces
  4. 4. China—Asia’s Superpower
  5. 5. China vs. the U. S. in Size China United States <ul><ul><li>SOURCE: Topic 5: “The Awakening Giant” by Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Comparing China & the U. S. China United States Size 3.7 million square miles 3.6 million square miles Main physical barrier Himalayas Rockies Main River Yangtze / East - West Mississippi / North – South Population East Coast East Coast Connectivity problems North - South East - West
  7. 7. Countries & Regions Tibet Mongolia Southeast Asia Indian Subcontinent Russia N. Korea S> Korea Taiwan Philippines
  8. 8. Cities BEIJING Harbin Nanjing Guangzhou Xi’an Shanghai Taipei Lhasa Hong Kong Macao
  9. 9. Completed Political Map BEIJING Harbin Nanjing Guangzhou Xi’an Shanghai Taipei Lhasa Hong Kong Macao Tibet Mongolia Southeast Asia Indian Subcontinent N. Korea S> Korea Taiwan Philippines
  10. 10. Topography
  11. 11. China’s Topography
  12. 12. Percentages of Different Landforms
  13. 13. Pacific “Rim of Fire”
  14. 14. Bodies of Water Huang-He River Yellow Sea Yangtze River Pacific Ocean Amur River Xi River South China Sea Sea of Japan
  15. 15. The Yangtze River
  16. 16. Mountains & Peaks Tian Shan Altai Mts. Greater Khingan Kunlun Shan Himalayan Mts.
  17. 17. The Great Wall of China
  18. 18. Deserts & Plateaus Tibetan Plateau Taklamakan Desert Gobi Desert
  19. 19. Valleys / Plains / Basins Manchurian Plain North China Plain Tarim Basin Sichuan Basin
  20. 20. North China Plain
  21. 21. Agricultural Regions in China Shabdong Peninsula Grand Canal Great Wall CHUNG KUO
  22. 22. Completed Topographic Map Huang-He River Yellow Sea Yangtze River Pacific Ocean Amur River Xi River South China Sea Sea of Japan Tian Shan Altai Mts. Greater Khingan Kunlun Shan Himalayan Mts. Tibetan Plateau Taklamakan Desert Gobi Desert Manchurian Plain North China Plain Tarim Basin Sichuan Basin Shabdong Peninsula Grand Canal Great Wall CHUNG KUO
  23. 23. South China
  24. 24. China as % of World Population
  25. 25. Top 10 Populated Nations 2001 2050
  26. 26. The Population of China thousands
  27. 27. Population Projections thousands
  28. 28. Population Density
  29. 29. Male/Female Birth Population
  30. 30. Life Expectancy at Birth by Sex
  31. 31. &quot;Economic Juggernaut&quot;
  32. 32. Monthly Value of Imports & Exports 2004
  33. 33. Ancient China Mr. Rey Belen SR-AS
  34. 34. “ Peking Man” (750,000 – 500,000 BCE) Sinanthropus pekinesis
  35. 35. <ul><li>Peking man was identified as a member of the human lineage by Davidson Black in 1927 on the basis of a single tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhoukoudian fossils date from about 550,000 to 230,000 years ago. Before being assigned to H. erectus , they were variously classified as Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus . </li></ul><ul><li>The original fossils were under study at the Peking Union Medical College in 1941 when, with Japanese invasion imminent, an attempt was made to smuggle them out of China and to the United States. The bones disappeared and have never been recovered, leaving only plaster casts for study. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Yellow River Civilization
  37. 37. <ul><li>Known as the mother river by all the Chinese people, the 5,464-kilometer (about 3,395 miles) Yellow River is the second longest river in China after the Yangtze River . </li></ul><ul><li>It is agreed upon by almost all the Chinese people that the Yellow River is the cradle of Chinese civilization, the spiritual home of the Chinese people. </li></ul><ul><li>the symbol of the Chinese nation, the spirit of the Chinese people and more importantly, civilization itself. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Neolithic Pottery 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE
  39. 39. The 4 Old-World River Valley Cultures
  40. 40. Pan-Gu: Mythical Creator of the Universe
  41. 41. <ul><li>Chinese legend says Pan Gu created the world by separating the heaven and the earth from chaos. </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning, the universe was like an egg and there was only chaos in the egg. Pan Gu had slept in the egg for over 18,000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Then one day, he woke up and cracked the egg into pieces. By separating the heavy and light parts of the egg, he created the heaven and the earth. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Pan Gu stood on the earth and held up the heaven using his hands, and then he had grown with the heaven until the form of the world for another 18,000 years. </li></ul>
  43. 43. “ Chung Kuo” ( The “Middle Kingdom” )
  44. 44. <ul><li>This is Chung , the Chinese character for center. ( Chung Kuo means &quot;center country&quot;, and is the name for China, whose occidental name comes from the Qin Dynasty. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Hsia Dynasty 2205-1027 BCE
  46. 46. Yu, the Great – Founder of the Hsia
  47. 47. <ul><li>often regarded with legendary status as Yu the Great ( 大禹 Dà-Yǔ ), was the first ruler and founder of the Xia Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>he is best remembered for teaching the people flood control techniques to tame China's rivers and lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Yu is regarded as a descendant of Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor. Yu's father,is Gun </li></ul><ul><li>Yu is one of only two Chinese rulers posthumously honored with the appellation &quot;the Great </li></ul>
  48. 48. “ Huangdi” – Emperor <ul><li>The “Yellow Emperor.” </li></ul><ul><li>Legend has it that he ruled for over 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with the invention of wheeled vehicles, ships, armor, pottery, and silk-making. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Emperor Fuxi <ul><li>Mythical Hsia ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught the Chinese how to read and write, according to legend. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Hsia Plaque, 1700 BCE
  51. 51. Shang Dynasty 1766-1027 BCE
  52. 52. Bronze Age Empires
  53. 53. Shang: 1523-1028 BCE
  54. 54. <ul><li>The Shang, rather than the Xia, is considered by most to be the first true dynasty of China. Like the Xia, the Shang were originally considered to be a myth. </li></ul><ul><li>They were discovered because Chinese phamacists were selling oracle bones the Shang had created; the pharmacists sold the bones as dragon bones. </li></ul><ul><li>The bones were first noticed in 1899 and by the 1920's were traced to Anyang, where the last Shang capital was found and excavated. </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Traditional Chinese history indicates that the Shang Dynasty consisted of 30 kings and seven different, successive, capitals. The Zhou, the dynasty that followed the Shang, are responsible for the recordings of the kings and capitals of the Shang Dynasty. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Oracle Bones
  57. 57. Oracle Bones Calendar
  58. 58. The Evolution of Chinese Writing during the Shang Pictographs Semantic-Phonetics
  59. 59. <ul><li>One of the most important technological developments of the Shang was the invention of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the first group of people from China of which written records are found. The most common place these writings are found is on oracle bones used for divination. </li></ul><ul><li>The bones used for this purpose originally came from a number of animals, but were eventually done exclusively on turtle shells. A question was written on the bone, which was then fired and a T shaped crack was produced which was interpreted, and the interpretation was then written on the bone. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>The Shang worshipped the &quot;Shang Ti.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>This god ruled as a supreme god over lesser gods, the sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, and other natural forces and places. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly ritualized, ancestor worship became a part of the Shang religion. Sacrifice to the gods and the ancestors was also a major part of the Shang religion. </li></ul><ul><li>When a king died, hundreds of slaves and prisoners were often sacrificed and buried with him. People were also sacrificed in lower numbers when important events, such as the founding of a palace or temple, occurred. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Axe Scepter – 1100 BCE - jade Ceremonial Dagger – 1028 BCE
  62. 62. Shang Urn
  63. 63. Shang Bronzes
  64. 64. Ritual Wine Vessel – bronze, 13c BCE
  65. 65. Zhou Dynasty 1027 - 256 BCE
  66. 66. <ul><li>The Zhou began as a semi-nomadic tribe that lived to the west of the Shang </li></ul><ul><li>kingdom. Due to their nomadic ways, they learned how to work with people of different cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou eventually became stronger than the Shang, and in about 1040 B.C. they defeated the Shang in warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang were also weakened due to their constant warfare with people to the north. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Western Zhou: 1027-771 BCE
  68. 68. <ul><li>The Zhou Dynasty is divided into subperiods. The first is the Western Zhou, which occurs from the time of their victory over the Shang until about 771 B.C. when they were forced east by barbarians from the north. The king was killed but his son was saved and moved east where a new capital was formed in Loyang. This began the period known as the Eastern Zhou. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Eastern Zhou: 771-256 BCE
  70. 70. <ul><li>The Eastern Zhou is further divided into two time periods, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. The Spring and Autumn Period occurred from about 770-476 B.C. During this time, the Zhou emperor steadily lost power due to the realization by the feudal lords that he was not powerful and could be beaten, which had been proven by the defeat in the west. The second half, the Warring States Period, is so named because of the power struggle between the large states of China that were trying to gain control over the entire area. It lasted from about 475 - 221 B.C. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Ritual Food Vessel, bronze 11c BCE (Western Zhou)
  72. 72. Pendant of a Dancer - jade 3c BCE (Eastern Zhou)
  73. 73. Ritual Wine Vessel – 4c bronze, silver, gold, copper
  74. 74. Zhou Coins - bronze
  75. 75. <ul><li>Traditional Chinese history says that the Zhou were able to take over the Shang because the Shang had degenerated morally. Part of this belief may have been caused by the Zhou themselves, who are credited with the idea of the Mandate of Heaven. The Zhou used this idea to validate their takeover and subsequent ruling of the former Shang kingdom. The Mandate of Heaven says that Heaven, or tian, places the mandate, tianming, to rule on any family that is morally worthy of the responsibility. Also, the only way to know if the Mandate of Heaven had been removed from the ruling family was if they were overthrown. If the ruler is overthrown, then the victors had the Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul>
  76. 76. “ T’ien Ming” The Mandate of Heaven <ul><li>The leader must lead by ability and virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. </li></ul><ul><li>The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important. </li></ul>
  77. 77. The Dynastic Cycle A new dynasty comes to power. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Emperor is defeated !! The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Start here 