<ul><li>It was a simple, but effective system, where all land was owned by the King. One quarter was kept by the King as his personal property, some was given to the church and the rest was leased out under strict controls. </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism in the Middle Ages resembles a pyramid, with the lowest peasants at its base and the lines of authority flowing up to the peak of the structure, the king. </li></ul><ul><li>Life lived under the Medieval Feudal System, or Feudalism, demanded that everyone owed allegiance to the King and their immediate superior. </li></ul>
Feudalism Pyramid <ul><li>At the top of the Feudalism Pyramid was the King </li></ul><ul><li>The King claimed ownership of the land </li></ul><ul><li>The King granted the land to important nobles - these nobles then pledged their loyalty by swearing to serve and protect the king </li></ul><ul><li>The king also granted land to the less powerful military men (the knights) who were called vassals </li></ul><ul><li>The vassals also agreed to fight for the king in exchange for their land </li></ul><ul><li>The land was worked by the peasants or serfs. They belonged to the land and could not leave without permission - the bottom of the Feudalism pyramid. </li></ul>
Feudalism Pyramid - Fealty and Homage <ul><li>During the Middle Ages a portion of land called a fief would be granted by the King. This reward would be granted to him by his lord in exchange for his services. The recipient of the fief would be one of his vassals. The fief, or land, was usually granted following a Commendation Ceremony. The commendation ceremony was designed to create a lasting bond between a vassal and his lord. Fealty and homage were a key element of feudalism. </li></ul>
The King <ul><li>The King was in complete control under the Feudal System. He owned all the land in the country and decided who he would lease land to. He therefore only allowed those men he could trust to lease land from him. However, before they were given any land they had to swear an oath to remain faithful to the King at all times. The men who leased land from the King were known as Barons, they were wealthy, powerful and had complete control of the land they leased from the King. </li></ul>
The Barons/Lords <ul><li>Barons leased land from the King which was known as a manor. They were known as the Lord of the Manor and were in complete control of this land. They established their own system of justice, minted their own money and set their own taxes. In return for the land they had been given by the King, the Barons had to serve on the royal council, pay rent and provide the King with Knights for military service when he demanded it. They also had to provide lodging and food for the King and his court when they travelled around the country. The Barons kept as much of their land as they wished for their own use, then divided the rest among their Knights. Barons were very rich. </li></ul>
Knights <ul><li>Knights were given land by a Baron in return for military service when demanded by the King. They also had to protect the Baron and his family, as well as the Manor, from attack. The Knights kept as much of the land as they wished for their own personal use and distributed the rest to villeins (serfs). Although not as rich as the Barons, Knights were quite wealthy. </li></ul>
Villeins <ul><li>Villeins, sometimes known as serfs, were given land by Knights. They had to provide the Knight with free labour, food and service whenever it was demanded. Villeins had no rights. They were not allowed to leave the Manor and had to ask their Lord's permission before they could marry. Villeins were poor. </li></ul>
<ul><li>1. Feudalism was introduced to England by William the Conqueror. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Knights leased land from the king. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A baron was known as 'Lord of the Manor'. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Barons had to provide food for villeins. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Knights had to fight for the king when the barons told them to. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Knights were quite wealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Villeins were also known as serfs. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The king gave food to everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Villeins were rich. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Barons set their own taxes. </li></ul>
AS regions develop, similar systems may develop. Feudal Japan and Europe in the dark ages has similarities such as a feudal system, codes of honor and aspects of religion.
The similarities are comparable but are not completely the same.
Firstly, both regions used feudalism. <ul><li>The purpose for Europe and Japan to use the feudal system is to protect the land. The king (Europe) or Shogun (Japan) were leaders in the feudal system. These men would appoint lords (Europe) or daimyos (Japan) who pledge allegiance and watch over and protect pieces of land given from the king or Shogun. </li></ul><ul><li>These appointed landowners would have men work the land as farmers to pay taxes to the king while receiving little in return to the farmers. </li></ul>
Both regions had a certain code of honor as well. <ul><li>In Europe, the code of honor is chivalry, code of a medieval knight, and in Feudal Japan is bushido code or “the warrior’s way”. </li></ul><ul><li>The bushido code stressed loyalty, obedience, and honor to one’s country. These bushido codes are used to show respect as a fighter. </li></ul>
<ul><li>As chivalry stressed the importance of being a proper man, taking care of women for they are fragile, inferior beings. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, the classes who abided by Chivalry or their code of honor are the king, lords and knights. </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan the Samurai class consists of the Shogun, Daimyo, Bushi. </li></ul>
Religion played a role in the way both the Europeans and Japanese fought. <ul><li>For the Europeans, who are mostly Christian, they believed in God and He would help them win. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese believed in Zen Buddhism and if the men were to die they died with honor. </li></ul>
As the codes of honor are similar, there are differences in Japanese and European life. <ul><li>The Seppuku, in feudal Japan, was a way for the Samurai to resist capture by suicide. This slow suicide was done by the samurai by stabbing oneself with a shot sword cutting open the abdomen then stabbing oneself again in the throat. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of suicide made by the samurais demonstrates courage, self-control, to prove their loyalty to the purpose. The samurai understood and accepted death </li></ul>
Although, the vassal system was present in both regions, the code of each system is different. <ul><li>In Europe, the system was based on a legal code, creating laws. </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan, the vassal system was based on a moral code, this shows more self-control again by the Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the Dark Ages, specifically in England, a movement to limit the aristocratic government was made with the creation of the Magna Carta. </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan the aristocratic government was trying the improve rice-farming methods to increase production. </li></ul>