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Mechatronics in Aerospace

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Dr. Peter Jänker, EADS Innovation Works
e-ECS
Landing Gear
Engine start
High Lift System
Primary Flight Controls
Vibration, Isolation & Attenuation
Noise control

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Mechatronics in Aerospace

  1. 1. 1 Mechatronics in Aerospace Dr. Peter Jänker, EADS Innovation Works Presented at the Symposium “Eads Engineering Europe” Budapest, 8. May 2007
  2. 2. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 2 Content  Mechatronics A General Trend in General Industry and Aerospace  More Electric A/C –Value Added  Mechatronics in Aerospace –Needs for R&T  Examples of Research Projects at EADS - Electrical actuation for high lift system - Active Rotor for Helicopter - Vibration Reduction for ARIANE V launcher
  3. 3. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 3 The Future will be more electric Mechatronics is a general trend in industry Rapid development of computer and power electronics foster the development of more-electric systems There is a clear trend towards the All-Electric Aircraft A380: 3Hydraulics -> 2H + 2E saves 1 ton mass for PFCS! B787: bleedless, electric ECS, 28 VDC, 115 VAC, 230 VAC, +/- 270VDC JSF, F22, more-electric, 28VDC, 270 VDC, LiIo Battery Fighter A/C & UCAVS will be more-electric
  4. 4. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 4 Mechatronics is the combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems. What is Mechatronics?
  5. 5. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 5 Engine Onboard Power Architectures –Conventional A/C E Generator Power Converter Power Distribution & Protection Electric Loads Bleed Air Valve Manifold Hydraulic pumps Reservoirs Air Conditioning Packs Flight Control Actuators Actuators Landing Gear … Computer Systems
  6. 6. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 6 Computer Systems Onboard Power Architectures –All Electric A/C E Generator Power Converter Power Distribution & Protection Electric Loads Air Conditioning Packs Flight Control Actuators Actuators Landing Gear … Engine
  7. 7. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 7 Power [kW] Dynamics [Hz]0,1 1 10 100 0,1 1 10 100 high lift, THSA primary flight controls vibration isolation & attenuation noise control engine start e-ECS Landing gear Galley Where can Mechatronics be applied at Aircraft?
  8. 8. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 8 What Benefits Do We Expect ?  Economy Cost Reduction installation and maintenance Reducing down-times and operational interrupts Improving energy efficiency e.g. bleed less engines, advanced onboard power management  Added Functions Self-diagnosis & maintenance support positioning e.g. differential flap setting, monitoring , re-configuration, automation  Green A/C Power management, better use of available sources and buffers Avoid toxic and inflammable liquids pre-requisite for emission free ground operation  Safety Better & simpler segregation of (electrical) power distribution
  9. 9. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 9 - Substitution of hitherto used hydraulic actuators by electrical actuation systems - flight control - landing gear - brake actuation - Enabling new fields of application in noise and vibration control (especially when utilizing the piezoelectric principle) - Compliance with demanding requirements - life, reliability, - weight, installation space - environmental conditions, - Main Actuation Principles pushed forward in the recent years are - electric actuators (EMA, EHA) and - piezoelectric actuators. - Electronics New actuators put strong requirements on control and electronics systems design. It requires highly efficient and reliable electronics to achieve flight worthy products! - Electrical Power Network energy generation, distribution, protection and energy management Mechatronics in Aerospace - Action Fields
  10. 10. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 10 Hazard levels - Civil  Source: FAR/JAR 25 1 1e-3 1e-5 1e-7 1e-9
  11. 11. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 11 Airbus A380 –The “More Electric”Approach Slats Flaps 3 Ailerons8 spoilers 2 Rudders 2 Elevators Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer A380 Flight Control Surfaces Configuration
  12. 12. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 12 YServocontrol EHA EBHA Elec. motor E Y E UPPER LOWER RUDDERS Y G G Y E E E E Speedbrakes, ground spoilers G E SPOILER SAILERONS I/B M O/B Roll control surfaces G Y Y YY YGG G G Y E Speedbrakes, ground spoilers GE SPOILER S AILERONS I/B M O/B Roll control surfaces G Y YY YY G GG GYE SLATS FLAPS YE G Y THS ELEVATORS ELEVATORS O/B O/BI/B I/B G G Y E E Y Y E GE E Electrically Powered Actuators in stand-by positions Airbus “More Electric”Approach  A380 2H/2E Power Source and Actuator Distribution
  13. 13. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 13 Mastering Flight Control Systems of More-Electric A/C Electric Powered EHA for Primary Flight Control has been proven to be sucessfull on A380 – Weight saving. – Improved efficiency – Maintenance: Elimination of potential leakage sources – Dissimilarity of power sources – More flexible reconfiguration in case of power generation failure Next steps are – to fully exploit potential of Mechatronics e.g. electrically powered secondary flight control flaps – develop highly reliable E-Motors – improve electric converters – develop internal redundancy, re-configuration, and fault anticipation algorithm optimize weight, size, and packaging = mechatronics integration
  14. 14. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 14 Distributed all-electric flap drive system Replacement of hydraulic central drive unit by a distributed electrical flap drive system Benefits •Installation •new functions •maintenance friendly Technology •data-linked individual drives •digitally controlled electrically powered electromechanical actuators •Fail-safe mechanics •Fail-op electronics & controlstatus quo
  15. 15. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 15 A320 Landing Flap
  16. 16. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 16 Solution Candidates for Electric Flap Actuation EHA Central electric drive replacing central hydraulic motor Distributed EMA (EADS Concept) Boeing 777 hybrid HE
  17. 17. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 17 Redundancy by phase-modular design and physical isolation of the motor phases  Six phase machine, driven by separate power amplifier modules  Active-standby dual-duplex control system
  18. 18. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 18 Local redundant motor control system architecture  Master-slave-configuration of motor control computers  N out of m redundant phase control modules  Double star communication topology – Control is reconfigured from MCMMaster to MCMSlave in case of controller or sensor faults
  19. 19. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 19 Fault tolerant EMA – Simulation of motor operation with internal fault  Motor can follow the reference speed command with sufficient accuracy  Significant torque ripple  Operation with aiding loads still possible
  20. 20. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 20 Active Rotor Control using Piezo Technology  World first flight in September 2005 •Reduction of BVI noise and cabin vibrations •Automatic tracking / balancing •Improvement of aeromechanical stability •Delaying of stall flutter onset, .....
  21. 21. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 21 Status and Challenge ~ 10 kg~ 68 kgGewicht 5 dm³21 dm³Volumen MARKIIMARK ISystem
  22. 22. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 22 Rotor Blade - Aerodynamics - Temperature - Mechanics Flap Actuator Sensors: Data Receiver & Real Time Controller Power Electronics Power Distribution Galvanic Slip Ring Rotary Joint Energy Data Data Aquisition & Communication Fuselage Active Rotor Control System Architecture
  23. 23. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 23 •power & data distribution board •PCM Data Acquisition A/D converter signal conditioner PCM encoder rotor flange Slip ring Hub Electronics Integration Power Electronics System Integration
  24. 24. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 24 Launcher Payload Active Payload Adapter for Launcher •conical truss structure •piezoelectric actuators •target application: Ariane 5 •load cases: booster ignition, booster pressure oscillation, booster separation Objective: reduce low frequency vibration (<100 Hz) of the payload by > 12 dB
  25. 25. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 25 Vertical (Single Leaf) Lateral (Dual Leaf) Controller & Power Supply smart piezo force generators instead of semi-active absorbers active remote control of fuselage vibrations (4/rev) airframe acceleration sensors adaptive feedforward filtering x-LMS Active Vibration Control for Helicopter Force generator vibration direction
  26. 26. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 26 Conclusion  Future aircrafts will be more-electric and comprise complex mechatronic systems - Installed electric power on aircrafts steadily increases - Electromotors replaces hydraulics and pneumatics - optimization of electrical power system  To master future technical challenges, EADS requires to enhance skills in + mechatronics integration technologies + electrical power management, motor control + concurrent modelling and engineering of mechanical and electrical systems
  27. 27. 13.07.2008 Symposium EADS Engineering Europe - Budapest 2008 27 THANK YOU!!

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