Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano Topics Outline

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Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano Topics Outline

  1. 1. The Ties that Bind: Social Injustice, Armed Conflict, Transformative Peace Education, & Social Change in the Southern Philippines Rey Ty
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>“ Through the eyes of a child the words rebellion, war, revolution,& conflicts made me wonder why these things happen.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wish to see… peace...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have my own distinct passion for peace. “ </li></ul>From an Artifact: (A Female Muslim Student Leader)
  3. 4. Description: Philippine Peace Education Program at NIU 2003-2008 <ul><li>About 5-8 Adult Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>124 Persons Trained at NIU </li></ul><ul><li>More women!  </li></ul><ul><li>April 2008: 27 more </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 151 (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>State Department Grant </li></ul><ul><li>Each year: 21-26 Youth/Student Leaders (15-17 Years Old) </li></ul>
  4. 6. Purpose <ul><li>1. To depict the perceptions of participants in the Philippine peace education programs at NIU, 2003 to 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>2. To investigate how the participants get involved in actually transforming a war-ravaged region </li></ul>
  5. 7. Framework <ul><li>Freire’s Critical Pedagogy (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Cultures, Thick Description (Geertz, 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Stories, Live as Lived (Abu-Lughod, 1993) </li></ul>
  6. 8. Conceptual Framework Personal Care Environmental Care Intercultural Solidarity & Common Humanity Human Rights & Responsibilities Justice & Compassion Conflict Resolution Peace
  7. 9. Conceptual Framework Conflict Resolution Non- Judicial Quasi- Judicial Judicial -Negotiations -Inquiry -Mediation -Conciliation -Arbitration -Adjudication -Domestic Courts -International Courts
  8. 10. Literature on the Components of Peace: 45 Peer Reviewed Journal Articles Authors Components Johnson & Johnson (2005) Rauch & Steiner (2006) United Nations University for Peace (2007) Conflict resolution Negotiation and mediation Peace education Conflict resolution Constructive controversy discourse Values Civic values X Justice and compassion Common goals & fate Human rights and responsibilities Unity in Diversity Integrated school Development education and global learning Intercultural solidarity and common humanity Environment X Environmental education Environmental care The Individual X X Personal care
  9. 11. Literature on the Content of Peace Education: A Synthesis of Best Practices Issues Specific Actions Needed Authors Content Recognize shared values Nolan (2007) Respect differences Nolan (2007) Analyze social systems Galtung (1969) Bischoff & Moore (2007) Challenge oppressive social structures Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Inculcate values such as justice and human rights values Narsee (2005) Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Promote mutual understanding Magolda (2002) Consider the historical and social contexts Jones (2005) Conduct needs assessment Jones (2005) Move toward moral inclusion Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Work with community Bretherton, Weston, & Zbar (2005) Study the long-term impact Davies (2005)
  10. 12. Instructional Strategies of Successful Peace Education Programs: A Synthesis of Best Practices Issues Specific Actions Needed Authors Instructional Strategies Critical thinking Mahrouse (2006) Engage in active, practical learning Biachoff & Moore (2007) Be practical, not didactic Wessells (2005) Use oral history Bischoff & Moore (2007) Listen to collective narratives Al-Jafar & Buzzelli (2004) Kupermintz & Salomon (2005) Critically assess the importance of cognitive, emotional, motivational or behavioral components Yablon (2007) Use technology Vrasidas & Associates (2007) Avoid Euro-centrism Berlowitz, Long, & Jackson (2006) Avoid blindly importing U.S. models Jones (2005) Ask participants what the content and methodologies they believe are appropriate Tatar & Horenczyk (2003)
  11. 13. Critique of the Literature <ul><li>1. Components of Peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, class, & religion ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Content of Peace Education Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic & Social Justice issues too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armed conflict! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Teaching & Learning Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must not just be reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community based! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops great but not all! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Methodology: Description of Site & Participants Interviewees Online Open-Ended Questionnaire Online Questionnaire Respondents Focus Group in Albuquerque, New Mexico Focus Group in Salt Lake City, Utah 1 A.A. 2 A.G.A. 3 A.R.B. A.R.B. 4 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 5 M.K. M.K. M.K. 6 Tess D.L. 7 L.J. L.J. 8 J.L. 9 C.D.O. 10 L.D.O. 11 C.P. 12 S.R. (Anthro Pofessor) + Rommel 13 K.W. (Anthro Professor) K.W. (Anthro Professor) TOTAL 4 36/98 2003-2005 Batch 12/26 2005-2006 Batch 3 3
  13. 15. Data Collection Procedures <ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Qualitative Survey Questionnaires </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Data Analysis <ul><ul><li>Open Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominant Coding Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Total Number of Actual Respondents (Batches 2003-2005) <ul><li>Questionnaire 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36/98 Total # of Participants Replied </li></ul></ul>Total Number of Actual Respondents (Batch 2006-2007) <ul><li>Questionnaire 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Total # of Participants: 26 </li></ul><ul><li>11 Respondents from Participants, Faculty & Staff </li></ul>
  16. 18. Online Questionnaire: 36 Respondents (Batches 2003-2006)
  17. 19. Online Questionnaire: 11 Respondents (Batch 2006-2007)
  18. 20. Artifacts Archival Documents, Photos, Art Work & Photo Essays
  19. 21. Research Questions <ul><li>1. How do people involved in the peace education program perceive social injustice in the southern Philippines? </li></ul><ul><li>2. In what ways is the role of peace education programs depicted ? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What knowledge, skills and values do the Philippine peace education programs provide to community leaders? </li></ul><ul><li>4. In what ways do participants of these educational programs accept, act out, reject, or convert these knowledge, skills, and values? </li></ul>
  20. 22. Findings: In their own words & drawings…
  21. 23. Findings #1: Social Problems <ul><li>Social Volcano </li></ul><ul><li>Injustice Muslim-Christian Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression of Indigenous Peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Criminality </li></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul>
  22. 24. Roots of the Conflict <ul><li>Historically, never conquered by Spain </li></ul><ul><li>State-sponsored & individual migration to the homelands of the Moros & indigenous peoples </li></ul><ul><li>1970—Jabidah massacre in Corregidor </li></ul><ul><li>Moro National Liberation Front launched </li></ul><ul><li>War over their marginalization, discrimination, loss of their territory, lack of recognition in Philippine history, their identity, religion, and a desire to live in an Islamic state more recently. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Findings #1: Social Problems <ul><li>Secessionist, separatist groups </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Sayyaf, MILF, MNLF, CPP-NPA </li></ul><ul><li>Christian majority vs. non-Christian minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapping </li></ul><ul><li>corruption </li></ul><ul><li>economically deprived people </li></ul>
  24. 27. Stereotypes & Prejudice <ul><li>“ Pagans, Immoral, Traitors” </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul>
  25. 28. Findings #2: Peace Education <ul><li>This is good </li></ul><ul><li>life changing </li></ul><ul><li>change in me </li></ul><ul><li>change in others.... </li></ul><ul><li>much confidence </li></ul><ul><li>change the life of others </li></ul><ul><li>the program has help me a lot </li></ul><ul><li>I am more empowered now! </li></ul><ul><li>realize that there is unity in diversity </li></ul><ul><li>This program is an excellent one </li></ul>
  26. 29. Findings #2: Peace Education <ul><li>think this is the best kind of work that anyone could be doing </li></ul><ul><li>This is the best approach </li></ul><ul><li>this is long-term health maintenance almost. Now we already have the disease. We are trying to get at the roots and produce things that will be there for generations. I think it’s the best kind of program. </li></ul><ul><li>change my attitude towards people of other cultures & religions </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes…were totally eradicated by the program </li></ul><ul><li>helped me a lot in dealing with different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>made me a better person </li></ul>
  27. 30. Findings #3: (View #1) Personal Transformation <ul><li>life-changing experience. </li></ul><ul><li>friendlier to other people of other faiths. </li></ul><ul><li>changed me positively... </li></ul><ul><li>changed my life's mission </li></ul><ul><li>empowered </li></ul><ul><li>strengthened further my committment </li></ul><ul><li>a big impact in my life. </li></ul><ul><li>i became more sensitive with other religion </li></ul>
  28. 31. The Individual !
  29. 32. Findings #4: : (View #2) Social Transformation <ul><li>see the world & themselves in a different perspective </li></ul><ul><li>empower young people </li></ul><ul><li>empowered the IP youth </li></ul><ul><li>empower & educate their communities. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Conclusion: The Ties that Bind
  31. 34. Charting Their Destiny Together
  32. 35. Weaving a Tapestry for a Common Future Together <ul><li>Dove of peace </li></ul><ul><li>Sun of hope </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Ethnic Equality </li></ul>
  33. 36. Conclusion: Summary <ul><li>In their own words & w/o being asked, many stated that the NIU peace education program has a direct impact on their change for the better: personal transformation & action to promote social change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Context of Social Injustice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Life-changing experience with NIU Peace Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread to others in their communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Personal Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Spread Peace to Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Conclusion: The Ties that Bind <ul><li>Broader significance of my study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace education programs in general </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for teachers & educational policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive learning strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-formal educational settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills transfer too! (on conflict resolution) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for further research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include women always! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other contexts: African, Latin American, Eastern European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-faith dialogue too </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Their Recommendations <ul><li>more interactive discussions </li></ul><ul><li>more public schools </li></ul><ul><li>open to all </li></ul><ul><li>More workshops </li></ul><ul><li>a structure with which to work on our projects. </li></ul><ul><li>effective structure </li></ul><ul><li>adult participants who effectively participate in the activities & help the youth participants. </li></ul><ul><li>mingle with other people </li></ul><ul><li>more interaction with youth in the U.S. </li></ul>
  36. 39. From Living the Collective Past To Weaving the Collective Future Together
  37. 42. Woman as a Symbol of Peace
  38. 43. Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  39. 44. Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  40. 45. Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  41. 46. Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  42. 47. Peace among Indigenous Peoples, Muslims & Christians
  43. 48. Economic, Social & Cultural Rights
  44. 49. Economic, Social & Cultural Rights
  45. 50. Sun, Globe, Work for Peace
  46. 51. Dove, Globe, & Growth
  47. 52. Symbols of Peace
  48. 53. Abstract: Dove & Kites
  49. 54. U.S.-Philippine Unity & Peace
  50. 55. Global Peace
  51. 56. Local & Global Peace
  52. 57. Glossary of Terms <ul><li>Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG): A terrorist group in the southern Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESS : Access to Community and Civic Enrichment for Students </li></ul><ul><li>IP: indigenous peoples (who insist on having an “s” at the end) </li></ul><ul><li>Lumad : Indigenous peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Maguindanao, Maranao & Tausug : major ethnic groups in the southern Philippines with Islam as their religion </li></ul><ul><li>Mindanao : Southern Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>MILF : Moro Islamic Liberation Front </li></ul><ul><li>MNLF : Moro National Liberation Front </li></ul><ul><li>Moro People : People of different ethnicities in the southern Philippines who are Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>PYLP : Philippines Youth Leadership Project </li></ul><ul><li>Subanon, Talaandig & T’Boli : some major ethnic groups who belong to the Lumad (or indigenous peoples’ group) </li></ul><ul><li>Tri-People : Indigenous peoples, Muslims, & Christians </li></ul>
  53. 58. Thank You!

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