Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano


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Rey Ty Ties That Bind Social Volcano

  1. 1. The Ties That Bind: Social Injustice, Armed Conflict, Transformative Peace Education, & Social Change in the Southern Philippines Rey Ty
  2. 2. Introduction From an Artifact: (A Female Muslim Student Leader) “ Through the eyes of a child the words rebellion, war, revolution, and conflicts made me wonder why these things happen. It is very disturbing to hear stories from adults about the unrest in Mindanao. As I’ve grown, my concern grew even deeper. I’ve began to realize that to solve these problems, I must first find its roots, the cause which I think most people have overlooked. Yes, there is social unrest but it is only a symptom of the real sickness of the society I live. The province which I live in may be peaceful, but most of the neighboring provinces experience social and political violence. As a Muslim and citizen of Mindanao, I am concerned for my homeland and wish to see it gain peace ... There is a need for people who can give us ideas that we can use to solve the problems of our society who have the same concern for the welfare of the people. I have my own distinct passion for peace . And this passion is too strong to be contained in this province alone. I want to reach out not only in this province but throughout the country and eventually worldwide.”
  3. 5. Description: Philippine Peace Education Program at NIU 2003-2008 <ul><li>State Department Grant </li></ul><ul><li>About 26 Youth/Student Leaders (15-17 Years Old) </li></ul><ul><li>About 8 Adult Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 124 Persons Trained at NIU (more women!)  </li></ul>
  4. 7. Goal & Purpose <ul><li>1. To depict the perceptions of people involved in the Philippine peace education programs, conducted from 2003-04 to the present, at NIU </li></ul><ul><li>2. To investigate the manner in which the stress on the implementation of project plans made the participants get involved in actually transforming a war-ravaged region into one where dialogue between people of different ethnicities, languages, and religions is possible </li></ul>
  5. 8. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>1. Critical Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tool to question, critique, & expose the hegemonic socio-economic structures and power dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transformative education highlights & advances the causes of ethnicity, religion, gender, and class. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Freireian Pedagogy (1970) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transformative learning is contextual, socio-cultural, political, and liberating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in critical and transformative education (1973) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dialogic method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning is an act of freedom , where social capital is built, the interfaith community is enhanced, and the voices of the oppressed are heard . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking the culture of silence , participants of diverse backgrounds come together to pose questions to understand & work to solve the root causes of structural problems with which they are confronted. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With their consciousness raised, they try to work together for their mutual liberation , no matter how hard it is. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Conceptual Framework Personal Care Environmental Care Intercultural Solidarity & Common Humanity Human Rights & Responsibilities Justice & Compassion Conflict Resolution Peace
  7. 10. Conceptual Framework Conflict Resolution Non- Judicial Quasi- Judicial Judicial -Negotiations -Inquiry -Mediation -Conciliation -Arbitration -Adjudication -Domestic Courts -International Courts
  8. 11. Literature on the Components of Peace: 45 Peer Reviewed Journal Articles Authors Components Johnson & Johnson (2005) Rauch & Steiner (2006) United Nations University for Peace (2007) Conflict resolution Negotiation and mediation Peace education Conflict resolution Constructive controversy discourse Values Civic values X Justice and compassion Common goals & fate Human rights and responsibilities Unity in Diversity Integrated school Development education and global learning Intercultural solidarity and common humanity Environment X Environmental education Environmental care The Individual X X Personal care
  9. 12. Literature on the Content of Peace Education: A Synthesis of Best Practices Issues Specific Actions Needed Authors Content Recognize shared values Nolan (2007) Respect differences Nolan (2007) Analyze social systems Galtung (1969) Bischoff & Moore (2007) Challenge oppressive social structures Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Inculcate values such as justice and human rights values Narsee (2005) Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Promote mutual understanding Magolda (2002) Consider the historical and social contexts Jones (2005) Conduct needs assessment Jones (2005) Move toward moral inclusion Opotow, Gerson, & Woodside (2005) Work with community Bretherton, Weston, & Zbar (2005) Study the long-term impact Davies (2005)
  10. 13. Instructional Strategies of Successful Peace Education Programs: A Synthesis of Best Practices Issues Specific Actions Needed Authors Instructional Strategies Critical thinking Mahrouse (2006) Engage in active, practical learning Biachoff & Moore (2007) Be practical, not didactic Wessells (2005) Use oral history Bischoff & Moore (2007) Listen to collective narratives Al-Jafar & Buzzelli (2004) Kupermintz & Salomon (2005) Critically assess the importance of cognitive, emotional, motivational or behavioral components Yablon (2007) Use technology Vrasidas & Associates (2007) Avoid Euro-centrism Berlowitz, Long, & Jackson (2006) Avoid blindly importing U.S. models Jones (2005) Ask participants what the content and methodologies they believe are appropriate Tatar & Horenczyk (2003)
  11. 14. Critique of the Literature <ul><li>1. Components of Peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, class, & religion ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Content of Peace Education Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic too! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armed conflict! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Teaching & Learning Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community based! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops great but not all! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Methodology: Description of Site & Participants Interviewees Online Open-Ended Questionnaire Online Questionnaire Respondents Focus Group in Albuquerque, New Mexico Focus Group in Salt Lake City, Utah 1 A.A. 2 A.G.A. 3 A.R.B. A.R.B. 4 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 5 M.K. M.K. M.K. 6 Tess D.L. 7 L.J. L.J. 8 J.L. 9 C.D.O. 10 L.D.O. 11 C.P. 12 S.R. (Anthro Pofessor) + Rommel 13 K.W. (Anthro Professor) K.W. (Anthro Professor) TOTAL 4 36/98 2003-2005 Batch 12/26 2005-2006 Batch 3 3
  13. 16. Data Collection Procedures <ul><li>Data Collection Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Qualitative Survey Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Coding : diversity, life mission, interfaith sensitivity, positive experience, commitment, empowerment, social involvement, recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominant Coding Categories : Context, Education, Personal Transformation, Social Transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Total Number of Actual Respondents (Batches 2003-2005) <ul><li>Questionnaire 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36/98 Total # of Participants Replied </li></ul></ul>Total Number of Actual Respondents (Batch 2006-2007) <ul><li>Questionnaire 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Total # of Participants: 26 </li></ul><ul><li>11 Respondents from Participants, Faculty & Staff </li></ul>
  15. 18. Online Questionnaire: 36 Respondents (Batches 2003-2006)
  16. 19. Online Questionnaire: 11 Respondents (Batch 2006-2007)
  17. 20. Artifacts Archival Documents, Photos, Art Work & Photo Essays
  18. 21. Research Questions <ul><li>1. How do people involved in the peace education program perceive social injustice in the southern Philippines? </li></ul><ul><li>2. In what ways is the role of peace education programs depicted ? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What knowledge, skills and values do the Philippine peace education programs provide to community leaders? </li></ul><ul><li>4. In what ways do participants of these educational programs accept, act out, reject, or convert these knowledge, skills, and values? </li></ul>
  19. 22. Findings: In their own words & drawings…
  20. 23. Findings #1: Social Problems <ul><li>Social Volcano </li></ul><ul><li>Injustice Muslim-Christian Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression of Indigenous People </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Criminality </li></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul>
  21. 24. Roots of the Conflict <ul><li>S.R. The causes of the conflict in Mindanao are multifaceted. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically , this was an area where Islamic states were conducting commerce and entered in commerce with foreign countries as well as internally with Malay areas in Southeast Asia. This area was never really conquered by Spain but was given to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in 1898, even if they protested they were never part of the Hispanized Philippines , So the U.S. went to war with them and subdued most aspects of the armed conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>In the aftermath of World War II when the United States granted the Philippines independence, the Moro peoples of Southern Philippines also protested: they did not want to be governed by the larger Philippine state. But that was also overlooked. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially, a lot of state-sponsored and individual migration to the homelands of the Moros and indigenous peoples of the southern Philippines. And eventually, to make a long story short, it became deprived to access to a lot of land, to natural resources, and became a marginalized minority. </li></ul><ul><li>And then the actual combat broke out in 1970 . It had to do with the fact that the various Moro peoples in the Philippine military was being asked by President Marcos to prepare for an invasion of Sabah, in Malaysia, as part of an effort to get back that territory to the Philippines. And they protested. And there was a massacre in Corregidor . I think it was called the Jabidah Massacre . </li></ul><ul><li>That was what really launched what Nur Misuari called the Moro National Liberation Front . And it’s been a war over their marginalization, discrimination, loss of their territory, lack of recognition in Philippine history, their identity, religion, and a desire to live in an Islamic state more recently . </li></ul>
  22. 25. Findings #1: Social Problems <ul><li>In the Southern Philippines,… secessionist, separatist groups are in existence. And because of that, Philippine ACCESS …decides to bridge conflict between the Christian majority & the non-Christian minorities . </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Sayyaf , we have the MILF, MNLF, CPP-NPA </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapping, corruption …these ills are products of economically deprived people. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Chains of Oppression <ul><li>Stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pagans, Immoral, Traitors” </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul>
  24. 27. Findings #2: Peace Education <ul><li>Hi Rey. This is good . Anyway, I miss everyone in NIU. Hope to be able to visit everyone again. hmm, my niu experience is indeed a life changing one. it did not only made a change in me but also urges me to make a change in others .... </li></ul><ul><li>This program is an excellent one to hone the skills and talents of youths as well as adults! </li></ul><ul><li>After attending the NIU program, I really gained much confidence especially in talking in front of the public </li></ul><ul><li>no doubt the program has help me a lot ! my suggestion- longer exposure to American family, say- a month stay with them, in order to know them better. Thanks for the chance fo inviting me to stay and study at NIU. You did not only change my life- - you helped me change the life of others , because I am more empowered now ! The NIU institute is indeed a great help for me to realize that there is unity in diversity . The NIU Program made me a better person . </li></ul><ul><li>NIU Program on inter-ethnic dialogue and conflict resolution, helped me a lot to change my attitude towards people of other cultures and religions . Before I attended the program, slight prejudices and stereotypes to other tribes and that were inculcated to me by my environment were hardly believed by me. By God's will, those were totally eradicated by the program . Tolerance, respect and love for other cultures and religions were greatly developed in me by the program. I hope that the US Department of State will continue on supporting the program because Mindanao is really in need of programs like this. </li></ul><ul><li>the program of NIU (ACCESS) had helped me a lot in dealing with different cultures </li></ul>
  25. 28. Findings #2: Peace Education <ul><li>Ok. Well, this kind of program is vulnerable because of the way that the requirements for funding—the way you have to show success. But I think this is the best kind of work that anyone could be doing if they believe in peace in specific regions and conflict [resolution] human development in general, communities getting along with each other and working together to solve problems. This is the best approach : young people, personal transformation, exposure to different ideas and different experiences with diversity—it’s really like a long-term investment. And I’m really grateful that it’s funded and actually we are doing it. That may be a sentence but it’s a very long sentence. (Laughing). </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the solution is short-term. You have a president there for four years and they don’t know what, they don’t have any background on an area. They send in some troops or whatever, make a deal with the guy in charge. But this is long-term health maintenance almost . Now we already have the disease. We are trying to get at the roots and produce things that will be there for generations. I think it’s the best kind of program. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Findings #3: (View #1) Personal Transformation <ul><li>ACCESS Program was a life-changing experience for me. It was difficult to be away from your family but the experience has showed me how wonderful the world is and how crucial my effort is in making it a better place. </li></ul><ul><li>I became friendlier to other people of other faiths . All I know is that ACCESS Program has changed me positively ...and that's in a wholistic point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>I am so glad to hear that the program is extended for 3 more years.. There is more to improve on the program but inspite of it all, i daresay that it has changed my life's mission . Now, i can not just sit down and do nothing to promote peace and cultural tolerance. Now, i live for peace. </li></ul><ul><li>I was empowered to sustain my advocacy in interethnic dialogue that long been started to keep peace in ourselves in Mindanao for the benefit of the people in the mother earth. ACCESS program strengthened further my committment to the world peace.we are one as guardians of the world!!!Allahu Akbar!!!!God is Great!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>it has a big impact in my life. i became more sensitive with other religion . SALAMAT!! KALINAW!!.. </li></ul>
  27. 30. The Individual !
  28. 31. Findings #4: : (View #2) Social Transformation <ul><li>I think student exchange programs like this empower young people and give them opportunity to see the world and themselves in a different perspective . </li></ul><ul><li>the program empowered the IP youth because it empowered the IP participants that in turned were inspired to empower and educate their communities . It was one of the first times that IP voice was heard, IP struggle was narrated to be understood. hopefully the programs stays the same and further bring light to many people who have had seen darkness enough with their own community and the rest of Mindanao and the country as a unified whole. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Conclusion: The Ties that Bind
  30. 33. Charting Their Destiny Together
  31. 34. Weaving a Tapestry for a Common Future Together <ul><li>Dove of peace </li></ul><ul><li>Sun of hope </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Ethnic Equality </li></ul>
  32. 35. Conclusion: Summary <ul><li>In their own words & w/o being asked, many stated that the NIU peace education program has a direct impact on their change for the better: personal transformation & action to promote social change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Context of Social Injustice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Life-changing experience with NIU Peace Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread to others in their communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Personal Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Spread Peace to Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Conclusion: The Ties that Bind <ul><li>Broader significance of my study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace education programs in general </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for teachers & educational policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive learning strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-formal educational settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills transfer too! (on conflict resolution) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for further research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include women always! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other contexts: African, Latin American, Eastern European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-faith dialogue too </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Their Recommendations <ul><li>I do feel that more interactive discussions should have been made and encouraged from the participants. Sometimes the same people talk all the time but it was good in the sense that it made everyone think. sometimes the others need more time to think. It's difficult to organize such elaborate project but I'm overwhelmed that it's now on its fourth year. </li></ul><ul><li>I recommend for the ACCESS-4 to visit more public schools and have conversations with the people specifically to the organizations presidents or better if open to all . </li></ul><ul><li>More workshops than lectures please. </li></ul><ul><li>It would help if we are provided with a structure with which to work on our projects. I belong to the first batch and when we got back home the first difficulty we encountered was looking for an effective structure where we can apply all we have learned. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also better if you find adult participants who will really effectively participate in the activities and help take care of the youth participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Also encourage the youth participants to mingle with other people besides those in the ACCESS group because we can have the tendency to be very attached to each other. A sense of independence in dealing with people from all walks of life and exposure to the Americans will help them improve their social skills better; skills that are necessary in dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>There should more interaction with youth sectors to promote better understanding of US and Philipine culture vis-a-vis issues that concerns them. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Woman as a Symbol of Peace
  36. 39. “ Tri-People”
  37. 40. “ Tri-People”
  38. 41. “ Tri-People”
  39. 42. “ Tri-People”
  40. 43. “ Tri-People”
  41. 44. Economic, Social & Cultural Rights
  42. 45. Economic, Social & Cultural Rights
  43. 46. Sun, Globe, Work for Peace
  44. 47. Dove, Globe, & Growth
  45. 48. Abstract: Unity in Diversity
  46. 49. Abstract: Dove & Kites
  47. 50. U.S.-Philippine Unity & Peace
  48. 51. Global Peace
  49. 52. Local & Global Peace
  50. 53. Glossary of Terms <ul><li>Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG): A terrorist group in the southern Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESS : Access to Community and Civic Enrichment for Students </li></ul><ul><li>IP: indigenous peoples (who insist on having an “s” at the end) </li></ul><ul><li>Lumad : Indigenous peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Maguindanao, Maranao & Tausug : major ethnic groups in the southern Philippines with Islam as their religion </li></ul><ul><li>Mindanao : Southern Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>MILF : Moro Islamic Liberation Front </li></ul><ul><li>MNLF : Moro National Liberation Front </li></ul><ul><li>Moro People : People of different ethnicities in the southern Philippines who are Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>PYLP : Philippines Youth Leadership Project </li></ul><ul><li>Subanon, Talaandig & T’Boli : some major ethnic groups who belong to the Lumad (or indigenous peoples’ group) </li></ul><ul><li>Tri-People : Indigenous peoples, Muslims, & Christians </li></ul>
  51. 54. Thank You!