• “Research that is characterized
by an emphasis on closed-
ended questions and the
utilization of large sample sizes
to gather information. Data is
gathered in a precise form,
frequently using standardized
instruments, and reported in a
statistical format. Analyzed and
deductive conclusions are made
that tend to ‘prove’ or ‘disprove’
theories and assertions.” p. 118
• Samuel T. Gladding. (2006). The
Counseling Dictionary. 2nd
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill
Prentice Hall. Note: 3rd
ed is 2011.
Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted
and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & the
web for non-commercial & nonprofit educational purposes.
• This work is distributed free of charge.
• The author has neither monetized this work nor sought any
profit from its distribution.
• Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright
Act 1976: Allowance is made for fair use for purposes such
as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching,
scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by
copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-
profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor
of fair use.
• This work contains original work of commentary and
• Quotations are attributed to the original authors and