Human Rights,Conflict Transformation   & Peace Building:  The Role of the State, NGOs, Social   Movements & Civil Society ...
OutlineI. IntroductionII. Literature ReviewIII. Research ProcessIV. FindingsV. ConclusionReferences
Introduction           2011 Rey Ty
Problem Statement1. There is academic literature on human   rights & peace education.2. But little on popular educators wo...
2011 Rey Ty
Purpose of the Studyo investigate the role,experiences, perceptions of &social issues that affectpopular educators activel...
2011 Rey Ty
Conceptual FrameworkX Functionalism                      2011 Rey Ty
Definition• Popular Education (Pop Ed): Non-  formal learning opportunities that  social movements provide to  people at t...
Definition•Power: “a whole series of particular mechanisms, definable and defined, which seem likely to induce behaviors o...
Definition         2011 Rey Ty
Definition         2011 Rey Ty
Literature Review         2011 Rey Ty
Literature Review• United Nations           (1993)                    2011 Rey Ty
Literature Review• “Peace Building” as short hand   Terms          Defined             SourceP. Making     Negotiated reso...
Literature Review• Social Justice   Deductive       Inductive Chomsky        Zinn (2010) (2006)         Sen (2009) Rawls (...
Literature Review• “Conflict Transformation” as  short hand    Terms                    Defined                    SourceC...
Literature Review• Peace (United Nations UPeace  2011)                             2011 Rey Ty
Human Rights Mediate Power & Justice in Historically &Socially Determined Contexts                        2011 Rey Ty
Literature Review• State-Civil Society Relations Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976...
2011 Rey Ty
Literature Review• The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society,  Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social  Movements ...
Literature Review• The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society,  Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social  Movements ...
ResearchProcess       2011 Rey Ty
Levels of Analysis                2011 Rey Ty
Qualitative Research Design  Theory                       Defined                 Source  Building1. Analytic       Find c...
Philosophy of the Research   Assumptions              Questions                                 Features1. Ontology      W...
Positionality• Dialectics of Justice, Power & Change : Ontological Debates between  Foucault vs. Chomsky• Interactive Mate...
Sex of Research Collaborators     Sex           Number       Female               19           Male             34        ...
Religions of Research      Collaborators         Indigenous Muslim   Christian   None     TotalFemale                6    ...
Research Data Collection Methods1.   Qualitative Study2.   Interviews (Self-Reports)3.   Participant Observations4.   Arch...
Data Analysis              Generation of a Grounded Theory   Explaining Popular Educators’ Response to Social Reality     ...
Findings       2011 Rey Ty
FindingsVerbatim excerpts2. Historical roots & causes  of the armed conflict3. Learning experiences4. Educational strategi...
Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed   conflict situation in the Philippines in general and in   ...
Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed   conflict situation in the Philippines in general and in   ...
Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed   conflict situation in the Philippines in general and   in ...
Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed   conflict situation in the Philippines in general and   in ...
Findings2. What are the principal learning experiences that   popular educators actively engaged in civil society,   non-g...
Findings1. What are the principal learning experiences that   popular educators actively engaged in civil society,   non-g...
Findings1. What are the principal learning experiences that   popular educators actively engaged in civil society,   non-g...
Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular   educators use in the change process?                         ...
Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular   educators use in the change process?        Work for Social C...
Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular   educators use in the change process?                         ...
Continuum of Interfaith Strategies         6. Doing social-justice   For example: work together for         work together ...
Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular   educators use in the change process?                         ...
Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular   educators use in the change process?                         ...
Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular   educators use in the change process?                         ...
Ty’s Spiral Development Model               History, Nature, Society & the World                                     2011 ...
Ty’s Spiral Development Model                History, Nature, Society & the World                                      201...
Conclusion         2011 Rey Ty
Conclusions1.   Context matters: Inductive approach2.   Complex relationships: social action &     social change3. Process...
So What?Contributions of Study1. Historical & socially determined   perspectives2. Realities of armed conflict & the   str...
Now What?        Implications for Policy1.   Realization of human rights &     social justice to attain peace2.   Allocate...
Now What?Implications for Adult & Community Education 1.   Pop ed as catalyst for social change 2.   Social movements are ...
Now What? Implications for Further Research1. State Actors2. Combatants3. Qualitative Ethnography:   Micro-narrative4. Qua...
••                                                                           References    Abu-Lughod, L. (1993). Writing ...
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Rey Ty Human Rights Conflict PeaceDissertation PPT 2001 07 05 A2

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Rey Ty Human Rights Conflict PeaceDissertation PPT 2001 07 05 A2

  1. 1. Human Rights,Conflict Transformation & Peace Building: The Role of the State, NGOs, Social Movements & Civil Society in the Struggle for Power, Social Justice & Social Change in the Philippines 2011 Rey Ty
  2. 2. OutlineI. IntroductionII. Literature ReviewIII. Research ProcessIV. FindingsV. ConclusionReferences
  3. 3. Introduction 2011 Rey Ty
  4. 4. Problem Statement1. There is academic literature on human rights & peace education.2. But little on popular educators working at the grassroots level, especially in poor countries or countries with armed conflict, such as the Philippines3. Not use the role, experiences, & voices of popular educators actively engaged in civil society, NGOs & social movements as primary sources of data to explore the extent to which these peace education programs affected the lives of people. 2011 Rey Ty
  5. 5. 2011 Rey Ty
  6. 6. Purpose of the Studyo investigate the role,experiences, perceptions of &social issues that affectpopular educators activelyinvolved in civil society,NGOs & social movements tobring about social 2011 Rey Ty
  7. 7. 2011 Rey Ty
  8. 8. Conceptual FrameworkX Functionalism 2011 Rey Ty
  9. 9. Definition• Popular Education (Pop Ed): Non- formal learning opportunities that social movements provide to people at the grassroots level, dealing with such issues as social justice, peace, human rights, gender, environment, and development (Claude, 2010; Freire, 1970; Giroux, 1988; Jarvis, 1999). 2011 Rey Ty
  10. 10. Definition•Power: “a whole series of particular mechanisms, definable and defined, which seem likely to induce behaviors or discourses” (Foucault, 2007, p. 60). 2011 Rey Ty
  11. 11. Definition 2011 Rey Ty
  12. 12. Definition 2011 Rey Ty
  13. 13. Literature Review 2011 Rey Ty
  14. 14. Literature Review• United Nations (1993) 2011 Rey Ty
  15. 15. Literature Review• “Peace Building” as short hand Terms Defined SourceP. Making Negotiated resolution (Ryan, 1995)P. Keeping U.N. blue helmets United NationsP. Building Practical approach in Lederach (2009) resolving conflict 2011 Rey Ty
  16. 16. Literature Review• Social Justice Deductive Inductive Chomsky Zinn (2010) (2006) Sen (2009) Rawls (1971) United Nations (2002) 2011 Rey Ty
  17. 17. Literature Review• “Conflict Transformation” as short hand Terms Defined SourceConflict Prevention Avoid hostilities Goldstein (2004)C. Resolution Pacific, Short of W. & War U.N. & ICRCC. Settlement End C. thru peace agreement Goldstein (2004)C. Management Avoid, compete, compromise, Zartman (2007) accommodate or collaborateC. Transformation Constructive social-justice- Lederach (2003) related change 2011 Rey Ty
  18. 18. Literature Review• Peace (United Nations UPeace 2011) 2011 Rey Ty
  19. 19. Human Rights Mediate Power & Justice in Historically &Socially Determined Contexts 2011 Rey Ty
  20. 20. Literature Review• State-Civil Society Relations Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2011 Rey Ty
  21. 21. 2011 Rey Ty
  22. 22. Literature Review• The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society, Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social Movements Engaged in Work for Social Change Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2011 Rey Ty
  23. 23. Literature Review• The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society, Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social Movements Engaged in Work for Social Change Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2011 Rey Ty
  24. 24. ResearchProcess 2011 Rey Ty
  25. 25. Levels of Analysis 2011 Rey Ty
  26. 26. Qualitative Research Design Theory Defined Source Building1. Analytic Find commonalities & Krathwohl (1997) Induction generality2. Constant Constantly compare Krathwohl (1997) Comparative concepts with the new Method field data3. Troublesome Data collection Hood (2007) Trinity (theoretical sampling), constant comparison & category saturation 2011 Rey Ty
  27. 27. Philosophy of the Research Assumptions Questions Features1. Ontology What is the nature of the world? There is an objective reality which people perceive subjectively.2. Paradigm What are the sources of Critical structuralism domination and liberation?3. Epistemology What is the relationship The research participants and I are co-learners between the research and the and co-producers of knowledge. research participants?4. Axiology What are my and the research Unlike uncritical research, this study assigns participants’ values? immense importance to values.5. Rhetoric How are the data presented? Data are presented in my and the research participants’ narratives in the personal voices. Terms appropriate to qualitative research will be used.6. Methodology What is the research process? The research is inductive, contextualized, and does not use but develops an emerging grounded theory. 2011 Rey Ty
  28. 28. Positionality• Dialectics of Justice, Power & Change : Ontological Debates between Foucault vs. Chomsky• Interactive Materialism: Structure & Agency 2011 Rey Ty
  29. 29. Sex of Research Collaborators Sex Number Female 19 Male 34 Total 53 2011 Rey Ty
  30. 30. Religions of Research Collaborators Indigenous Muslim Christian None TotalFemale 6 3 9 2 19 Male 3 12 16 2 34Total 9 15 25 4 53 2011 Rey Ty
  31. 31. Research Data Collection Methods1. Qualitative Study2. Interviews (Self-Reports)3. Participant Observations4. Archival Documents5. Artifacts, Photos, Videos6. Field Notes & Memos 2011 Rey Ty
  32. 32. Data Analysis Generation of a Grounded Theory Explaining Popular Educators’ Response to Social Reality Steps Knowledge Production1. Open Coding Classification and Description of Categories1. Theoretical or Interpretation of the Relationships among the Axial Coding Categories1. Selective Construction of a Narrative Storyline based Coding on the Interpretation1. Visual Constructive of a Visual Logic Model, Representation Matrix, Table, or Diagram 2011 Rey Ty
  33. 33. Findings 2011 Rey Ty
  34. 34. FindingsVerbatim excerpts2. Historical roots & causes of the armed conflict3. Learning experiences4. Educational strategies 2011 Rey Ty
  35. 35. Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed conflict situation in the Philippines in general and in Mindanao, the southern Philippines, in particular? 2011 Rey Ty
  36. 36. Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed conflict situation in the Philippines in general and in Mindanao, the southern Philippines, in particular? Causes Corruption Feudalism Foreign Domination Non-Recognition of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights, including Access to Health, Education “Patriarchalism/male chauvinism and Christian chauvinism in relation to non-Christian communities” 2011 Rey Ty
  37. 37. Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed conflict situation in the Philippines in general and in Mindanao, the southern Philippines, in particular? Power Struggle forHegemonic Power Holders Counter-Hegemony vs. Oppression & InjusticeGovernment, Armed Forces, foreign 1. Peasant, labor, women’s,corporations, landlords, local big Indigenous, Bangsa Morobusiness, religious hierarchy (Muslim) & other peoples & community organizations; grassroots religious groups 2. Rebels: NDF, MNLF, MILF 2011 Rey Ty
  38. 38. Findings1. What are the historical roots, causes of the armed conflict situation in the Philippines in general and in Mindanao, the southern Philippines, in particular? “As with the national situation, the ‘Mindanao Problem’ involves foreign domination, poverty, inequality, corruption, and discrimination, all of which lead to endless internal armed conflict between the Philippine government and various rebel groups, such as the National Democratic Front (NDF) and its member organizations, Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). As we work towards a just and long-lasting peace, we enjoin all parties to the armed conflict to respect the laws of war.” *Bangsa Moro & Lumad* 2011 Rey Ty
  39. 39. Findings2. What are the principal learning experiences that popular educators actively engaged in civil society, non-governmental organizations and social movements need in their work for conflict transformation and social change? 2011 Rey Ty
  40. 40. Findings1. What are the principal learning experiences that popular educators actively engaged in civil society, non-governmental organizations and social movements need in their work for conflict transformation and social change?• Knowledge Base 1) Development 2) Human Rights 3) Peace 4) Justice 5) Social Change 6) Volunteer Community Social Action 2011 Rey Ty
  41. 41. Findings1. What are the principal learning experiences that popular educators actively engaged in civil society, non-governmental organizations and social movements need in their work for conflict transformation and social change?• Instructional & Learning Experience 1) International Human Rights Advocacy 2) Paralegal Training 3) Public Speaking 4) Culture, Art, Theater, Sports & Dance for Change 5) Planning for Social Change 2011 Rey Ty
  42. 42. Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular educators use in the change process? 2011 Rey Ty
  43. 43. Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular educators use in the change process? Work for Social Change Action Mobilization Learning Doing EffectsThrusts Bridging the Leadership Community Impact of ActionsFocus Gap Projects or Social Results Dialogue, Skills Relief, welfare, Interpersonal andContent workshops development development, social change advocacy Physically Training and Food aid, Immediate relief, getting critical disaster relief, economicConcrete together reflection income improvement,Examples generation, consciousness raising 2011 Rey Ty
  44. 44. Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular educators use in the change process? 2011 Rey Ty
  45. 45. Continuum of Interfaith Strategies 6. Doing social-justice For example: work together for work together civil rights; plant trees 5. Alliance & coalition Muslim organization link up with building Jewish org’n 4. Community building Doing things together: work,Pro- having fun, picnic, dining,active dance, party, outing, housing 3. Interfaith dialogue Start talking with one another; ask questions 2. Learning about the Read a book; attend a lecture; “others” watch a movie 1. Standing up against Telling people to stop sayingReactive discrimination bad things about someone © 2012 Rey Ty
  46. 46. Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular educators use in the change process? 2011 Rey Ty
  47. 47. Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular educators use in the change process? 2011 Rey Ty
  48. 48. Findings3. What are the educational strategies the popular educators use in the change process? 2011 Rey Ty
  49. 49. Ty’s Spiral Development Model History, Nature, Society & the World 2011 Rey Ty
  50. 50. Ty’s Spiral Development Model History, Nature, Society & the World 2011 Rey Ty
  51. 51. Conclusion 2011 Rey Ty
  52. 52. Conclusions1. Context matters: Inductive approach2. Complex relationships: social action & social change3. Process: study historical & social realities, learn skills, challenge power, engage in social action, & social change4. Struggle: a. challenge dominant structure b. alternative strategies5. Ordinary people matter: in leadership role for social transformation 2011 Rey Ty
  53. 53. So What?Contributions of Study1. Historical & socially determined perspectives2. Realities of armed conflict & the struggle for justice & peace3. Alternative approaches to counter injustice4. Insights into civil society5. Critique of power & justice6. Socially constructed conceptual framework 2011 Rey Ty
  54. 54. Now What? Implications for Policy1. Realization of human rights & social justice to attain peace2. Allocate resources for education advancing social justice & peace3. Government funders must assist pop ed but not dictate content & strategies 2011 Rey Ty
  55. 55. Now What?Implications for Adult & Community Education 1. Pop ed as catalyst for social change 2. Social movements are learning sites 3. Organize hitherto unorganized people: organizational capacity building 4. Participatory action research 5. Sway public policy for changes: empower poor, marginalized, exploited & oppressed 6. Struggle for HR, justice & peace is a lifelong, intergenerational process 2011 Rey Ty
  56. 56. Now What? Implications for Further Research1. State Actors2. Combatants3. Qualitative Ethnography: Micro-narrative4. Quantitative: a. Gender, religion & ethnicity (IV) & social change (DV) b. HR & Peace education (IV) & social change (DV) 2011 Rey Ty
  57. 57. •• References Abu-Lughod, L. (1993). Writing women’s worlds: Bedouin stories. Berkeley, CA: Uni-versity of California Press. Abrahamson, M. (1983). Social research methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.• ActionAid. (2003). Action Aid in practice: Understanding and learning about methods and approaches of rights and empowerment. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Interna-tional Livestock Research Institute.• Agustin, A. F. (2010). A statement of commitment to justice and peace in Mindanao. In S. Russell, L. Ong, & R. Ty, (Eds.), Inter-ethnic dialogue and conflict resolution in the southern Philippines: Access to community and civic enrichment. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University International Training Office.• Allison, G. T. and Zelikow, P. (1999). Essence of decision: Explaining the Cuban missile crisis. (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.• Anderlini, S. (2007). Women Building Peace: What They Do, Why It Matters. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.• Anderson, M. (1999). 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  58. 58. Thank You.

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