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HUMAN RIGHTS & GEOPOLITICS
 
AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND ARMED CONFLICT SITUATION  IN ASIA
FRAMEWORK Rey Ty Linking Society, Economy, Politics, and Culture
PEOPLE OF THE WORLD Rey Ty GLOBAL VILLAGE? 2002 IF THE WORLD HAS  100  PERSONS: 61 ASIANS 12 EUROPEANS 9 S. AMERICANS 5 N....
-70  PEOPLE   OF   C O L O R -30  WHITES
ASIA Rey Ty <ul><li>PACIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHEAST ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHEAST ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTH ASIA...
SOUTHEAST ASIA Rey Ty
WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS? Rey Ty HUMAN  RIGHTS CIVIL AND  POLITICAL RIGHTS ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, & CULTURAL RIGHTS
VIOLENCE, RIGHTS AND LAW   Rey Ty
HUMAN RIGHTS AND ARMED CONFLICT Rey Ty TYPES OF ARMED CONFLICT I L H R I L A C
LAW OF HR AND WAR Rey Ty
ECONOMIC RIGHTS IN THE WORLD Rey Ty
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX Rey Ty <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top (highest) tier : Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, and Malaysia </li...
ECONOMIC RIGHTS Rey Ty
GDP/CAPITA Purchasing Power Parity   Rey Ty Laos Burma Cambodia East Timor Vietnam Indonesia Philippines Thailand Malaysia...
ECONOMIC RIGHTS Rey Ty
<ul><li>2 infants </li></ul><ul><li>30 under 15 years old </li></ul><ul><li>7 aged 65 and above </li></ul><ul><li>1 near d...
<ul><li>89  heterosexual , 11  homosexual   </li></ul><ul><li>59% of the entire world's wealth in the hands of only 6 peop...
SOCIAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
SOCIAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
CULTURAL RIGHTS Rey Ty <ul><li>33 CHRISTIANS, OF WHOM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 CATHOLIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 PROTE...
CULTURAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
CULTURAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
MEN  WHO CHANGED ASIA
MAO ZEDONG CHINA
DENG XIAO PING CHINA
POLITICAL RIGHTS <ul><li>DEMOCRACIES </li></ul><ul><li>A.  Thailand (Constitutional Monarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Philip...
<ul><li>COMMUNIST PARTY RULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MILITARY...
HO CHI MINH VIETNAM
SUKARNO INDONESIA
SUHARTO INDONESIA
KING BUMIPHOL THAILAND
LEE KUAN YEW SINGAPORE
MAHATHIR MALAYSIA
SULTAN BOLKIAH BRUNEI
<ul><li>WOMEN  </li></ul><ul><li>IN   ELITE   POLITICS   IN   </li></ul><ul><li>ASIA </li></ul>
<ul><li>INDIRA GANDHI </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA </li></ul>
<ul><li>CORY AQUINO  </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINES </li></ul>
<ul><li>GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO  </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINES </li></ul>
<ul><li>BENAZIR BHUTTO </li></ul><ul><li>PAKISTAN </li></ul>
<ul><li>SONIA GANDHI </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA </li></ul>
<ul><li>Pres. Chandrike Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka   </li></ul>
<ul><li>PM Begum Khaleda Zia (widowed)  </li></ul><ul><li>1991 & 2001 BANGLADESH </li></ul>
<ul><li>PM Sheikh Hasina </li></ul><ul><li>(Daughter of 1 st  PM)  </li></ul><ul><li>1996 BANGLADESH </li></ul>
ARMED CONFLICTS IN ASIA 1940s-2000 Rey Ty BURMA, INDONESIA, PHILIPPINES, THAILAND CIVIL UNREST INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, S. LAN...
HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS Rey Ty ARMED OPPOSITION GRPS’ ABUSES DEATH SENTENCE JUDICIAL EXECUTION  DETENTION W/O CHARGE OR TRIA...
  EAST TIMOR Rey Ty - Indonesian annexation of ET started the whole series of HRVs & HLVs.  -transition to independence, p...
<ul><li>XANANA GUSMAO </li></ul><ul><li>EAST TIMOR </li></ul>
<ul><li>BISHOP BELO  </li></ul><ul><li>&  </li></ul><ul><li>JOSE RAMOS JORTA </li></ul><ul><li>EAST TIMOR </li></ul>
BURMA Rey Ty - 1990 :  current pol. crisis in Burma started when the mil. junta refused to recognize the results of the le...
STATE PEACE & DEMOCRACY COUNCIL (SPDC) Formerly STATE LAW & ORDER COUNCIL (SLORC)
AUNG SAN SUU KYI <ul><li>NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>(NLD) </li></ul>
CAMBODIA Rey Ty 1.  During the Cold War period, C. was a victim of US-SU rivalry and the S.U.-PRC.  The “hot war” the U.S....
KING SIHANOUK CAMBODIA
1997 ASIA <ul><li>EFFECTS OF  ECONOMIC CRISIS  ON HR </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS, MIGRANT LABOR, M...
1999 ASIA <ul><li>NEW ZEALAND :  NEW LAW DETAINS ASYLUM-SEEKERS ARRIVING W/O PAPERS </li></ul><ul><li>AUSTRALIA :  4,000 R...
2001  ASIA COUNTRIES VIOLATIONS 9 ARMED OPPOSITION GRPS’ ABUSES 9 EXECUTION 15 DETENTION W/O CHARGE OR TRIAL 15 POCs 19 TO...
HUMAN RIGHTS ASIA JAN-DEC 2001 <ul><li>2001  September 11 </li></ul><ul><li>call for those responsible to be brought to ju...
<ul><li>2001 : HRs abuses increased in many  Asia Pacific  countries, particularly in the context of armed conflicts.  </l...
<ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan , ordinary people suffered greatly throughout the year bec. of conflicts & year...
<ul><li>2001 :  </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan : unknown # of civilians were killed or had their homes or property destroye...
<ul><li>2001 :  </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan : treatment of captured or surrendered prisoners in raised serious concerns....
<ul><li>2001 : </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal ,  Sri Lanka ,  India ,  Philippines  &  Myanmar :  Civilians  were caught up in in...
<ul><li>KASHMIR   </li></ul><ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Indian & Pakistani governments engaged in a tense build up of m...
<ul><li>SRI LANKA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>protracted conflict in  Sri Lanka  bet. the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTT...
<ul><li>INDONESIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>-Separatist conflicts in the  Indonesian  provinces of  Aceh  and  Papua  worsene...
<ul><li>INDONESIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>- Political upheaval  effectively paralyzed the gov’t for much of the year, obstr...
<ul><li>MEGAWATI SUKARNO-PUTRI,  </li></ul><ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul>
<ul><li>NORTH KOREA   </li></ul><ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>-Hundreds, possibly thousands of  asylum seekers  fleeing t...
<ul><li>AUSTRALIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>August: Australian govt began to send warships to intercept more than 1,800 &quot...
<ul><li>AUSTRALIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>At least 356 others, including 70 children,  drowned  after their leaking boat sa...
<ul><li>ASIA (JAN-APRIL 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>With the  reconstruction  of  Afghanistan  high on the int’l community's a...
<ul><li>AFGHANISTAN  </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>treatment of prisoners in  Afghanistan : dangerous...
<ul><li>CAMBODIA   </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Justice for crimes against humanity took a step back...
<ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>unprecedented HRs trials of suspects accused of commi...
<ul><li>INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The  Indian  authorities failed to protect people from  c...
<ul><li>PAKISTAN </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>increasing violence against women  </li></ul><ul><li>G...
<ul><li>SRI LANKA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>On a positive note, a ceasefire between the  Sri Lank...
<ul><li>BURMA (MYANMAR) </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-MAY 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>May 6 release of  Aung San Suu Kyi  after 19 mont...
AUNG SAN SUU KYI <ul><li>NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>(NLD) </li></ul>
CONSTRAINTS OR CHOICE? Rey Ty
RECOMMENDATIONS 1.                 PREVENTIVE -PRO-ACTIVE -PROMOTION -EDUCATION -INFORMATION  SSOLIDARITY  2.             ...
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Rey Ty Hr Asia Human Rights And Armed Conflict 2001 2002 Powerpt Geography Class

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Rey Ty Hr Asia Human Rights And Armed Conflict 2001 2002 Powerpt Geography Class

  1. 2. HUMAN RIGHTS & GEOPOLITICS
  2. 4. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND ARMED CONFLICT SITUATION IN ASIA
  3. 5. FRAMEWORK Rey Ty Linking Society, Economy, Politics, and Culture
  4. 6. PEOPLE OF THE WORLD Rey Ty GLOBAL VILLAGE? 2002 IF THE WORLD HAS 100 PERSONS: 61 ASIANS 12 EUROPEANS 9 S. AMERICANS 5 N. AMERICANS 1 AUSTRALIAN 52 WOMEN 48 MEN
  5. 7. -70 PEOPLE OF C O L O R -30 WHITES
  6. 8. ASIA Rey Ty <ul><li>PACIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHEAST ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHEAST ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTH ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL ASIA </li></ul><ul><li>WEST ASIA </li></ul>
  7. 9. SOUTHEAST ASIA Rey Ty
  8. 10. WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS? Rey Ty HUMAN RIGHTS CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, & CULTURAL RIGHTS
  9. 11. VIOLENCE, RIGHTS AND LAW Rey Ty
  10. 12. HUMAN RIGHTS AND ARMED CONFLICT Rey Ty TYPES OF ARMED CONFLICT I L H R I L A C
  11. 13. LAW OF HR AND WAR Rey Ty
  12. 14. ECONOMIC RIGHTS IN THE WORLD Rey Ty
  13. 15. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX Rey Ty <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top (highest) tier : Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, and Malaysia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second tier : Philippines, Indonesia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third tier : Vietnam, Burma, Laos </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth tier : Cambodia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. ECONOMIC RIGHTS Rey Ty
  15. 17. GDP/CAPITA Purchasing Power Parity Rey Ty Laos Burma Cambodia East Timor Vietnam Indonesia Philippines Thailand Malaysia Brunei Singapore
  16. 18. ECONOMIC RIGHTS Rey Ty
  17. 19. <ul><li>2 infants </li></ul><ul><li>30 under 15 years old </li></ul><ul><li>7 aged 65 and above </li></ul><ul><li>1 near death, 1 near birth </li></ul><ul><li>70 unable to read, 14 illiterate adults </li></ul><ul><li>7 educated at secondary level, 2 college educated </li></ul>SOCIAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
  18. 20. <ul><li>89 heterosexual , 11 homosexual </li></ul><ul><li>59% of the entire world's wealth in the hands of only 6 people & all 6 citizens of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>80 live in substandard housing , 17 w/o adequate shelter </li></ul><ul><li>46 urbanites, 54 rural dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>13 hungry or malnourished </li></ul><ul><li>41 w/o basic sanitation , 16 w/o improved water source </li></ul><ul><li>1 adult w/ HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>4 Internet users, 8 would own a computer </li></ul><ul><li>http://newfunpages.com/world.php3 </li></ul>
  19. 21. SOCIAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
  20. 22. SOCIAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
  21. 23. CULTURAL RIGHTS Rey Ty <ul><li>33 CHRISTIANS, OF WHOM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 CATHOLIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 PROTESTANTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 ORTHODOX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>67 NON-CHRISTIANS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 MOSLEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 HINDUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 NON-RELIGIOUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 BUDDHISTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 INDIGENOUS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RELIGIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X<1 JEWS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0THERS </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. CULTURAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
  23. 25. CULTURAL RIGHTS Rey Ty
  24. 26. MEN WHO CHANGED ASIA
  25. 27. MAO ZEDONG CHINA
  26. 28. DENG XIAO PING CHINA
  27. 29. POLITICAL RIGHTS <ul><li>DEMOCRACIES </li></ul><ul><li>A. Thailand (Constitutional Monarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>SEMI -DEMOCRACIES </li></ul><ul><li>A. Malaysia (Constitutional Monarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>III. DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION </li></ul><ul><li>A. Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>B. Cambodia (Constitutional Monarchy) </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>COMMUNIST PARTY RULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MILITARY RULE </li></ul><ul><li>Burma </li></ul><ul><li>MONARCHY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brunei </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. HO CHI MINH VIETNAM
  30. 32. SUKARNO INDONESIA
  31. 33. SUHARTO INDONESIA
  32. 34. KING BUMIPHOL THAILAND
  33. 35. LEE KUAN YEW SINGAPORE
  34. 36. MAHATHIR MALAYSIA
  35. 37. SULTAN BOLKIAH BRUNEI
  36. 38. <ul><li>WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>IN ELITE POLITICS IN </li></ul><ul><li>ASIA </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>INDIRA GANDHI </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>CORY AQUINO </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINES </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINES </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>BENAZIR BHUTTO </li></ul><ul><li>PAKISTAN </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>SONIA GANDHI </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>Pres. Chandrike Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>PM Begum Khaleda Zia (widowed) </li></ul><ul><li>1991 & 2001 BANGLADESH </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>PM Sheikh Hasina </li></ul><ul><li>(Daughter of 1 st PM) </li></ul><ul><li>1996 BANGLADESH </li></ul>
  45. 47. ARMED CONFLICTS IN ASIA 1940s-2000 Rey Ty BURMA, INDONESIA, PHILIPPINES, THAILAND CIVIL UNREST INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, S. LANKA ETHNIC TENSIONS BURMA, CAMBODIA, PHILIPPINES, S. LANKA, VIETNAM REFUGEES & “INTERNAL REFUGEES” CHINA, KAMPUCHEA, VIETNAM REVOLUTIONS MALAYSIA, PHILIPPINES, THAILAND COMMUNIST ARMED STRUGGLE ACEH, E. TIMOR, MORO MINDANAO, TIBET, XINJIANG NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENTS INDIA-PAKISTAN-BANGLADESH, PRC-ROC, CHINA-INDIA, PRC-USSR, N-S KOREA, SPRATLYS TERRITORIAL DISPUTES & BORDER CLASHES ASIA-PACIFIC WORLD WAR II
  46. 48. HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS Rey Ty ARMED OPPOSITION GRPS’ ABUSES DEATH SENTENCE JUDICIAL EXECUTION DETENTION W/O CHARGE OR TRIAL UNFAIR TRIALS PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE TORTURE LEADING TO DEATH IN PRISON TORTURE DISAPPEARANCES EXTRA-JUDICIAL KILLINGS VIOLATIONS
  47. 49. EAST TIMOR Rey Ty - Indonesian annexation of ET started the whole series of HRVs & HLVs. -transition to independence, pro-integration or pro-Indonesia forces continue to commit HR & HL abuses. -post-independence stage, the econ. rehabilitation & the dev’t of pol. institutions of ET would be difficult & requires massive international human, material, & financial support.
  48. 50. <ul><li>XANANA GUSMAO </li></ul><ul><li>EAST TIMOR </li></ul>
  49. 51. <ul><li>BISHOP BELO </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>JOSE RAMOS JORTA </li></ul><ul><li>EAST TIMOR </li></ul>
  50. 52. BURMA Rey Ty - 1990 : current pol. crisis in Burma started when the mil. junta refused to recognize the results of the legislative elections & to hand over pol. power to the victorious oppositionists. -The Burmese mil. junta’s refusal to enter into dialogue w/ the opposition & its unwillingness to cede pol. power to the popularly elected civilians is a major cause of the worsening HR situation in Burma today. -The stronger the repression, the stronger the opposition, thus, the stalemate.
  51. 53. STATE PEACE & DEMOCRACY COUNCIL (SPDC) Formerly STATE LAW & ORDER COUNCIL (SLORC)
  52. 54. AUNG SAN SUU KYI <ul><li>NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>(NLD) </li></ul>
  53. 55. CAMBODIA Rey Ty 1. During the Cold War period, C. was a victim of US-SU rivalry and the S.U.-PRC. The “hot war” the U.S., S.U., PRC, & Vietnam waged in Kampuchea resulted in a very brutal armed conflict & massive HRVs.  2. The post-Cold War Cambodian society inherits and still has to process its Cold-War-period problems. Among these are: armed conflict & civil war, the destruction of the economy, poverty, genocide, land mines, & the personality cult.   3. New issues that emerged during the Post-Cold War period include following issues: the rule of law, HR, the trafficking in women girl-children & HIV/AIDS.
  54. 56. KING SIHANOUK CAMBODIA
  55. 57. 1997 ASIA <ul><li>EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON HR </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS, MIGRANT LABOR, MI1997NORITY GROUPS </li></ul>
  56. 58. 1999 ASIA <ul><li>NEW ZEALAND : NEW LAW DETAINS ASYLUM-SEEKERS ARRIVING W/O PAPERS </li></ul><ul><li>AUSTRALIA : 4,000 REFUGEE APPLICANTS & BOAT PEOPLE WERE W/O JUDICIAL CONTROL </li></ul>
  57. 59. 2001 ASIA COUNTRIES VIOLATIONS 9 ARMED OPPOSITION GRPS’ ABUSES 9 EXECUTION 15 DETENTION W/O CHARGE OR TRIAL 15 POCs 19 TORTURE 6 MISSING 9 POL. KILLINGS
  58. 60. HUMAN RIGHTS ASIA JAN-DEC 2001 <ul><li>2001 September 11 </li></ul><ul><li>call for those responsible to be brought to justice in accordance with international law. </li></ul><ul><li>a racist backlash against people identified as Muslim or Middle Eastern. </li></ul><ul><li>draconian security and immigration legislation: VS. to ensure respect for HRs . </li></ul><ul><li>Need for strict adherence to the rules of war during the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Justice not revenge &quot; </li></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>2001 : HRs abuses increased in many Asia Pacific countries, particularly in the context of armed conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>In Singapore , Pakistan , India & Malaysia : attacks of 9/11 & the need for increased security--used to justify the enact-ment &/or introduction of harsh security legislation </li></ul>
  60. 62. <ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan , ordinary people suffered greatly throughout the year bec. of conflicts & years of drought. </li></ul><ul><li>While the Taleban were in power: religious and ethnic minorities were targeted in mass killings, &executions, & amputations were carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s movement, employment and education of women was severely restricted. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Front (Northern Alliance): were also responsible for HR abuses </li></ul>
  61. 63. <ul><li>2001 : </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan : unknown # of civilians were killed or had their homes or property destroyed during the US-led bombing campaign which started in October. </li></ul><ul><li>- US and its allies may have breached the rules of war. </li></ul><ul><li>29 December, a UN spokesperson reported that relatives identified 52 bodies, including 25 children, after the US bombed a village near the eastern town of Gardez . </li></ul><ul><li>Daily reports of civilian deaths </li></ul>
  62. 64. <ul><li>2001 : </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan : treatment of captured or surrendered prisoners in raised serious concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>-reports that the United Front summarily executed captured al -Qaida fighters who were wounded or had surrendered. </li></ul><ul><li>AI called for an inquiry into the uprising at Qala-i-Jhangi fort where some prisoners were found dead w/ their hands tied behind their backs. </li></ul><ul><li>The head of Shibargan prison revealed in December that 43 prisoners had died from injuries or asphyxiation while being transported in shipping containers. </li></ul>
  63. 65. <ul><li>2001 : </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal , Sri Lanka , India , Philippines & Myanmar : Civilians were caught up in internal conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>NEPAL 2001 : </li></ul><ul><li>in 1996: CPN (Maoists) declared a &quot;People's War“; entered a new, more bloody phase, after peace talks broke down & a state of emergency was declared in November. Both sides of the conflict abducted, tortured & deliberately killed civilians </li></ul><ul><li>The gov’t suspended the right to freedom of expression , arresting dozens of journalists, HR activists & lawyers. Maoists maintained control over a sizable proportion of the country, running parallel &quot; people's governments &quot; with their own tax system and &quot; people's courts &quot;. </li></ul>
  64. 66. <ul><li>KASHMIR </li></ul><ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Indian & Pakistani governments engaged in a tense build up of mil. forces </li></ul><ul><li>scant attention was paid to the 100 civilians who were killed there each month </li></ul>
  65. 67. <ul><li>SRI LANKA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>protracted conflict in Sri Lanka bet. the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) & the gov’t got worse from May </li></ul><ul><li>marked increase in cases of rape by police, army and naval personnel & torture generally continued to be reported on a daily basis </li></ul><ul><li>LTTE engaged in hostage-taking and widespread recruitment of child soldiers. </li></ul>
  66. 68. <ul><li>INDONESIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>-Separatist conflicts in the Indonesian provinces of Aceh and Papua worsened in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>-100s of civilians were &quot;disappeared&quot;, unlawfully killed & tortured. </li></ul><ul><li>-Houses & means of livelihood were destroyed in both provinces as a form of collective punishment for attacks by armed separatists against the policy & army </li></ul>
  67. 69. <ul><li>INDONESIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>- Political upheaval effectively paralyzed the gov’t for much of the year, obstructing the process of HR reform & efforts to resolve the conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Laws which were used in previous years to silence dissent were invoked to bring charges vs. indepen-dence & other activists who were jailed for the peaceful expression of their views </li></ul>
  68. 70. <ul><li>MEGAWATI SUKARNO-PUTRI, </li></ul><ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul>
  69. 71. <ul><li>NORTH KOREA </li></ul><ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>-Hundreds, possibly thousands of asylum seekers fleeing the famine were forcibly repatriated to meet an uncertain fate </li></ul>
  70. 72. <ul><li>AUSTRALIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>August: Australian govt began to send warships to intercept more than 1,800 &quot; boat people &quot; who were detained & denied the right to claim asylum on the Australian mainland </li></ul><ul><li>About 600 possible asylum seekers were turned back by the navy, & several 100S were diverted to remote islands in the Indian & Pacific oceans in what has become known as the &quot; Pacific solution &quot; </li></ul>
  71. 73. <ul><li>AUSTRALIA 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>At least 356 others, including 70 children, drowned after their leaking boat sank on the journey from Indonesia to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed al-Zalime, a refugee living in Australia whose three daughters had drowned in the incident, was unable to visit his rescued wife in Indonesia, because Australian temporary refugee visas prohibit return to the country after any overseas travel </li></ul>
  72. 74. <ul><li>ASIA (JAN-APRIL 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>With the reconstruction of Afghanistan high on the int’l community's agenda, AI campaigned for an effective criminal justice system capable of protecting the HRs of all Afghans </li></ul><ul><li>Int’l financial & technical aid should contribute to an independent judiciary & a professional civilian police force which will adequately protect the HRs of all Afghans </li></ul>
  73. 75. <ul><li>AFGHANISTAN </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>treatment of prisoners in Afghanistan : dangerous overcrowding, lack of food & medicine, & lack of shelter from severe winter conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>While the Afghan Interim Authority is formally responsible for detention facilities, under international law, the USA has continuing responsibilities for the welfare of prisoners who were in US custody before being handed over to another party </li></ul>
  74. 76. <ul><li>CAMBODIA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Justice for crimes against humanity took a step backwards in Cambodia where the UN pulled out of an agreement with the government to try former Khmer Rouge leaders because of fair trial concerns </li></ul>
  75. 77. <ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>unprecedented HRs trials of suspects accused of committing serious crimes, including crimes against humanity in East Timor in 1999 began in March </li></ul><ul><li>But in the absence of basic guarantees it was feared that they would not meet int’l standards of fairness & that justice would not be delivered. </li></ul>
  76. 78. <ul><li>INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian authorities failed to protect people from communal violence which led to the deaths of 100s of people and displacement of 1,000s </li></ul><ul><li>AI sent a memorandum to the government of Gujarat urging immediate protection for those at risk and an impartial investigation to bring those responsible to justice </li></ul>
  77. 79. <ul><li>PAKISTAN </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>increasing violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>GOV’T was failing in its obligation to protect women from domestic violence, which includes physical abuse, rape, acid throwing, burning & killing, as well as violence in custody </li></ul>
  78. 80. <ul><li>SRI LANKA </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-APRIL 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>On a positive note, a ceasefire between the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE ended 19 years of hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>reports of recruitment by the LTTE of children as young as 12 as combatants by continued </li></ul>
  79. 81. <ul><li>BURMA (MYANMAR) </li></ul><ul><li>JAN-MAY 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>May 6 release of Aung San Suu Kyi after 19 months under de facto house arrest represented a very positive development in the HR sit </li></ul><ul><li>280 pol. prisoners have been released since high-level talks bet. the mil. gov’t & the National League for Democracy began in December 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>but around 1500 remain behind bars </li></ul>
  80. 82. AUNG SAN SUU KYI <ul><li>NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>(NLD) </li></ul>
  81. 83. CONSTRAINTS OR CHOICE? Rey Ty
  82. 84. RECOMMENDATIONS 1.                PREVENTIVE -PRO-ACTIVE -PROMOTION -EDUCATION -INFORMATION SSOLIDARITY  2.                CURATIVE -DEFENSE -RELIEF -REHABILITATION

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