Islam
Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the
Role of Social Movements and Education
in Promoting Development, Conflict
Transfor...
Rey Ty
International Training Office
Northern Illinois University
Awni Al-Karzon
International Programs
Northern Illinois University
E. J. Hunting
Adult and Higher Education
Northern Illinois University
AcknowledgmentRey Ty & Awni Al-Karzon would like to
thank the following for her support:
Dr. Lina Ong, Director
Internatio...
Abstract1. Islam is a religion of peace.
2. But many have a prejudicial attitude toward Muslims.
3. Stereotypes of Muslim ...
Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Research Questions
Perspectives• Role of non-formal
education in providing
adult, community
education that brings
about community
transformat...
Definition• Non-formal education is “any
organized educational activity
outside the established formal
system...that is in...
Definition• Conflict transformation is the process of
constructive change, involving comprehensive,
pro-active, long-term,...
Definition• Addressing the root causes of violent conflicts,
peace building strategies seek to meet “basic
needs for secur...
Organizational Level of Analysis
Findings
Findings I
Misconceptions
& Stereotypes
about Islam
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Some biological
anthropologists and
scientists argue male
humans have an
innate proclivity ...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Other biological anthropologists
insist that violence is a result of
culture and upbringing...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• The sources of ethnic
conflicts are historical,
social, economic,
political, cultural, or
r...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Prejudice means
looking down on “a
group because of
its assumed
behavior, values,
abilities...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
•Muslims in
many parts of
the world face
stereotypes
and
discrimination.
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Stereotypes refer
to “fixed ideas—
often unfavorable
—about what
members of a
group are lik...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Discrimination
means “policies
and practices
that harm a
group and its
members”
(Kottak, 20...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• In many parts of the world where
Muslims are minorities, such as in the
Philippines, the U....
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
•In Sri Lanka,
Muslims are
stereotyped
as good in
business and
earning
money.
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• In the
Philippines,
Muslims are
typecast as lazy,
uncivilized,
dirty, and war-
mongering.
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• True, there are
individuals who are
Muslims who commit
acts of terror but
individuals do no...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Hence,
characterizing all
Muslims as
terrorists is an
unjust stereotype,
discrimination,
an...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• In post-9/11,
Muslims in the
U.S. face the
same forms of
stereotypes as
the rest of the
Isl...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• Islam and hence Muslims are generally
stereotyped as promoting violence and
terrorism, are ...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• While only 18-20% of the world’s Muslim
population is Arab, the U.S. Muslim
population is c...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• According to the
Council on
American-Islamic
Relations (CAIR,
2010), there are an
estimated...
Misconceptions & Stereotypes
• The Muslim-American
population consists of a
variety of ethnicities and
nationalities, but
...
Findings II
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates
Debates about Veiling
•Fully covered in veil
Debates about Veiling
•Hijab
Debates about Veiling
•Hijab
Debates about Veiling
•Benazir Bhutto
wears the veil
fashionably
Debates about Veiling
•Muslim
Jordanian Queen
Rania defies
stereotypes
Debates• To counter Islamic
extremism, Syria
banned the use of
the full face veil at
universities in 2010
in order to keep...
Debates• “France’s lower
house of parliament
has overwhelmingly
approved a bill that
would ban wearing
the Islamic full ve...
Debates• Egypt’s highest Muslim
authority, Sheikh Mohamed
Tantawi, dean of al-Azhar
University, “called full-face
veiling ...
Debates
Findings III
Findings III
Organizations• Many organizations and institutions are
working to uplift the status of Muslims and
erase the negative imag...
International Training Office
•Bi-Communal Cyprus Program
– Dr. Rick Orem, Dr. Lina Ong
– Orthodox Greek Cypriots & Muslim...
International Training Office• Grassroots Organizing by Women
(GROW) Sri Lanka
– Dr. Jaya Gayanayake, Dr. Phyllis
Cunningh...
International Training Office
• Philippine Programs
–Youth
–North-South
–Autonomous Region
of Muslim
Mindanao (ARMM)
–Mino...
International Training Office
Work with
–Council on
American Islamic
Relations (CAIR)
–Inner City Muslim
Action Network
(I...
Baitona• Stereotyped as suffering from male domination,
Palestinian women are expected to be submissive
and play tradition...
Baitona• Established in 2003, Baitona for Community
Development is a well-known and active NGO in
Gaza Strip.
• Baitona pr...
Baitona• Empower women and increase their involvement in
society and participation in economic development
1. training and...
CAIR• Council on American-Islamic Relations
1. enhances “understanding of Islam
2. encourage dialogue, protect civil liber...
CAIRCouncil on American-Islamic Relations
1. opposes domestic policies that limit civil
rights, permit racial, ethnic or r...
CAIRCouncil on American-Islamic Relations
1. civil rights work
2. media relations
3. government relations
4. education (in...
IMANResponding to “inner-city poverty,”
the Inner-City Muslim Action
Network (IMAN, 2010) provides
“space for Muslims in U...
IMANPropelled by “human
compassion,” IMAN is a
community-based non-
profit organization “that
works for social justice,
de...
Conclusion
Summary• Muslim minorities
are survivors of
name-calling &
stereotypes in
predominantly non-
Muslim societies
• But Muslim...
Summary
Summary• The International Training Office of
NIU, of which Dr. Lina Ong is the
Director, has several successful
programs ...
Summary• In violence-filled Palestine, Baitona workers
organize the community, help the poor, and
provide services to empo...
Summary• In terms of crisis prevention and
intervention, CAIR pro-actively projects the
multiple images of Muslims in the ...
Summary• IMAN (2010) in Chicago is a community-
based organization which “works to serve
and empower disadvantaged individ...
Issues
Places
Stereotypes of
Muslims
Institutions
Conflict
Transformation
Peace-Building Outcomes
Cyprus
Modern, but
poor ...
Importance to Research & Practice
• This research shows how social work and
community development programs of
organization...
Importance to Research & Practice
• This research shares the best
practices of organizations in working
to dispel myths ab...
Implications1. Especially after 9/11, Muslims face real problems of
discrimination on a daily basis.
2. The efforts of adu...
Rey Ty
International Training Office
Northern Illinois University
Awni Al-Karzon
International Programs
Northern Illinois University
E. J. Hunting
Adult and Higher Education
Northern Illinois University
References1. ABC News (2008) Common Misunderstandings about Muslims. Retrieved on 2010-6-12 from http://abcnews.go.com/Pri...
Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the
Role of Social Movements and Education
in Promoting Development, Conflict
Transfor...
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements

661 views

Published on

Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building

Published in: Spiritual
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
661
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
17
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rey Ty, Alkarzon, E. Hunting, Islam: Misconceptions, Crurrent Trends, & Social Movements

  1. 1. Islam
  2. 2. Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building © 2010 Rey Ty, Awni Al-Karzon & Eric Hunting Islam:
  3. 3. Rey Ty International Training Office Northern Illinois University
  4. 4. Awni Al-Karzon International Programs Northern Illinois University
  5. 5. E. J. Hunting Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University
  6. 6. AcknowledgmentRey Ty & Awni Al-Karzon would like to thank the following for her support: Dr. Lina Ong, Director International Training Office Division of International Programs Northern Illinois University
  7. 7. Abstract1. Islam is a religion of peace. 2. But many have a prejudicial attitude toward Muslims. 3. Stereotypes of Muslim minorities 4. Face discrimination daily 5. While there are basic tenets in Islam, Muslims, 6. But there are intra-faith debates 7. Especially after 9/11, Muslims are stereotyped as terrorists 8. Many institutions pro-actively react by implementing community education and popular education programs that promote interfaith understanding, conflict transformation, and peace building in energetic social movements.
  8. 8. Introduction
  9. 9. Statement of the Problem
  10. 10. Research Questions
  11. 11. Perspectives• Role of non-formal education in providing adult, community education that brings about community transformation which benefits society (Finger, 1989; Holst, 2002).
  12. 12. Definition• Non-formal education is “any organized educational activity outside the established formal system...that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives”(Coombs, Prosser & Ahmed, 1973, p. 11).
  13. 13. Definition• Conflict transformation is the process of constructive change, involving comprehensive, pro-active, long-term, social-justice-related actions on the levels of “direct interaction and social structures,” (Lederach, 2003, p. 14). • Dealing with the social and political causes of conflict (Lederach, 2003), conflict transformation aims to reduce violence, increase justice, and response to real-world social problems (Lederach, 2003).
  14. 14. Definition• Addressing the root causes of violent conflicts, peace building strategies seek to meet “basic needs for security and order, shelter, food, and clothing” (Griffiths & O’Callaghan, 2003, p. 234). Peace building involves “the practical implementation of peaceful social change through socio-economic development” (Ryan, 1995, p. 102). By involving activities that meet the basic needs, peace building de-escalates the conflict and improves “the relationship of parties engaged in… social conflict” (Ryan, p. xiv).
  15. 15. Organizational Level of Analysis
  16. 16. Findings
  17. 17. Findings I Misconceptions & Stereotypes about Islam
  18. 18. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Some biological anthropologists and scientists argue male humans have an innate proclivity to be aggressive and to defend their territory with the use of violence (Wrangham & Peterson, 2005).
  19. 19. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Other biological anthropologists insist that violence is a result of culture and upbringing (Sussman, 2005).
  20. 20. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • The sources of ethnic conflicts are historical, social, economic, political, cultural, or religious injustice, discrimination, or prejudice, clinging to stereotypes about groups and relating them to individuals (Kottak, 2000).
  21. 21. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Prejudice means looking down on “a group because of its assumed behavior, values, abilities, or attributes” (Kottak, 2000, p. 124).
  22. 22. Misconceptions & Stereotypes •Muslims in many parts of the world face stereotypes and discrimination.
  23. 23. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Stereotypes refer to “fixed ideas— often unfavorable —about what members of a group are like” (Kottak, 2000, p. 125).
  24. 24. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Discrimination means “policies and practices that harm a group and its members” (Kottak, 2000, p. 125).
  25. 25. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • In many parts of the world where Muslims are minorities, such as in the Philippines, the U.S. and Israel, Muslims are stereotyped as radicals and terrorists.
  26. 26. Misconceptions & Stereotypes •In Sri Lanka, Muslims are stereotyped as good in business and earning money.
  27. 27. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • In the Philippines, Muslims are typecast as lazy, uncivilized, dirty, and war- mongering.
  28. 28. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • True, there are individuals who are Muslims who commit acts of terror but individuals do not represent the whole group, as there are Christians, Hindus, Buddhists and Jews who commit terrorist acts.
  29. 29. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Hence, characterizing all Muslims as terrorists is an unjust stereotype, discrimination, and prejudice.
  30. 30. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • In post-9/11, Muslims in the U.S. face the same forms of stereotypes as the rest of the Islamic world.
  31. 31. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • Islam and hence Muslims are generally stereotyped as promoting violence and terrorism, are predominately Arab, and subjugate women by rigid interpretations of Islam.
  32. 32. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • While only 18-20% of the world’s Muslim population is Arab, the U.S. Muslim population is comprised of a diverse background.
  33. 33. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • According to the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR, 2010), there are an estimated 7 million Muslims residing in the U.S. currently.
  34. 34. Misconceptions & Stereotypes • The Muslim-American population consists of a variety of ethnicities and nationalities, but primarily comprised of those of South Asian descent from the Indian subcontinent, and native- born African Americans (U.S. Department of State, 2010).
  35. 35. Findings II
  36. 36. Debates
  37. 37. Debates
  38. 38. Debates
  39. 39. Debates
  40. 40. Debates
  41. 41. Debates
  42. 42. Debates
  43. 43. Debates about Veiling •Fully covered in veil
  44. 44. Debates about Veiling •Hijab
  45. 45. Debates about Veiling •Hijab
  46. 46. Debates about Veiling •Benazir Bhutto wears the veil fashionably
  47. 47. Debates about Veiling •Muslim Jordanian Queen Rania defies stereotypes
  48. 48. Debates• To counter Islamic extremism, Syria banned the use of the full face veil at universities in 2010 in order to keep its secular identity (BBC, 2010 July 19).
  49. 49. Debates• “France’s lower house of parliament has overwhelmingly approved a bill that would ban wearing the Islamic full veil in public” (BBC, 2010 July 13).
  50. 50. Debates• Egypt’s highest Muslim authority, Sheikh Mohamed Tantawi, dean of al-Azhar University, “called full-face veiling a custom that has nothing to do with the Islamic faith” and “will issue a religious edict against the growing trend for full women’s veils, known as niqab” (BBC 2010 August 9).
  51. 51. Debates
  52. 52. Findings III
  53. 53. Findings III
  54. 54. Organizations• Many organizations and institutions are working to uplift the status of Muslims and erase the negative image and stereotypes to which Islam has been attached.
  55. 55. International Training Office •Bi-Communal Cyprus Program – Dr. Rick Orem, Dr. Lina Ong – Orthodox Greek Cypriots & Muslim Turkish Cypriots
  56. 56. International Training Office• Grassroots Organizing by Women (GROW) Sri Lanka – Dr. Jaya Gayanayake, Dr. Phyllis Cunningham, & Dr. Laurel Jeris – Dr. Rick Orem, Dr. Jorge Jeria, Dr. Gene Roth, Dr. Kay Forest, Dr. Sabiha Daudi, Dr. Cindy Campbell, Dr. Krishnamurthi Murali, Dr. Lina Ong, etc. – Mission: to enhance “the capacities of leaders of four women’s NGOs in Sri Lanka to face challenges and to create opportunities to strengthening women’s participation in grassroots democracy.” (GROW I & II Websites)
  57. 57. International Training Office • Philippine Programs –Youth –North-South –Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) –Minorities • Dr. Lina Ong, Dr. Sue Russell
  58. 58. International Training Office Work with –Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) –Inner City Muslim Action Network (IMAN)
  59. 59. Baitona• Stereotyped as suffering from male domination, Palestinian women are expected to be submissive and play traditional roles only. • NGOs provide adult education opportunities that respond to the needs of Palestinian women.
  60. 60. Baitona• Established in 2003, Baitona for Community Development is a well-known and active NGO in Gaza Strip. • Baitona provides education, health, and relief to civil society in Palestine.
  61. 61. Baitona• Empower women and increase their involvement in society and participation in economic development 1. training and income-generating projects. 2. leadership programs for women 3. develop the personal and intellectual strengths of women 4. child-care facilities for women seeking jobs 5. learning competencies to support women’s self-learning.
  62. 62. CAIR• Council on American-Islamic Relations 1. enhances “understanding of Islam 2. encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties 3. empower American Muslims, 4. and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding
  63. 63. CAIRCouncil on American-Islamic Relations 1. opposes domestic policies that limit civil rights, permit racial, ethnic or religious profiling, infringe on due process, or that prevent Muslims and others from participating fully in American civic life 2. allies with secular and religious groups “that advocate justice and human rights 3. condemns all acts of violence against civilians by any individual, group or state 4. supports equal and complementary rights and responsibilities for men and women
  64. 64. CAIRCouncil on American-Islamic Relations 1. civil rights work 2. media relations 3. government relations 4. education (including seminars, workshops, and conferences) 5. Advocacy 6. action alerts 7. Publications 8. voter registration 9. outreach and interfaith relations
  65. 65. IMANResponding to “inner-city poverty,” the Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN, 2010) provides “space for Muslims in Urban America by inspiring the larger community towards critical civic engagement” that exemplifies “compassion in the work for social justice and human dignity beyond the barriers of religion, ethnicity, and nationality.”
  66. 66. IMANPropelled by “human compassion,” IMAN is a community-based non- profit organization “that works for social justice, delivers a range of social services, and cultivates the arts in urban communities.”
  67. 67. Conclusion
  68. 68. Summary• Muslim minorities are survivors of name-calling & stereotypes in predominantly non- Muslim societies • But Muslims are not all alike!
  69. 69. Summary
  70. 70. Summary• The International Training Office of NIU, of which Dr. Lina Ong is the Director, has several successful programs for interfaith and inter- ethnic dialogue , community activism, leadership trainining, which bring together Christians, Muslims, and indigenous peoples, who return to their communities to implement various projects that promote interfaith goodwill and inter-ethnic understanding.
  71. 71. Summary• In violence-filled Palestine, Baitona workers organize the community, help the poor, and provide services to empower women and children.
  72. 72. Summary• In terms of crisis prevention and intervention, CAIR pro-actively projects the multiple images of Muslims in the U.S. and quickly responds when a burning issue affecting Muslims erupts.
  73. 73. Summary• IMAN (2010) in Chicago is a community- based organization which “works to serve and empower disadvantaged individuals and communities” through direct services, organizing and social justice, and the arts and culture.
  74. 74. Issues Places Stereotypes of Muslims Institutions Conflict Transformation Peace-Building Outcomes Cyprus Modern, but poor and dirty ITO NIU Youth activism and conflict transformation Increased bi-communal Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot interactions Israel and Palestine Bombers, terrorists Baitona Education, health, and relief Empowerment of women and children Philippines Uncivilized, war mongering, terrorists ITO NIU Interfaith dialogue, youth leadership, and community projects Coalition work among Muslims, indigenous peoples, and Christians Sri Lanka Good in business and earning money ITO NIU Development and income-generating projects Heightened cooperation and empowerment of grassroots Muslim, Tamil and Singhalese women U.S.A. Terrorists CAIR and IMAN Organizing, community education and social action Improved interfaith understanding, cooperation, coalition, and alliance work Table 1: Interfaith Dialogue, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building Outcomes
  75. 75. Importance to Research & Practice • This research shows how social work and community development programs of organizations and social movements play an important role in advancing the equal or civil rights of Muslims so that they will be empowered & treated fairly and equally in society at large.
  76. 76. Importance to Research & Practice • This research shares the best practices of organizations in working to dispel myths about Muslims.
  77. 77. Implications1. Especially after 9/11, Muslims face real problems of discrimination on a daily basis. 2. The efforts of adult and community educators to dispel misconceptions about Islam and Muslims prove to be constructive, effective, and successful. 3. More community and adult educators need to take up this challenge of working to break myths and stereotypes, in particular, with respect to Muslims. 4. They can do their share in facilitating the common folk’s knowledge about Muslims and Islam based on facts so that Muslims in society at large will be treated fairly, as everyone else in society wants to be treated fairly.
  78. 78. Rey Ty International Training Office Northern Illinois University
  79. 79. Awni Al-Karzon International Programs Northern Illinois University
  80. 80. E. J. Hunting Adult and Higher Education Northern Illinois University
  81. 81. References1. ABC News (2008) Common Misunderstandings about Muslims. Retrieved on 2010-6-12 from http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1. 2. Baitona. Baitona. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from www.baitona.org. 3. BBC. (2010 August 9). Egypt cleric ‘to ban full veils.’ Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8290606.stm. 4. BBC. (2010 July 13). French MPs vote to ban Islamic full veil in public. Retrieved July 13, 2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10611398. 5. BBC. (2010 July 19). Syria bans face veils at universities Retrieved August 2, 2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-10684359. 6. CAIR. (2010). Our vision, mission and core principles. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://www.cair.com/AboutUs/VisionMissionCorePrinciples.aspx. 7. CAIR. (2010). CAIR Chicago. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://chicago.cair.com/. 8. Coombs, P. H., Prosser, R. C. & Ahmed, M. (1973). New paths to learning for children and youth. New York: International Council for Educational Development. 9. Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 10. English translation of the Meaning of the Quran. (2005). (S. V. Ahamed, Trans.). Lombard, IL: Book of Signs Foundation. 11. Finger, M. (1989). New social movements and their implications for adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 40(1), 15-22. 12. Griffiths, M. & O’Callaghan, T. (2003). International relations: Key concepts. New York: Routledge. 13. GROW. (2010). Grassroots Organizing by Women (GROW). Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.niu.edu/srilankaproj/. 14. GROW II. (2010). Grassroots Organizing by Women II (GROW II). Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://www.niu.edu/grow2/. 15. International Training Offce. (2010). International Training Office. Retrieved July 29, 2010 from www.niu.edu/ito. 16. Holst, J. (2002). Social movements, civil society, and radical education. West Point, CT: Bergin and Garvey. 17. IMAN. (2010). About IMAN. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://www.imancentral.org/. 18. ITO. (2010). International Training Office. Retrieved July 20, 2010 from www.niu.edu/ito. 19. Kottak, C. P. (2000). Anthropology: The exploration of human diversity. (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. 20. Lederach, J. P. (2003). The little book of conflict transformation. Intercourse, PA: Good Books. 21. Lederach, J. P. & Mansfield, K. (2010). Strategic Peacebuilding Pathways. Retrieved July 29, 2010 from http://kroc.nd.edu/alumni/career-resources/strategic-peacebuilding- pathways. 22. McDonald, Kevin. (2006). Global Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 23. Ryan, S. (1995). Ethnic conflict and international relations. Aldershot, U.K.: Dartmouth Publishing Company. 24. Stalker, J. (2001). Misogyny, women, and obstacles to tertiary education: A vile situation. Adult Education Quarterly, 51(4), 288-305. 25. Sussman, R. W. (2005). Demonic males: Exploring our basic human nature. In K. M. Endicott & R. L. Welsch (Eds.). Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in anthropology (3rd ed.) (pp. 18-25). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. 26. United States Department of State. Being Muslim in America. Retrieved on 2010-6-12 from http://www.america.gov/publications/books/being-muslim-in-america.html. 27. Wrangham, R. & Peterson, R. (2005). Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence. In K. M. Endicott & R. L. Welsch (Eds.). Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in anthropology (3rd ed.) (pp. 26-35). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
  82. 82. Misconceptions, Current Trends, and the Role of Social Movements and Education in Promoting Development, Conflict Transformation and Peace Building © 2010 Rey Ty, Awni Al-Karzon & Eric Hunting Islam:

×