2016 Book: Eco-Justice LGA Forum IV


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Eco-Justice: Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. Asian Life-Giving Agriculture Forum IV, Chiang Mai, Thailand, CCA, CCT, KCLGAF Sustainable Development

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2016 Book: Eco-Justice LGA Forum IV

  1. 1. Page 1 of 119 Eco-Justice Towards Sustainable Development and Food Security in Asia Asian Christian Life-Giving Agriculture Forum IV November 28 to December 02, 2016 Co-Sponsored by Christian Conference of Asia (CCA) Church of Christ of Thailand (CCT) Korea Life-Giving Agriculture Forum (KLGAF) Chiang Mai, Thailand
  2. 2. Page 2 of 119 Eco-Justice Towards Sustainable Development and Food Security in Asia: Asian Christian Life-Giving Agriculture Forum IV This is an open access publication. Individual authors retain ownership of the copyright for their papers in this publication. Appropriate attribution can be provided by acknowledging the publisher, citing the document properly, and the date of the publication in which the item appeared, which does not in any way suggest that we endorse you or your use of the work. For any reuse or redistribution of this publication, you must also make clear the terms under which the work was reproduced. Open access to, and free use of, original work ensures the publication is freely and openly available. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Disclaimer All ideas expressed in this publication belong to the individual authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations with which they are affiliated. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring organizations. Content, style, editing, and proofreading were the responsibility of each author or group of authors. All errors and omissions are those of the contributors. Edited by Dr. Rey Ty 2016 Christian Conference of Asia c/o Payap University, P.O. Box 183, Muang, Chiang Mai, Thailand 50000 Telephone: (66) 53-243-906, 243-907 Fax: (66) 53-247-303 Webpage: http://cca.org.hk/home/ Index Asia Bible Reflection Christian Conference of Asia (CCA) Church of Christ in Thailand (CCT) Eco-Justice Field Visit and Immersion Food Security Food Sovereignty Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Korean Christian Life-Giving Agriculture Forum (KCLGA) Life-Giving Agriculture Nature The Poor Right to Food Seed Bank Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Development Production Credits Published by the Christian Conference of Asia, Church of Christ of Thailand, and the Korean Christian Life Giving Agriculture Forum Printed in Chiang Mai, Thailand
  3. 3. Page 3 of 119 Contents About the Resource Persons ............................................................................................................5 Chunakara, Mathews George .......................................................................................................5 Ahn, Jae Hak...............................................................................................................................5 Arakawa, Tomoko.......................................................................................................................5 Baladjay, Ardniel Amar ...............................................................................................................5 Bicksler, Abram J........................................................................................................................5 Chung Ho Jin..............................................................................................................................5 George, Mariamma Sanu George (Nirmala). .................................................................................6 Gultom, Justin.............................................................................................................................6 Guneratne, Nishantha ..................................................................................................................6 Han Kyeong Ho..........................................................................................................................6 Kim In Soo. ................................................................................................................................6 Maneekorn, Nuttapong ................................................................................................................6 Moon, Grace...............................................................................................................................6 Rajkumar, Christopher.................................................................................................................6 Sihombing, Samuel .....................................................................................................................6 Ty, Rey.......................................................................................................................................6 CCA Staff......................................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 1: Introduction ..................................................................................................................8 Schedule ......................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 2: Prayers and Bible Reflections......................................................................................11 Opening Prayer.............................................................................................................................11 Morning Devotion ........................................................................................................................17 Bible Reflection 1.........................................................................................................................20 Bible Reflection 2: To Help on the Road ........................................................................................21 CHAPTER 3: Overview....................................................................................................................24 Life-Giving Agriculture Principles .................................................................................................24 Experience, Practice, Approach, and Thoughts on GMOs and Sustainable Agriculture and the Poor...30 International Political Economy: Neoliberal Globalization vs. Eco-Justice........................................43 CHAPTER 4: Eco-Justice .................................................................................................................50
  4. 4. Page 4 of 119 Vision of ARI Farming as Eco-Just Farming...................................................................................50 Eco-Justice...................................................................................................................................56 CHAPTER 5: Sustainable Development.............................................................................................58 Towards Sustainable Development.................................................................................................58 Arable Area Management with the King’s Philosophy and Local Intellect ........................................72 CHAPTER 6: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).....................................................................78 Food Security (Safety) in Korea.....................................................................................................78 Is Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) a Modern Miracle of Food Production or an Art of Life ..88 CHAPTER 7: Food Security and the Right to Food.............................................................................99 Food Security: Back to Basic, Relating Life to Soil.........................................................................99 The Right to Food or the Right to Get Healthy Food .....................................................................107 Final Statement.............................................................................................................................. 114 List of Participants.......................................................................................................................... 118
  5. 5. Page 5 of 119 About the Resource Persons Chunakara, Mathews George. Dr. Mathews George Chunakara is General Secretary of the Christian Conference of Asia. He served the World Council of Churches in Geneva, Switzerland as its Asia Secretary from 2000 to 2009 and Director of the Commission of the Churches International Affairs (CCIA-WCC) from 2009 to 2014. Ahn, Jae Hak. Rev. Ahn (right) is the general secretary of the Korean Christian Life Giving Agriculture Forum KCLGAF. He is also a co-coordinator of the Asian Christian Life-Giving Agriculture Forum IV. Arakawa, Tomoko. She is the Director of the Asian Rural Institute (ARI) in Nasushiobara, Tochigi, Japan (left photo). She studied at the International Christian University. Tomoko has been engaged in the work of nurturing and training grassroots rural community leaders, both women and men, of the developing countries, at the Asian Rural Institute (ARI) in Tochigi prefecture for 21 years. With those grassroots rural community leaders, staff and volunteers form an international, multi-cultural and multi-religious community of learning each year based on sustainable agriculture. (We achieve high level of food self-sufficiency by organic farming every year.) Tomoko graduated from International Christian University in Tokyo in 1990. After working as a teacher at high schools for several years, she took master degree under sociology at Michigan State University in 1995. Since then she has been working at Asian Rural Institute. Tomoko had been in charge of curriculum for 6 years until 2009 and worked as a general manager cum associate director of ARI until March, 2014. She became Director of ARI April, 2015. She has been coordinating Servant leadership class and Gender class. She enjoys sessions learning and hearing real issues related to those topics from the rural leaders of the world. Baladjay, Ardniel Amar. He was raised in a rural farming community and grew up with the church as his second home. In 2016 of April, he finished Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Science with major in Crop Production and Management and with cognate in Crop Protection. Currently, he is working as full-time college instructor in the Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato. Bicksler, Abram J. Dr. Abram J Bicksler is the Director of the ECHO Asia Impact Center in Chiang Mai, Thailand. For over 30 years, ECHO has been helping thousands of development workers and organizations around the world to gain better access to vital information and resources needed to improve food security and livelihoods for small farmers and gardeners. Since 2009, the ECHO Asia Impact Center has been equipping and training development workers and organizations in Asia to extend relevant information, techniques, seeds, and ideas to improve the lives of the poor in Asia. Formerly a Post-Doctoral Fellow and Instructor for the International Sustainable Development Studies Institute (ISDSI) in Chiang Mai, Abram spent 4 years teaching American undergraduate students about sustainable development in the tropics in an experiential learning setting. Prior to moving to Thailand, Abram completed his M.S. and Ph.D. in environmental science at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, which focused on the ecology and use of cover crops in sustainable vegetable production. Chung Ho Jin. Dr. Rev. Chun (right) is the former president and the honorary president of International NGO LIFE WORLD.
  6. 6. Page 6 of 119 George, Mariamma Sanu George (Nirmala). She is one of the Co-Heads at Inter Cooperation Social Development (ICSD) and is currently also working as Team Leader – Kerala for CPGD-CCIP ((DFID supported Climate Change Innovation Programme to provide technical support to the Government of Kerala). She has more than two decades of work experience in development sector spreading across the areas of governance, gender, climate change adaptation and capacity building. She has been a Gender specialist and also was instrumental in developing modules on environment and local governments. She is also the working group member constituted by the Government of Kerala to develop tool kits for Sustainable Development Goals. She had undertaken assignments for The World Bank, ADB,SDC, UNDP, UNICEF, Lal Bahadur Shastry National Academy for Administration, Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of Kerala, Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) and Kerala State Biodiversity Board. Academically she has done her M.Phil in Applied Economics from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. She is pursuing her doctoral studies also along with her work. Gultom, Justin. Rev. Gultom (right) is the director of the department of Diakonia, Community Development bureau in HKBP, Indonesia. Guneratne, Nishantha. Rev. Guneratne (left) is the Director of Nawajeevanam Farm, pastor of the Methodist Church in Sri Lanka. Han Kyeong Ho. Rev. Han Kyung Ho (right) is the President of the Korean Christian Life Giving Agriculture Forum. Kim In Soo. Dr. Kim In Soo (left) is the president of Dandelion Community and Principal of Dandelion Alternative School. Maneekorn, Nuttapong. Adjarn Nut (right) works with the Social Development and Service Unit (SDSU) of the Church of Christ in Thailand (CCT) in Chiang Mai. He is also a co- coordinator of the Asian Christian Life-Giving Agriculture Forum IV. Moon, Grace. Rev. Grace Moon (left) is the Program Coordinator of (1) Mission in Unity and Contextual Theology and (2) Ecumenical Leadership Formation and Spirituality. Rajkumar, Christopher. Christopher (right) is an ordained minister of the Church of South India. Presently he serves the National Council of Churches in India as its Executive Secretary for the Commission on Justice, Peace and Creation and the Unity Mission and Evangelism. He facilitates the Life Giving Agriculture Forum - India. He also serves as a Member of the Global Reference Group of the World Council of Churches - Ecumenical Advocacy Alliance and the Moderator of the 'Food For Life' Global Campaign Strategy Group of the WCC - EAA. christopher@nccindia.in Sihombing, Samuel. Rev. Sihombing (right) is the chairperson of PODA coffee cooperative, PETEASA foundation and pastor of HKBP. He is a rural pastor: a “coffee pastor.” Ty, Rey. Dr. Rey Ty (left) CCA’s Program Coordinator for Building Peace and Moving beyond Conflict as well as of Prophetic Diakonia and Advocacy. He received his first master’s degree from the University of California at Berkeley and his second master’s degree and doctorate from Northern Illinois University. He is also a co-coordinator of the Asian Christian Life- Giving Agriculture Forum IV.
  7. 7. Page 7 of 119 CCA Staff General Secretary Dr. Mathews George Chunakara Rev. Jung Eun Moon Grace Dr. Rey Ty Dr. Alphinus Rantalemba Kambodji Rev. Dr. Chuleepran Srisoontorn Ms. Sunila Ammar Ms. Zeresh John Mr. Rama Rao Gollu Ms. Janjarat Saedan Ms. Phawinee Pinthong Ms. Patchayotai Boontama Ms. Casey Lita Lupe Moana Fa’Aui Ms. Han-Byeol Angela Kim Rev. Dedi Bakkit Tua Pardosi Mr. Jebasingh Samuvel Mrs. Arpa Yai-Chid Mr. Wittaya Makasuk
  8. 8. Page 8 of 119 CHAPTER 1: Introduction Eco-Justice: Towards Sustainable Development and Food Security in Asia—Asian Life- Giving Agriculture Forum IV November 28, 2016 (Monday) to December 2, 2016 (Friday) Background Life-Giving Agriculture (LGA) is a movement of the people and a way of life that relates to livelihoods. The land, forest and water are gifts of God to all on earth. LGA is a living philosophy based on theology of life. It is a life enhancing process grounded in faith and nurtured in a culture of sharing, caring and loving. LGA is diverse yet holistic, participatory, non-exploitative and builds equity (gender), respect, dignity and justice. The present dominant development model of agriculture is corporate and market-driven. It is capital intensive, export-oriented, and mono-cultural with profit as its motive. It compels farmers to use GMO seeds, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are plants, animals, micro-organism, or any other organisms, which are products of laboratory processes in which genes which are extracted from the DNA of one species are artificially forced into the genes of an unrelated plant or animal. The external genes could come from animals, bacteria, humans, insects, or viruses. This leads to soil degradation, loss of indigenous seeds, bio-diversity and concentration of lands in the hands of few. It restricts diversity of agriculture based on the food patterns that are dictated by fast-food companies, increases occupational losses, displacement, drought and migration. Decades of these unsustainable agricultural practices have led to erosion of cultures, traditional knowledge and sustainable agricultural systems. The Christian Conference of Asia (CCA) in cooperation with the Korean Christian Forum on Life Giving Agriculture, organized the 1st Asian Christian Forum on “Life Giving Agriculture” in August 2006 in Korea. This was followed by a second Conference in Sri Lanka in November 2010 on the theme “Empowering Local Economy of Life in the Context of Globalization” focused on the Asian context of a globally capitalized world, giving emphasis on life giving agricultural communities as examples of alternative communities in Asia. Having clearly identified the need to have solidarity networks at regional levels, an Ecumenical Consultation on “Life Giving Agriculture” was jointly organized by Justice, International Affairs, Development and Service of CCA and the Korean Christian Forum on Life Giving Agriculture. The 3rd Consultation was conducted on 2-8 November 2013 at Dandelion Community Sancheong, Korea, identifying problems and constraints farmers were facing and exploring alternative approaches to life-giving agriculture in the Asian context.
  9. 9. Page 9 of 119 The 3rd Consultation provided much input to the participants with various sustainable and ecological farming practices that have been observed to have mitigated climate change, assured food security and sovereignty among communities, and uplifted the conditions of small farmers. The United Nations Committee on Food Security defines food security as World Food Security, is the condition in which all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Working for eco-justice requires valuing both ecology and social justice, ensuring the well-being of human beings on our Earth that thrives, providing us with clean water for drinking, sufficient food for all, clean air that we breathe, and the land on which we stand. We cannot separate Nature from society. Previous Meetings of Life-giving Agriculture Forum 1. The International Life Giving Agriculture Forum was held in Wonju, Korea jointly with WCC, in 8 – 14 April, 2005. 2. The Asian Life Giving Agriculture Forum was held in Hongsung, Korea jointly with CCA, in 25 – 30 August, 2006. 3. The 2nd Asian Life Giving Agriculture Forum was held in Sri Lanka jointly with CCA, in 22 – 26 November, 2010. 4. The 3rd Asian Life Giving Agriculture Forum was held in Snachong, Korea jointly with CCA, in 4 – 8 November, 2013. Venue 1. 28–30 November, 2016 at Chiang Mai – Thailand 2. 1 – 2 December, 2016 at Field Visit and Immersion Participants 50 Participants (Need to have gender balance in composition of participants!) 1. 15 from other Asian countries 2. 15 from Korea 3. 15 from Thailand 4. 5 from CCA
  10. 10. Page 10 of 119 Schedule Date Morning Afternoon Evening Nov. 28, 2016 (Mon.) Arrival Informal Fellow-ship Nov. 29, 2016 (Tue.) Adjarn Nut (CCT, Facili- tator) Breakfast 7:30-9 AM 9-10 AM S1: Inauguration - -Worship - Rev. Grace Moon (CCA) - -Welcome -Introduction -Life-Giving Agriculture Principles Dr. Rev. Chung Ho Jin (KCLGAF) Coffee Break:10- 10:30 AM 10:30 AM – 12 noon S2: Theme Presentation I. Overview: “Practiceson and Views ofGMOs, Sustainable Agriculture and the Poor” Dr. Abram Bicksler (ECHO) & Dr. Rey Ty (CCA) Lunch Break: 12 Noon – 1:00 PM 1:00 – 3 PM S3: Thematic Presentation II: Eco-Justice Tomoko Arakawa (ARI Japan), Nishantha Guneratne (Sri Lanka) Coffee Break:3 – 3:30 PM 3:30 – 5 PM S4: Thematic Presentation III: Sustainable Development Mariamma Sanu George “Nirmala” (India), Rev. Justin Gultom (HKBP Indonesia), & (Rev. Nuttapong Maneekorn, CCT) Break: 5- 5:30 PM(No break) Welcome Dinner 6:00 PM Nov. 30, 2016 (Wed.) Angela Kim & Dedi Pardoso (CCA Faci- litators) S5: 9-9:40 AM Morning Devotion & Bible Reflection Rev. Grace Moon (CCA) S6: Thematic Presentation IV. Genetically Modified Food (GMOs) Rev. Han Kyung Ho (KCLGAF), Christopher Rajkumar (NCC-India) & Response from Local Context CCA (Bangladesh) S7: Thematic Presentation V: Food Security & Right to Food Dr. Ardniel Baladjay (SSC Philippines) & Rev. Samuel Sihombing (HKBP Indonesia) & Eang Chhun (Cambodia) S8: Group Discussion: Facilitated by Rev. Nuttapong Maneekorn, CCT Dinner S9: Consultation about establishment of Asian LGA forum By President of KCLGAF (Rev. Han Keung Ho) Dec. 1, 2016 (Thu.) 8 AM Departure Field Visit: Departure 8AM to Mae Hang Village, Lamphang Province, Organized by CCT Bible Reflection, Rev. Niran Chanta (CCT) Facilitators: Rev. Nuttapong Maneekorn, Rev. Kim Young Soek (Bokaeo Development Center) Dec. 2, 2016 (Fri.) Rev. Ahn (Faci- litator) S10. Morning Devotion & Bible Reflection Dr. Kim In Soo (KCLGAF) S11: -Plenary Sharing of Group Discussion -Plenary Discussion on Common Concerns Rev. Jae Hak Ahn (KCLGAF) Closing Act Departure (If you have to leave by 11 AM or so, kindly fill out a Sign Up Sheet and inform CCT coordinators at once. See Adjarn Nut and Adjarn Tewin
  11. 11. Page 11 of 119 CHAPTER 2: Prayers and Bible Reflections Opening Prayer Prepared by Rev. Jung Eun “Grace” Moon Our care of creation is an act of worship. And our worship is an act of caring for creation. The challenge is to be intentional in making the connections between our caring and our worship, and to find liturgical ways to express that relationship in a way that does not detract from the work of praising God. Worship can be a time to increase our awareness of the world around us, to increase our appreciation of the sacredness of creation, and to deepen our desire to treat it with dignity and respect. (Jennifer Edinger) Let us praise and worship Our Lord! God, Fill our worship with grace, that every thought, word, and deed may be acceptable to you, our Rock and our Redeemer. Amen. Communal Reading of Psalm 96 Sing a new song to the LORD! Sing to the LORD, All the world! Sing to the LORD, and praise him! Proclaim every day the good news that he has saved us. Proclaim his glory to the nations, his mighty deeds to all peoples. The Lord is great and is to be highly praised; he is to be honored more than all the gods. The gods of all other nations are only idols, but the LORD created the heavens. Glory and majesty surround him; power and beauty fill his temple. Praise the LORD, all people on earth; praise his glory and might. Praise the LORD’s glorious name; bring an offering and come into his Temple. Bow down before the Holy One when he appears; tremble before him, all the earth! Say to all the nations, “The LORD is king! The earth is set firmly in place and cannot be moved; He will judge the people with justice.” Be glad, earth and sky! Roar, sea and every creature in you; Be glad, fields, and everything in you! The trees in the woods will shout for joy when the LORD comes to rule the earth. He will rule the peoples of the world with justice and fairness.
  12. 12. Page 12 of 119 “All of creation waits with eager longing for God to reveal his sons. For creation was condemned to lose its purpose, not of its own will, but because God willed it to be so. Yet there was the hope that creation itself would one day be set free from its slavery to decay and would share the glorious freedom of the children of God. For we know that up to the present time all of creation groans with pain, like the pain of childbirth. (Romans 8: 19 – 22) O God, our creator, whose good earth is entrusted to our care and delight and tenderness, we pray: For all who are in captivity to debt, whose lives are cramped by fear from which there is no turning except through abundant harvest. May those who sowin tears reap with shouts ofjoy. For all who depend on the earth for their daily food and fuel whose forests and rivers are destroyed for the profits of a few. May those who sowin tears reap with shouts ofjoy. For all who labor in poverty, who are oppressed by unjust laws, who are banned for speaking the truth, who long for a harvest of justice. May those who sowin tears reap with shouts ofjoy.
  13. 13. Page 13 of 119 For the whole creation that is groaning in pain, whose vitality is threatened, whose existence in the world is ended because of human’s ignorant and sinful deeds. May those who sowin tears reap with shouts ofjoy. For all who are in captivity to greed and waste and boredom, whose harvest joy is chocked with things they do not need. May those who sowin tears reap with shouts ofjoy. Turn us again from our captivity, and restore our vision, that our mouth may be filled with laughter and our tongue with singing. May your Spirit inspire and move all churches and people in Asia to care for your creation in our daily lives. In Jesus Christ we pray: Amen. (Janet Morley, Bread for tomorrow, with adaptation) It was Moses who prayed to God for bread, and there it was in the desert, Fine flakes like hoarfrost on the ground. ‘What is it?’ they asked. ‘That is the bread which the Lord has given you to eat,’ said Moses. Bread of Life, give us today our daily bread. In all the wilderness journeys of the heart, In all barrenness of spirit And when we are utterly lost, Jesus offers food which lasts. Bread of Life, give us this food now and always. What is this bread from heaven? It is Jesus himself, his presence, healing, challenge, grace, his hope for each one of us. Bread of Life, may we take and eat so that you live in us. For some, affluence has brought a food surplus with much wasted; Then it is all the harder to trust in the gift of heavenly bread. Bread of Life, keep us hungry and thirsty for righteousness. For others, a loaf is the most blessed gift of all, to be received with thankfulness,
  14. 14. Page 14 of 119 for it is the chance to live another day. Bread of Life, help us to share – that all may be satisfied. Blessed are you, Lord, God of all creation. Through your goodness we have this bread to offer, which earth has given and human hands have made. It will become for us the bread of life. Blessed be God for ever.
  15. 15. Page 15 of 119 Loving God, we have gathered here to meet you. We have come to listen to your wisdom, To strengthen our solidarity and fellowship. In you we become; in you we live.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 119 Loving God, you are here and everywhere, Around us and within us; you know our inmost thoughts. In you we hope; in you we live. In you we are still; in you we live. Loving God, we live in you; we praise you. Loving God, you live in us; we worship you. In Jesus’name, we pray. Amen. Blessing O creator God, Bless our land and rice field around us. Bless every molecule and particle of soil in it. Bless the water spring nearby. Bless every insect, worm and bird. Bless every leaf and shrub and tree. Bless our hands, our strengths, our skills. Bless our caring together and our unity, That we may bring back the waters to the river once again. Amen.
  17. 17. Page 17 of 119 Morning Devotion 30 November 2016 Our hearts are ready, O Lord, our hearts are ready! We will sing and make melody! We will awaken the dawn! We will give thanks to you, O Lord, among the peoples, We will sing praises to you among the nations. For your steadfast love is great above the heaven, and your faithfulness reaches to the cloud. Loving God, we have gathered to meet you. We have come to listen to you, to seek you, to worship you. You are the beginning of all things, the life of all things; you knew us before we were born. In you we become; in you we live. Loving God, you are here and everywhere, around us and within us; you know our inmost thoughts. In you we hope; in you we live. You are the source of serenity, giving peace that is beyond our understanding. In you we are still; in you we live. Loving God, we live in you; we worship you. Loving God, you live in us; we worship you. Amen. Praise the Lord! Praise, O servants of the Lord; Praise the name of the Lord. Blessed be the name of the Lord from this time and for evermore. From the rising of the sun to its setting the name of the Lord is to be praised. The Lord is high above all nations, and God’s glory above the heavens.
  18. 18. Page 18 of 119 Who is like the Lord our God, who is seated on high, who looks far down on the heavens and the earth? The Lord raises the poor from the dust, and lifts the needy from the ash heap. Praise the Lord! Lord God, you have provided for us a creation filled with food and water, a universe rich with energy and resources, and charged us to have dominion over all you have created. But we confess that we have often spoiled your gifts, We have put abused the environment you have provided for us. Forgive us, Lord, and make us better stewards of your creation. We pray through Christ, our Lord. Amen. O God, give us compassion, that we may nurse our beautiful but fragile creation. Give us knowledge, that we may protect it and be protected. Give us love, that we may love it and be loved. Give us a desire for reconciliation with all your creation. O Lord, hear our prayer. O God, we belong to you, being made in your image. Help us to be followers of your true image, Jesus Christ, your Son, appreciating our differences, not as dividing facts, but as gifts of being and belonging in your divine multitude. O Lord, hear our prayer. We praise your wisdom. We pray for the unity of the breathing world that we and all your creatures may live together in harmony and peace. In the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.
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  20. 20. Page 20 of 119 Bible Reflection 1 Affirmation (all) We believe in God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth. We believe that God’s love is powerful beyond measure. God not only preserves the world, God continually attends to it. God commands us to care for the earth in ways that reflect God’s loving care for us. We are responsible for ensuring that the earth’s gifts are used fairly and wisely, that no creature suffers from the abuse of what we are given, and that future generations may continue to enjoy the abundance and goodness of the earth in praise to God. Entrusting ourselves wholly to God’s care, we receive the grace to be patient in adversity, thankful in the midst of blessing, courageous when facing injustice, and confident that no evil may afflict us that God will not turn to our good. Blessing May God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the source of all goodness and growth, pour his blessing upon all things created, and upon you, his children, that you may use them to his glory and the welfare of all peoples. Amen.
  21. 21. Page 21 of 119 Bible Reflection2: To Help on the Road Dr. Rev. Kim In Soo Bible Reading : ⅢJohn 2 “Beloved, I wish above all things that thou mayest prosper and be in health, even as thy soul prospereth.”(KJV) One of the frequently mentioned verse by ‘prosperity theology’ is ⅢJohn 2. Many Christians think that if we believe in Jesus, and are sincere church members, then we will become rich, healthy, and enjoy wellbeing life. In the process of industrialization, particularly in developing countries, this prosperity theology receives special attention from Christians. The conviction of the followers of prosperity theology is confirmed when they took western Christiandom as their model. This approach resulted in overwhelming social atmosphere in every way. As we all consequently perceived the outcome of the prosperity theology, mammonism and increasing structural poverty have taken roots in our society and mind. Even though material prosperity and wellbeing exhaustion is common in our consumptive society, reliable and dependable human relationship have become endangered. Real friendship is rare. The future is swallowed up by present moneygrubbing pressure. The word sustainability is mentioned in every conference, meeting and daily conversation. We are on the verge of seeking the alternatives in our thinking and attitude in reflecting with the deep biblical view. Prosperity theology has undermined and secularized the Christian Church; its spirituality and modus vivendi. Now, let us return to the original meaning of ‘prosper’ as shown in ⅢJohn 2, and reorient our way to the essence. According to Strong’s Concordance, the original Greek word ‘euodoo’, it denotes 3 similar translations and 1 different implication in STRONG’s Concordance. Euodoo, in its three translations are ‘to help on the road’, ‘succeed in reaching’, and ‘have a prosperous journey’. The first meaning of ’prosper’ should be ‘to help on the road’. Other two translations ‘succeed in reaching’ and ‘have a prosperous journey’ are closely related in successful journey in our life. These major 3 translations give inspiration that life is journey, life is pilgrimage. Only in its last translation does prosper mean to ‘Succeed in business’. However, prosperity pursuers emphasize the minor translation as their bulwark, accepting ‘succeed in business as their favorite, understanding ‘prosper’ in ⅢJohn 2. It is a clear misunderstanding. The Bible reveals Christians as pilgrim Christian in ⅠPeter 1:1 - “to God’s elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia”, ⅠPeter 2:11 - “Dear friends, I urge you, as aliens and strangers in the world”, and also in Heb 11:13 - “All these people were still living
  22. 22. Page 22 of 119 by faith when they died. They did not receive the things promised; they only saw them and welcomed them from a distance. And they admitted that they were aliens and strangers on earth” We are strangers and aliens in this world, We are pilgrims. In keeping with our identity as pilgrims, we should keep in mind the following three points, Firstly, we are requested to transfer our lifestyle from possession to existence. “Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming.”(ⅡPet 3:11) “So they pulled their boats up on shore, left everything and followed him.”(LK 5:11) Insatiable desires, of possession extend their boundless, devilish state as seen in the cursed city of Babylon (see Rev 18:10-13). The Babylonian as spirit of possession demanded the corruption and destruction of the earth “And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest gave reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and should destroy them which destroy the earth.”(Rev 11:18) “For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.”(Rev 19:2) As caretaker of our earth and ourselves, we should preserve the vitality of all living creature and our mother earth. Secondly, we are requested to transfer our attitude obtaining wealth to being poorer life. A village may be impoverished if a man attempts to be a rich. A continent may be impoverished if a nation attempt to be rich. We were called to help each other on the road to the kingdom of God. We should cooperate with each other for a successful journey. Possession cannot guarantee a successful journey for a lifelong pilgrim. Good partnerships, and a communal sharing life can only success in our pilgrims. One of the greatest joys of the journey are the relationship (good friendship) themselves. “I tell you, use worldly wealth to gain friends for yourselves, so that when it is gone, you will be welcomed into eternal dwellings.”(LK 16:9) Voluntary poverty is one way to create a thriving spiritual economy. “As sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all thing.”(ⅡCor 6:10) “For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich.”(ⅡCor 8:9) Thirdly, we are requested to transfer our view from stability to instability. Enormous instability globally, regionally, and locally, is on the rise. Unceasing terror and war, refugee camps, tenacious epidemics.
  23. 23. Page 23 of 119 Uncontrollable natural disasters and man-made calamities, political unrest, economic recession, and more. We see these phenomena in daily news. Christians are ones who dare to confront the danger, sufferings, and instability. Christians are ones who interpret the meaning of affliction into real hope. We shared three recommendations of life changing transition, in our pilgrimage; a greater concern for wellbeing and authentic existence than in possessions, a poorer life instead of material riches, and instability over stability. With these, our pilgrimage will be more enjoyable, communal procedure, in the name of brotherhood. Jesus Christ himself is our archetype in understanding and applying this kind of pilgrimage. His life fully shows a pilgrimage bearing all kinds of burdens, sin and iniquities, while bringing humanity into the kingdom of God. He is our only reliable friend in sustaining this world and the world to come. As the decreasing industrial period draws a darkening shadow on this world, we should increase our spiritual capacity and wisdom. As mammonism reveals its demonic and eschatological phenomena, we should strengthen our communal interactions and extend more intimate friendship to each other. As prosperity theology is losing its validity, we should construct, instead, friendship theology for the coming future. Now is the time to recover friendship and sharing our possessions as demonstrated in early Church. The last verse of Ⅲ John “The friends here send their greetings. Greet the friends there by name.” gives us very simple but deep instruction. Our lives should be found upon greeting and welcoming each other, not upon taking profit. A pilgrim community encourages greeting each other in any place, at any time. The best Journey is to be with friends.
  24. 24. Page 24 of 119 CHAPTER 3: Overview Life-Giving Agriculture Principles Dr. Rev. Chung Ho Jin
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  30. 30. Page 30 of 119 Experience, Practice, Approach, and Thoughts on GMOs and Sustainable Agriculture and the Poor Abram J. Bicksler, Ph.D. ECHO Asia Impact Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand The development, application, and ethics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) will be explored in this panel discussion after a brief overview about the basics of the technology and its applications. This forum will also briefly discuss the creation of hybrid seed and the legal and Intellectual Property Rights (IP) issues surrounding it and compare/contrast hybrid seeds with open pollinated (OP) seeds in the context of smallholder farmer agricultural development. Additionally, the concept of sustainable agricultural development will be highlighted, with particular attention paid to smallholder Asian agriculture and its implications for informing sustainable development globally. The ECHO Asia Impact Center and its services will be highlighted as an example of a collaborative non-competitive strategy providing an example of a way to move forward into a sustainable future of equity, information sharing, food security, and improved livelihoods.
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  43. 43. Page 43 of 119 International Political Economy: Neoliberal Globalization vs. Eco-Justice Dr. Rey Ty Introduction Problem Statement The world is experiencing a food crisis, not because we lack food. In fact, we are in the midst of a food glut: about 1.2 billion pounds of cheese, the size of a small mountain, are sitting idly in cold storage. About 40% of food in the U.S. alone is thrown away (Light, 2015). Millions of people still live in a condition of food insecurity (Marshall, 2016). Over “1 billion people struggle to live on less than one dollar a day”; “11 children under five die every minute because of hunger,” over 800 thousand people suffer from acute or chronic hunger; “1 billion people are denied the right to clean water,” and “2.6 billion people lack access to adequate sanitation” (GBCS-UMC, 2016b). Your partly eaten food has a dirty secret. Food waste kills the Earth. One third of food is wasted globally, which releases a huge amount of greenhouse gases (Butler, 2013). So much food is produced; yet so much food is thrown away while simultaneously so millions go to bed hungry every night. The problem is not the lack of food. The problem is the control of food. The “food supply is now controlled by a handful of corporations that often put profit ahead of consumer health, the livelihood of the…farmer, the safety of workers and our own environment” (Kenner, 2010). We live in two worlds on Earth: the utopia of the haves and the dystopia of the have-nots. Inequality has become the norm. The dominant paradigm is one of conquest and destruction which incentivizes greed and profit (Chomsky, 2011). There is a growing inequality in income and wealth between the rich and everyone else (Stiglitz, 2016). Market forces (Stiglitz, 2013) and capital accumulation (Piketty, 2015) are central to the rise of inequality, which negatively affects democracy and social justice (Stiglitz, 2013). Only 62 persons own the same wealth as 3.6 billion poorest people on Earth (Oxfam, 2016). On the one hand, members of the 1% are the economic, political, and cultural power-holders who promote competition, greed, capital accumulation, profit, war, and genocide (Chomsky, 2002). On the other hand, the 99% have to deal with poverty, hunger, thirst, genocide, wage slavery, destruction of Nature, racism, and human inequality. Variances in income and capital ownership are causes of inequality (Piketty, 2015). Economic inequality, which has increased over the past 30 years, is not accidental but a feature of capitalism (Piketty, 2014). To boot, the rich reinforces the myth that poor people are lazy. Questions In this paper, the following questions were raised for our critical reflection: (1) How does the unsustainable neoliberal economic world order affect food security? (2) What are some of the proposed alternative solutions that promote eco-justice? Objectives This paper, which reviews the literature, aimed to delve into the major problems with which the global community is afflicted today based on the operation of the dominant economic structures and political and cultural systems. As a counter-narrative, some alternative solutions are proposed. Research Method This paper uses a diachronic and dialectical method (Hegel, 1977) to portray the historically and socially determined view of the contradictions between the hegemonic neoliberal economic model and the various people’s alternatives in the global context, with a preferential option for the poor and the powerless. Conceptual Framework 1. Eco-justice: Caring simultaneously for Nature as well as the poor and the oppressed
  44. 44. Page 44 of 119 2. Sustainable development: Development that meets human needs and ensures that the future generation will enjoy Nature and its wealth (Brundtland Report, 1987) 3. Food security: The condition where all humans are assured to have the physical, social, and economic access to safe and nutritious food which meet our dietary needs and food choices for an active and healthy life (UNCWFS, 1996) 4. Right to food: Food not only as a basic need but a basic human right “underpinned by law” (Marshall, 2016). The government has the duty “to work to provide mechanisms to secure food where it is needed” and “the government could be held legally responsible if its efforts to guarantee food is available to all citizens fail” (Marshall, 2016) 5. Food sovereignty: A term that Via Campesina coined in 1999 (cited in Global Small-Scale Farmers’ Movement, 2005). Around 500 delegates from more than 80 countries at the Forum for Food Sovereignty in Mali in 2007 adopted the "Declaration of Nyéléni", which states that food sovereignty refers to “the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems. It puts those who produce, distribute and consume food at the heart of food systems and policies rather than the demands of markets and corporations. It defends the interests and inclusion of the next generation. It offers a strategy to resist and dismantle the current corporate trade and food regime, and directions for food, farming, pastoral and fisheries systems determined by local producers. Food sovereignty prioritises local and national economies and markets and empowers peasant and family farmer-driven agriculture, artisanal fishing, pastoralist- led grazing, and food production, distribution and consumption based on environmental, social and economic sustainability” (Declaration of Nyéléni, 2007) 6. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs): “organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. The technology is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology”, sometimes also “recombinant DNA technology” or “genetic engineering”. It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between nonrelated species. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods” (WHO, 2016). Findings Paradise Lost: Problems with the Unsustainability of the Neoliberal Globalization Structure In almost all universities in all countries, the only theme taught in Economics is the mono-hegemonic neoclassical neoliberal economic model (Klein, 2007), but we are deceptively told that they offer alternative economic policy choices. The western-led industrial civilization which provided affluence in the 20th century was based upon the exhaustion and conversion of non-renewable fossil fuels into smoke and ash. The dominant neoliberal market fundamentalist economic structure, which promotes growth and consumption, which is focused on private property and money, is hostile to and debases both Nature and people in society (Klein, 2014). Giant corporations gain for themselves corporate welfare from government tax exemptions, smashing competition and making “free market” a hoax (The Economist, 2016 September 17). This old economy which relies on fossil fuels including petroleum, natural gas, and coal causes climate disruption (Brown, 2015) and exploit the labor of others. The current dominant system has provided so much scientific development and technological innovations. However, there is a contradiction, as technology leads to efficiency on the one hand and to unemployment and crisis on the other hand. The political economy of the economic growth in the Global North depends upon the exploitation of cheap labor and natural resources from somewhere else. About 80% of all resources are used by the 20% of the world’s population in the U.S. and Western Europe, many of whose products are made by the labor in the Global South.
  45. 45. Page 45 of 119 In a throwaway societal structure, Nature is destroyed in order to feed the production of continually obsolescent commodities for distribution, sale, use, and dumping. Thanks to the aid and power of advertising and marketing, the endless purchase and consumption of planned obsolescent products are forced down the throat of consumers who themselves are the producers of goods and services. But as we live on Earth, there is no such thing as infinite growth, as matter is finite. Exchanging labor value, we use labor as blue, pink, or white collar workers to earn money to buy commodities produced by the labor of others but owned by a few. Think of your over-packaged food, drinks, cellphone, gadgets, and other commodities at the malls and supermarkets. Nature, labor, as well as the lands of farmers and indigenous peoples are destroyed and exploited in order to mine and extract critical metals and mineral, every time we buy the latest model of a brand-name gadget. Clearly, there is a deep connection between the destruction of Nature and socio-economic injustice. Corporate biopiracy of indigenous plants through patenting plant products threatens ancestral products (Mora, 2016; Shiva, 2011). Greedy corporatocrats promote the use of hazardous chemical pesticides and fertilizers as well as seek to control potable water as well as food through genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which leads to “gene-ocide” (The Economist, 2016 September 17, p. 12). Our food is contaminated from the soil to our plates. The “merchants of doubt” (Oreskes & Conway, 2011) have manufactured consent (Herman & Chomsky, 2002) on cigarette smoking, junk food, bottled water, and climate change denial. Our food supply is threatened by the control of a few powerful monopolies that control the production of GMO seeds and distribution of food commodities. Some biotechnology giants have been engaged in aggressive lobbying in an effort to expand their profits to the detriment of Nature and human rights (Telesur, 2016). Everything, including water, is turned into private property. Today, bottled water use exceeds that of tap water (Ringholm, 2016). Shouldn’t access to water and food be free, as they are basic human rights, considering that they are fundamental to sustain life? Without potable water, we die. Without food for about 40 days, we die. The rich can buy bottled water, fresh produce, fancy food, and packaged food, wasting most of it. But the poor and the minoritized groups always suffer the most. Where is eco-justice? Consumers are made to believe that bottled water is special. In fact, unless otherwise stated, most bottled water is municipal tap water. Corporatocrats promote industrialized junk food and fast food (Pollan, 2009). The promoters of the neoliberal market economic model rely on economic disasters to promote and implement this model (Klein, 2003). The neoliberal global order prioritizes profit over people and Nature (Chomsky, 2011). The youth work and get a loan to study and support their life. Many join the military and fight wars in which they do not believe. The middle class loses job security. Governments promise job creation. Corporations talk of trickle-down growth, which has in fact caused the alienation, pauperization, and misery of millions of people on a global scale. The dominant economic model, which benefits the rich, is flawed and unsustainable. Its neoclassical economic model provides abstract measurements of gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, consumer price index (CPI), and the stock market, all of which do not measure the well-being of actually existing people. In this worldview, really existing individuals, workers, farmworkers, communities, other groups, and Nature are made invisible in macro-economic charts and micro-economic graphs. We have been fooled and lied to for so long now. Modern-day slavery and labor conditions continue to oppress millions of people who do not eke out an income that could support their basis needs. In addition, technological advances lead to mass unemployment: think of agricultural tractors, computers, self-driving cars, and robots in production line. Typists, clerks, and secretaries are a species going extinct. The few rich who own the means of production amass more wealth, while the labor force become unemployed in the rich countries and the export of labor to poorer countries lead to the impoverishment of cheap foreign labor. Climate refugees leave their
  46. 46. Page 46 of 119 arid lands in search of food and livelihood elsewhere where they are unwanted: think of Syria and North Africa in relation to Europe (Baker, 2015). The dominant economic, political, and cultural structures imposed on the rest of the world are unsustainable, as they rely on the continuing exploitation of others. The contradictions in the dominant economic model are unsustainable and have reached the level of a general crisis. If we only produce marketers, advertisers, and service workers, but not farmers,who will produce our food (Eckart, 2016)? Reconstructing Paradise: Solutions for Eco-Justice and Food Security We need to question the control of Wall Street over human lives (Chomsky, 2012) and engage in an economic revolution that promotes a more caring, sharing, democratic, collaborative, and people-centered economy (Alperovitz, 2013). The elements of such an inclusive and participatory economy alternative to the neoliberal global economic model include women-and-widows participation, shared research, worker ownership and control, building the eco-system for economic democracy, the “buy local” movement, participatory governance, and growth taming. Instead of being victims of brand names and buying the latest models of gadgets which only lead to the intensification of mining, depletion of ores, and destruction of Nature as well as indigenous and farm lands, we should support the No Logo movement (Klein, 2012) and becoming prosumers (producers-consumers, Toffler, 1980). From Corporate Coup d’État to Grassroots Democracy and Sustainable Development. Almost all things we use are the products of the labor of others but claimed by owners of capital. Corporatocrats mainly think of saleability and profit, not use. Decommodify: we must think beyond growth (Daly, 1997), which is a flawed and unsustainable model and must work for sustainable development (Sachs, 2015). As proposed solution to the global problems today confronting the majority of the world’s population, more than social welfare, many today are demanding the protection of Nature, green jobs, living wages and universal basic income, which will alleviate the suffering of the majority of the people and provide a decent basic standard of living to all (Chomsky, 2015). In a word: that is eco-justice. Instead of following the logic of competition, we can join liberatory collective and solidarity movements as well as work for social benefit instead of private greed, sharing and caring for others, other beings, and Nature (Leclerq, 2016). We need to create counter-realities and counter-narratives (Chomsky, 2015) which balance human needs and our sense of success and material abundance based on the carrying capacity of the Earth. Question things-as-they-are. Enter into a dialogue. Critique. Expose and oppose oppressive structures of domination. Learn from each other. Make some noise. But talk is not enough. Organizing and attending fora and conference are not sufficient. We need to take action for social change that promotes eco-justice. Be where the action is. Be where the struggling people are. Organize. Empower the people. Be in solidarity. Build coalitions and alliances. Deconstruct language and structures and construct new ones. Engage in policy change. Engage in extra-legal direct actions and civil disobedience. Challenge, propose, work on, give life, and live alternative structures, new lifestyles, and new ways of being, doing, and thinking that promote cooperation, empathy justice, coexistence, reciprocity, mutuality, and good relationships as species on Earth. In the tension between efficiency and fairness, we need to side with justice (Piketty, 2015). The economic and social inequality between the rich and the poor is extreme. Instead of focusing on growth, we need to emphasize justice. Per capita consumption especially in the Global North is unsustainable in relation to the extraction of ores from Nature. Hence, we need look beyond economic growth and to take part in the degrowth movement (Daly, 1997).
  47. 47. Page 47 of 119 We need to expose the flaws of and free ourselves from the dominant economic model as well as propose and create alternative models. Antithetical to the dominant exploitative model which promotes classism and discrimination, we can turn around technology and engineering systems—under alternative sustainable systems—through such means as digitalization, creative commons, peer-to-peer designs, open sources, and 3D printing as some ways by which we can share our knowledge and empower the people over corporations. Reclaim the streets and public spaces. Engage in media jamming and guerrilla communication. Be involved in atomized spaces of resistance such as the Occupy movement (Chomsky, XXX) as well as broad-based mass movements. We need to join the grassroots movement to protect Nature (Brodine, 2007) and work for the common good, redirecting society toward people, community, and Nature to construct a sustainable future (Daly, 1994). From Corporate Welfare to People’s Welfare and Food Security. Given the current economic crisis, is labor for income the proper model forward? How can we attain a world without poverty, war, destruction of Nature, hunger, and thirst? We can work on the individual, community, country, inter-country, and global scale for social change. There are many ways by which we can free ourselves from corporatocratic food control. Starve the market beast. Learn from the indigenous peoples: (1) farm like a forest (biodiversity, intercropping, and agroforestry), (2) eat low on the food chain, (3) restore health to damaged land, and (4) cultivate reverence for the planet (Penniman, 2015). Put back our organic “garbage” back into the soil in order to nourish it and make it productive agriculturally. We need more young people to farm. Occupy the farm! Go natural. Go organic. Support local food system. “Going vegetarian can cut your food carbon footprint in half” (Plumer, 2016). Eat lower on the food chain: “Gallons of water needed to produce one pound of wheat: 25. Gallons of water needed to produce one pound of beef: 2500” (GBCS-UMC, 2016b). Boycotting GMO products is not “revolutionary,” as it is allowed by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety according to which countries can “refuse entry to a GM crop” (The Economist, 2016 September 17, p. 14). Individual efforts are necessary but not sufficient. Partner with farmers. Provide local solutions to local problems, while at the same time promoting a just world order. Join the collective efforts to ensure food security. In many parts of the world, people are already engaged in agropolis, both rural and urban food gardening, using public and private spaces that serves the common good. Engage in community agriculture and plant food crops to consume, share, or sell in urban, suburban, exurban, and rural areas. City dwellers plant food on their window sills, rooftops, and the fire exits. Urbanites, suburbanites, and exurbanites use raised box agriculture. Where space is available, many engage in backyard agriculture. Where space is limited, people engage in home-made aqua culture and vertical agriculture. “Guerrilla grafters” secretly graft fruit-bearing branches on city-owned ornamental trees lining the streets. Grow food, not lawns! Avoid fast food like a plague and support the local slow food movement. Share and barter goods and services to meet human needs and pull away from the market economy. We must work towards the localization of food production, distribution, sharing, sale, and consumption. Reject the hegemonic control of corporatocrats. Reject greed and promote caring for people and for Nature. Engage in fair trade, not free trade. Feed the world without destroying the Earth. Conclusion Restatement ofthe Problem Technological improvements should free up human labor from drudgery and alienation. However, far from fully enjoying the fruits of science and technology, we live in a world in which war, disease, famine, and daily exposure to toxic chemicals are a way of life, thanks to the neoliberal globalization economic model, as pushed forward by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Instead of solving the problem of scarcity of which it is capable, technological efficiency leads to mass unemployment and estrangement. Governments and corporations collide to
  48. 48. Page 48 of 119 promote more growth and more jobs, which are not forthcoming. The dominant way of life is unstable and unsustainable. Food was a direct cause of the French Revolution and the Arab Spring. Summary This paper presents a critique of the dominant unsustainable economic model and recommends an alternative sustainable development model that provides food security. The two contending and incompatible models at work are the following: one is based on the market forces which favor production, local commerce, international trade, money, profit, and the exploitation of labor and Nature, while another is based on the betterment of Nature and society. At the core of the market economy is a financial system that increases capital without producing goods that benefit society or Nature. The dominant economic model damages Nature and society. At the core of the alternative economy is one that promotes the betterment of everyone without being detrimental to Nature. Implications We need to act to ensure food security not only on an individual but also community, country, inter- country, and global levels. Lobby for regulation and proactive policies that ensure access to and distribution of food for all. We need to move away from the neoliberal economic growth model to one that promotes the well-being of the people and Nature. “Take action for justice… Learn about hunger and poverty in your area… Speak truth to power! Tell [your governments] to put those living on the economic margins at the center of our vision of a new just economy” (GBCS-UMC, 2016b). References: Alperovitz, Gar. (2013). W hat then must we do? Straight talk about the next American Revolution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing. Atlantic. (2016). The future of protein will not be animal meat. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FR8TFrLYZvM Baker, A. (2015 Sept. 07). How climate change is behind the surge ofmigrants to Europe. Time. 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(2016 July 03). Global trade: What’s a good progressive to do? In The Progressive. Retrieved from www.progressive.org/news/2016/07/188830/global- trade-whats-good-progressive-do D’Angelo, C. (2016 May 12). Rising sea levels swallow 5 Pacific islands. In The Hufftington Post. Retrieved fromhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/solomon- islands-swallowed-climate-change_us_5730f200e4b0bc9cb047b77b?slideshow=true Daly, H. (1997). Beyond growth: The economics of sustainable development. Beacon Press. Declaration ofNyéléni. (2007). Nyéléni 2007 - Forumfor Food Sovereignty. Eckart, Kim. (2016 February 01). If there are no farmers, who will grow our food? In Yes! Magazine. Retrieved fromhttp://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/good- health/if-there-are-no-new-farmers-who-will-grow-our-food-20160201 Environmental Protection Energy (2016) Global greenhouse gas emissions data. Retrieved on July 8, 2016 from https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/global.html Fahn, J. D. (2003). A land in fire: The environmental consequences of the Southeast Asian Boom. Chiang Mai, Thailand: SilkwormBooks. Food, Inc. (2010). A Robert Kenner Film. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/pov/foodinc/ Francis, Pope. (2015). Laudato Si (On Care for Our Common Home). Vatican. Gene-ocide. (2016 September 12). In The Economist, p. 12. Germanos, A. (2016). Un Assessment: Global destruction ofMother Earth on fast track. Retrieved from http://www.commondreams .org/news/2016/05/20/un- assessment-global-destruction-mother-earth-fast-track?utm_campaign=shareaholic&utm_medium=facebook&utm_source=socialnetwork General Board of Church & Society ofThe United Methodist Church. (2016a). Clean Water. General Board of Church & Society ofThe United Methodist Church. (2016b). Hunger and Poverty. Retrieved fromhttps://umc-gbcs.org/issues/hunger-and-poverty "Global Small-Scale Farmers' Movement Developing New Trade Regimes", Food First News & Views, Volume 28, Number 97 Spring/Summer 2005, p.2. Guardian. (2015). 60-second climate fix. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/theguardian/videos/10153458263351323/ Hallman, D. G. (2002). Globalization and climate change. Geneva, Switzerland: World Council ofChurches. Retrieved from http://www.oikoumene.org/en/resources/documents/wcc-programmes/justice-diakonia-and-responsibility-for-creation/climate-change-water/globalization- and-climate-change Hegel, G. W. (1977). Phenomenology of spirit. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Herman E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2002). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon. Jamail, D. (2016 May 23). Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has passed the point ofno return. Retrieved fromhttp://w ww.truth-out.org/news/item/36133- atmospheric-carbon-dioxide-concentration-has-passed-the-point-of-no-return Jamail, D. (2016 May 02). 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  49. 49. Page 49 of 119 Kenner, R. (2010). Food, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/pov/foodinc/video/food-inc-trailer/ Klein, N. (2012). No Logo: Taking aim at the brand bullies. Toronto: RandomHouse. Klein, N. (2014). This changes everything: Capitalism vs. the climate. Toronto: RandomHouse. Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. Toronto: KnopfCanada. Kris, M. E., & Laccetti, N. (2016). Ministry with the poor in an era ofclimate change. New World Outlook Magazine (May-June). Also retrievable fromThe United Methodist Church Global Mission at http://www.umcmission.org/find-resources/new-world-outlook-magazine/2016/may/june/0621eraofclimatechange Leclercq, A. (2016 March 17). Des potagers urbains en libre-service? Vive les “ Incroyables comestible”! In Positivr. Retrieved fromhttp://positivr.fr/incroyables- comestibles-potagers-urbains-legumes-gratuits/ Light, J. (2015 September 02). U.S. restaurants are terrible at getting wasted food to the hungry. Can we change that? In Grist. Retrieved fromhttp://grist.org/food/u- s-restaurants-are-terrible-at-getting-wasted-food-to-the-hungry-can-we-change-that/ Marshall, W. (2016 November 18). Scotland considers passing a law to ensure a “ right to food.” In The Vice Channels. Retrieved from https://munchies.vice.com/en/articles/scotland-considers-passing-a-law-to-ensure-a-right-to-food?utm_source=munchiesfbus McKibben, B. (2016 March 5). The mercury doesn’t lie: We’ve hit a troubling climate change milestone. Boston Globe. www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2016/03/04/why-degree-temperature-jump-more-important-than-trump- hands/lCyz5MHZkH8aD0HIDJrcYJ/story.html?event=event25 Merchant, C. (1992). Radical ecology. New York: Routledge, Cahapman & Hall. Mora, R. (2016 October 07). Corporate ‘biopiracy’ in Peru threatens indigenous knowledge. Retrieved from h ttp://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/Corporate- Biopiracy-in-Peru-Threatens-Indigenous-Knowledge-20161005-0020.html Mosbergen, D. (2016 May 16). Last month was the warmest ever recorded, continuing 7 -month hot streak. The Hufftington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/hottest-april-2016-nasa_us_57394f3ae4b060aa781aa334 National Council of Churches in the Philippines. (1995). A public faith, a social witness: Statements and resolutions ofthe National Council of Churches in the Philippines. Quezon City: NCCP. Oreskes, N., & Conway, E. M. (2011). Merchants ofdoubt: How a handful ofscientists obscured the truth on issues fromtobacco smoke to global warming. Oxfam. (2016b June 27). Just five food commodities produce more greenhouse gases than any country except emissions giants China and the US. Retrieved from https://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pressreleases/2016-06-27/just-five-food-commodities-produce-more-greenhouse-gases-any Oxfam. (2016a January 18). 62 people own the same as half the world. Retrieved fromhttps://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pressreleases/2016-01-18/62-people- own-same-half-world-reveals-oxfam-davos-report Pearce, F. (2016 July 4). What would a global warming increase of 1.5 degrees be like? Yale Environment 360. Retri eved from http://e360.yale.edu/feature/what_would_a_global_warming_increase_15_degree_be_like/3007/ Penniman, L. (2016 August 10). Four ways Mexico’s indigenous farmers are practicing the agriculture of the future. In Yes! Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.yesmagazine.org/planet/four-ways-mexico-indigenous-farmers-agriculture-of-the-future-20150810 Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Piketty, T. (2015). The economics of inequality. Belknap Press. Plumer, B. (2016 June 13). Study: Going vegetarian can cut your food carbon footprint in half. In Vox. 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Vanishing act: Why insects are declining and why it matters. Retrieved from http://www.countercurrents.org/2016/07/08/vanishing-act-why- insects-are-declining-and-why-it-matters/ Stiglitz, J. E. (2013). The price of inequality: How today’s divided society endangers our future. W. W. Norton & Company. Stiglitz, J. E. (2016). The great divide: Unequal societies and what we can do about them. W. W. Norton & Company. The Economist. September 17-23, 2016 Issue. Telesur (2016 October 13). GMO giant Monsanto has too much power and influence: Report. Retrieved fromhttp://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/GMO -Giant- Monsanto-Has-Too-Much-Power-and-Influence-Report-20161013-0017.html Todhunter, C. (2016). On World Environment Day: Profiting from Death, Devastation and Destruction is the Norm. Montreal, Canada: Center for Research on Globalization. Retrieved from http://www.globalresearch.ca/on-world-environment-day-profiting-from-death-devastation-and-destruction-is-the- norm/5529090 Ty, R. (2011). Human rights, conflict transformation, and peacebuilding: The state, NGOs, social movements, and civil society —The struggle for power, social justice, and social change. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University. United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security. (1996). World Food Summit. United Nations. (2015). Paris Agreement. Geneva and New York: United Nations. Retrievable from https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XXVII-7-d&chapter=27&lang=en World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Food Safety. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-technology/faq-genetically-modified- food/en/ Yale Environment 360. (2016 June 28). Atmospheric CO2 Level May Not Drop Below 400 ppm “ Within Our Lifetimes.” Retrieved from http://www.countercurrents.org/2016/06/28/atmospheric-co2-level-may-not-drop-below-400-ppm-within-our-lifetimes/
  50. 50. Page 50 of 119 CHAPTER 4: Eco-Justice Vision of ARI Farming as Eco-Just Farming Tomoko Arakawa Asian Rural Institute (Japan) ARI Exists for Social Justice Our founder, Rev. Dr. Toshihiro Takami said that “Asian Rural Institute (ARI) exists now and for the future for achieving Social Justice”. He further defined social justice as “a state where every person in this world, without single exception, can sit at a rich dining table having a joy of sharing.” ARI and Reconciliation ARI was established in 1973 having its root in the training course named “Southeast Asia Rural Leaders’ Training Course” under the UCCJ’s Theological School for Rural Mission in Tokyo. The original request came from CCA back in 1960. At the foundation, there was a hope of redemption of Japan’s sin committed against many Asian countries during WWII. ARI tries to seek reconciliation with other Asian countries by our concrete actions of training and nurturing rural leaders who can lead rural communities toward the right direction. We believe that this work should be done with servant leadership, practicing sustainable agriculture and community building where people can enjoy the joy of sharing. In 1973, in the creation of ARI, Rev. Dr. Takami said, “We sincerely hope that people will participate in God’s work of building a just and peaceful world. In order to achieve this, we try to grasp and understand the situation in Asia with our all effort and abilities and we happily chose the way to devote our whole souls to the strictly concrete and absolutely necessary work, that is “to nurture rural leaders who serve rural people”. And we are grateful to be given such an opportunity. The situation of Asia that occupies more than half of the world population will affect the future of all human beings. The majority of those more than 1 billion people are the villagers in the rural areas in the so called “developing countries”, and they are in very vulnerable and unjust situations being oppressed by increasing social gap. Our Lord Jesus Christ is a friend of the weak first of all and sacrificed his own life to such people. Remembering this, we as well live together with such people and make effort to be saved together with them. There is no bigger joy than this. Majority of the people in Asia are still captured by the power of evils such as poverty, hunger, diseases, illiteracy, population explosion, customs, exploitations, etc. We, relying on God’s power, fight for the freedom of those people including us. We nurture the leaders who work for the salvation of the whole human race by choosing to live together with such people. We find an image of such a good leader in Jesus Christ, a good shepherd. Our Motto : “That We May Live Together” This is our means and end. We try to find the way to live together with other people, with nature and with God. And we try to achieve it by living it every day in our Community Life. Organic Farming and Reconciliation ARI was not doing organic agriculture from the beginning. When staff members thought of a
  51. 51. Page 51 of 119 more appropriate farming method which would go with our purpose and motto, they changed their farming way from conventional farming to organic farming. So our farming is one form of realization of our motto “That We May Live Together”. So it has to contribute to the achievement of our mission; Reconciliation with people, nature and God. The first introduction of organic farming was done by one farm staff in 1976. In 1979 a step style compost area which used a slope area, dividing a slope into four sections, dumping compost materials from the top section, and shifting to the lower section when it becomes decomposed. It dramatically reduced the labor of human beings. Finally, we were able to practice farming without any chemical inputs from 1981 for vegetable production and from 1988 for rice production. ARI Eco System Vision In 1982, an idea of ARI Eco System was introduced, that is to push the achievement of our motto “That We May Live Together”. There were 9 principles. ① Making all the 6 ha of campus land a community that has a good balance with nature. ② Allocating forest, fields, livestock sheds, school buildings, sports ground and road in an appropriate way. ➂ Utilizing natural energy at a maximum level. ④ Utilization of rain water and gray water by purifying, reserving them underground and in ponds. Trying not to pollute land with our gray water. ➄ Aiming at high food self sufficiency. ⑥ Practicing organic farming. ⑦ Planning the works so that every one on the campus has appropriate amount and kinds of work. ⑧ Making efforts to share this kind of life style with other people. ⑨ Promoting worldwide networking with those who share the same vision. FOODLIFE Foodlife is a special term used at ARI to express the reality that food and life cannot be separated; both are essential for each other. Nature is a gift from God given to us to sustain our lives through producing food. Human beings cannot survive without food, so we work to sustain life through a healthy relationship with nature. At ARI we are making an effort to create Foodlife in which the soil becomes richer as we produce food and human relationships become more beautiful. ARI Foodlife involves activities such as producing, processing, cooking and eating food and sharing with others. Foodlife provides learning opportunities to deepen our understanding of organic farming, the importance of food, dignity of labor and the importance of food self-sufficiency for self-reliance of people. -ARI Training Handbook- Appropriate Technology Promoting farming technology and methods that can sustain human life, nature and social environment in appropriate manners, the idea of Appropriate Technology became important. Appropriate Technology is not about introducing new technology and transferring it from old ones. We believe that technology does not have any positive meaning unless it may be well utilized in a social and economic structure and context that were built for centuries by local people. Also Appropriate Technology should improve human activities no matter where it is introduced. Based on this belief, we set the direction of our organic farming method in relation with appropriate technology:
  52. 52. Page 52 of 119 1.Developing simple and time saving techniques without depending on big machineries and high tech. 2. Developing chemical-free farming technology 3. Developing methods to utilize local materials inside and outside campus 4.Developing marketing methods that can reduce waste in production and foster mutual understanding with consumers 5.Developing methods to make farming fun and interesting At the base of all these policies and direction of ARI foodlife and appropriate technology, Christianity lies. In our record in 1970’s, it says. “World trend is centered at money-based value. It requires a tremendous courage to make a judgment based on another value different from this. Moreover, organic farming is a voice of minority and still immature in terms of economic point of view. However, we try to have a value of differentiating “an important thing” out of the voices of minority and hope to hold such a value.” Attitude and behavior towards conventional farmers Not criticizing chemical farming imposing the “Justice of Organic Farming”, we should first humbly listen to these farmers, their voices and their problems with an attitude and mind of Servant Leadership. Five Years from the Massive Accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Leak of radioactive substances by this terrible accident, farming in Japan and neighboring countries was threatened. Especially the farming that depends on circulation of organic materials in the eco-system was frightened greatly by the intervention of radioactive substances in the eco- system. Now after five-years of hard efforts of decontamination and repeated measurement of different kinds of food, soil and farm inputs, we at ARI can produce as we did five years before, except mushroom culturing, mountain vegetables and wild animals in the forests. After all these experiences, some questions came to my mind; Is our enemy TEPCO (The Tokyo Electric and Power Co. , the owner of the Nuclear Power Plants) ? Do we really need to “fight “against radiation? I had to think deeply about these questions because I found myself/ourselves not just victims but assaulters as well. I and we (ARI) had not done anything toward national energy policy in Japan especially going against nuclear energy at all. We committed a sin of ignorance. We found ourselves as a target that we need to fight against in a form of asking this fundamental question to ourselves; How does God want us to conduct our training program of rural leaders in this time of nuclear age ? What we need to do now are the following three things: 1) Self-realization as an assaulter who caused the nuclear power plant 2) Continuing the training of rural leaders of the world, putting more emphasis on the efforts of showing problems of development and figuring out what true development should be. 3)Doing all these things in walking a path of Christ’s peace. Activities for Eco justice should bring about peace, not hatred and conflicts among people. True peace will be created not by challenging to a fight, but trusting Christ and practicing love of Christ. It is same with Agriculture. Not trying to change others’ farming methods brandishing a sword of organic farming over someone’s head, but by trusting Christ and practicing Christ’s love in farming, true peaceful farming is created. Example of peaceful collaboration toward sustainable agriculture in Sado Island in Japan Sado island, is located 40km off the shore of Niigata Prefecture, is characterized by a variety of landforms and altitudes. In 2011 Sado island was recognized for the first time in Japan as
  53. 53. Page 53 of 119 “GIAHS – Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems” for their efforts to make Sado's satoyama (Japan’s traditional agricultural landscapes) in harmony with Japanese crested ibis. Sado City has started “the ibis-friendly farming method” and a certification system for creation of the homeland of the Japanese crested ibis to rebuild the satoyama for local economy and biodiversity. This is one good example of peaceful collaboration of different kinds of people work together toward environmental and social sustainability of the locality. Conclusion - Impact on the ARI Graduates and their communities We researched 229 graduates in 11 countries (about 17 % of all graduates) in 2014 to 2015. The results showed that many of the ARI graduates successfully integrated the idea of true peace making with their farming activities, Church and NGO activities and into their family life. The ARI training program that comes along with servant leadership, sustainable agriculture and community building is resonant with eco justice and it helps people to realize true peace and to take action on the way to peaceful societies. References: Takami, T (1973, December). That we may live together: the vision and work of the Asian Rural Institute. Church Education, p.18-22 Asian Rural Institute (1993, October). That we may live together: ARI’s 20 years’ walk. Asian Rural Institute (2016). Training Handbook GIAHS, Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems. Sado City Home page, https://www.city.sado.niigata.jp/topics/gihas/index/index.shtml Cutting, S and Abma, B (2016). Rural Leaders. Asian Rural Inst
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  56. 56. Page 56 of 119 Eco-Justice Rev. Nishantha Guneratne Talking about Eco-Justice issues today indisputably is involved with speaking of fundamental issues. The issues we are facing are not just a problem or a difficult situation, but it points to a fundamental rift which exists in the current state and structure of our humanity. In other words, if we talk about ecology today we have to face some grave structural challenges of injustice within world society. However we believe that very issues are also an opportunity, a situation which also provides some space capable of accommodating new and creative alternative for alternative solutions. The global ecological issues today have reached unprecedented levels, as every day more forests cease to exist and no day is passing in our context, where we do not hear or read of foreign multinational companies which indiscriminately exploit Sri Lankan soil and resources leaving indelible marks of destruction on the ecosystems of this region and the world. Instead of treating this subject of ECO Justice in a piece-meal way like handling climate justice or earth justice, we need to develop a holistic view of the total devastation done to the earth and the human civilization. This paper tries to delve with the basic theoretical and philosophical issues involved with this total destruction of Nature. Nature consists of all planets in the space. In simple terms: the sun, moon, stars, the earth and the oceans with all forms of animate and inanimate life. The soil, the rocks, plants and animals are all parts of the earth. The life develops with all the resources of Nature. This can be depicted very clearly in how a plant grows. It receives all the resources from the Atmosphere – like nitrogen and oxygen. The monsoonal rains provide a basic factor of life. i.e. water. This water seeps down to the earth. The microorganisms bring all nutrients and water to the roots of the plant. This is the humus soil. Its nutrients are absorbed by the sap in the hairy roots of the plant. This process taken up through the trunk of the plant to the leaves within the structure of the plant. The substance chlorophyll becomes activated by the solar energy and carbohydrate is produced. This is really the food production. Scholars have emphasized that the components of this planetary system are not working independently from each other, rather each element of what we know as reality is closely interrelated to other elements. The ecological balance of the planet therefore is a balance within a very complex structure, integrating multiple and variable components in a perfect fit which has given origin to life on this planet. Only this complex system of interrelation and perfect
  57. 57. Page 57 of 119 equalization keeps this planet alive as whole. Any alteration of one of those elements directly affects everyone else and potentially endangers the survival of the whole system. Actually, it is the Nature that produces food and not man. Humanity does only a supportive role. This whole process functioning within Nature is reflected naturally in the human mind. The mind really abstracts the whole process within Nature. The main characteristic of Nature as understood by the mind is its continuous flux. It is the continuous, unending motion. The Greek philosophers – Thales and later Heraclitus brought this changing situation to the fore. Aristotle has refined it by explaining further the inner dynamics of change motion we showed that it is only the form that changes and takes various appearances. But the matter remains the same throughout the whole process. The thinking and the outlook of all early Greek philosophers because of their close proximity to the changes taking place in Nature has been more progressive and dialectical. The oriental thinking fully absorbed this dialectical thinking which culminated in Buddhist Philosophy. Birth (Uthpatha) existence (Thithi), and death (Bhanga). The most radical Buddhist thinkers would like to adhere to Birth and Decay. These two aspects take place almost in union. In living always the dying process takes place. In the creation story which is an old Mesopotamian Epic (Gilgamesh) in the 2nd Chapter of the Bible – man is depicted as one who nurtures the Earth. It is different from the 1st Chapter, where man’s role is to “increase and multiply and “subdue” the Earth”. We can draw conclusions from all these;  That the rights are not just restricted to man only as fundamental human rights.  But the rights are embedded in all life, animate and inanimate beings.  Therefore, ECO Justice deals with all rights.  We need to build a society and the earth-planet on the basis of ECO- Communitarian life or ECO-Socialism.  It is the regenerative capacity of the Earth and the whole creation that we have to maintain.  Therefore, we have to discard Industrial & Chemical Agriculture and we must adopt an Industrial Policy which is based on the regenerative capacity of Nature.
  58. 58. Page 58 of 119 CHAPTER 5: Sustainable Development Towards Sustainable Development Mariamma Sanu George (Nirmala), Kerala, India We are in the early part of the 21st century, with a population estimated at 7.4 billion (as of August 2016) which is expected to reach 9.9 billion by 20501. The 31 percent of the world’s population follows Christianity, the world’s largest religion. We are on a planet with 71 percent of the earth’s surface area covered by water2. We are in a world where the disparities between the haves and have-nots are increasing day by day. We are in a world where 10.7 % of the world’s population lives on less than US$1.90 per day (2013 estimates) 3. A total of 1.6 billion people of the 101 countries are living in multidimensional poverty; of these 54% live in South Asia4. We are in a world where the temperature is rising, rainfall becoming lesser or erratic, sea level rising, melting polar caps, extreme weather events and related catastrophe’s like floods, drought, cyclones, storms and other disasters. Post industrial revolution is an era of rapid population growth. We live in a world in which natural resources are tapped in an uncontrolled manner, there by leading to an uncertainty on the future of such prized natural resources. Are we responsible for this ecological crisis? What does the bible say of humanity's obligation to care for creation? God created the heaven and earth, the sea and all the living beings5. God retains ownership of all His creation and is in absolute control. Psalm 24:1 says that “The earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it.” The earth was created for the benefit of mankind with the right to live, produce their own food and be self-reliant. In Genesis1:28 God blessed his creations by saying “be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth and subdue it” and not to destroy it. “God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work and take care of it6”. Mankind was created in his own image to rule over the earth. So mankind is responsible to live in harmony with the environment and manage with justice the resources so that the future generations can benefit. Thereby, bringing in environmental sustainability and hence development. Sustainability and sustainable development7 are terms widely used across the globe although it still lacks a uniform interpretation. The word sustainability has many meanings as maintain, 1 http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2016/2016-world-population-data-sheet.aspx 2 water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html 3 http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty/overview 4 http://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Global-MPI-8-pager_10_15.pdf 5Genesis 1;Psalm 146:6;Acts 14:15; Revelation4:11 6Genesis 2:15 7Brundtland Commission in1987, from the World Commissionon Environmentand Development’s, (the Brundtland Commission) reportOur Common Future,(Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press,1987).
  59. 59. Page 59 of 119 support, endure and withstand. It commonly means ‘maintaining the world we live in’. It accounts for economic, social and environmental benefits. This refers to the three interlocking pillars. Therefore, if any one pillar is weak then the system as a whole is unsustainable. On the other hand, sustainable development is “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs8”. But what does it mean by the needs of the present and the future? Take a minute and write down five most important needs that you have in your own life. Suppose if you thought of buying a car, how does it contribute to the three pillars? Economically and socially it will benefit your present need but what is the environmental consequence it will have? Multiply these needs for the family, society, country and the world. The earth has limited resources to meet the everyday needs of the rapidly increasing population. The basic principle of sustainable development is to act responsibly so that resources on the planet will be able to support many generations to come9. If this is so, our interventions in development has to consider not only the three pillars but also in a spiritual perspective which address the issues of ethics and moral values which are crucial for conserving nature, preventing over exploitation of natural resources so that they are available for the future generations and also mitigating adverse effects due to climate change. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro proclaimed that “human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development”. Pope Francis has said “the urgent challenge to protect our common home includes a concern to bring the whole human family together to seek a sustainable and integral development”. Different countries have different priorities in their development policies. Ideally many factors have to be considered to measure development like levels of poverty, health, education, employment, social cohesion, safety and security, internal and external conflicts, governance 8United Nations World Commission onEnvironment and Development in1987 9 http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm Sustainability Three interlocking pillars Social Benefits: Poverty reduction; Improved equity Economic Benefits: Transfer of skills & technology; Reduced cost Environment Benefits: Improved energy & water efficiency; Reduced GHGs
  60. 60. Page 60 of 119 systems and many others. The fundamental question is whether mere economic growth measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and similar indictors alone reflect development? Also what kind of development are we talking about? And whose development are we looking for? How do we decide whose needs should go first? How do we make that trade off? The shift in the economic system from socialism to capitalism has had great effects on the lifestyle of the people in the world, changing the manner in which they relate with and use the environment’s resources given to us by the Creator. While the church across the globe has been working towards the development of mankind, upliftment of the poor and the downtrodden, what is our approach to development? How can we define development beyond materialistic development? In order to sustain the development achieved, is it not important to have such a development beyond materialistic development. Equity is the first step towards achieving such a development. Is Equity Important for Achieving Sustainable Development? Equity has to do with everyone having access to fair and equal treatment under the law, regardless of race, social class or gender. The concept of equity can be applied to various spheres of life such as gender, environment, education etc. The ‘haves’ should not use more than their fair share of the earth’s limited resources. The challenge of a growing population is the mere presence of so many people sharing limited resources which strains the environment. Many of the world’s population live in poor countries which are already strained by food insecurity; inadequate sanitation, water supply and housing; and an inability to meet the basic needs of the current population. A large proportion of these populations are supported through subsistence agriculture where everyone has the right to produce their own food and be self-reliant. When farm lands expand towards fragile lands in order to keep pace with the needs of a growing population in a region, it can lead to deforestation, erosion and desertification. It is usually understood that “intergenerational” equity would be impossible to achieve in the absence of present-day social equity, if the economic activities of some people continue to jeopardize the well-being of other people living in other parts of the world. Imagine, for example, that emissions of greenhouse gases, generated mainly by highly industrialized countries, lead to global warming and flooding of certain low-lying islands—resulting in the displacement and impoverishment of entire island nations. Or when people in one region are poor and undernourished due to many prolonged factors while at the same time in another region the people are obese and lead a luxurious life. As mentioned earlier, sustainable development is not just about the present but about the future too. Natural resources available to us in this generation is a gift from our previous generations. “Sustainable” development could probably be otherwise called “equitable and balanced,”