2012 10 11 Rey Ty Civil Society Social Movements State

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Rey Ty. (2012). Civil Society, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Social Movements. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University.

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2012 10 11 Rey Ty Civil Society Social Movements State

  1. 1. Civil Society,Social Movements & the State Rey TyInternational Training Office Northern Illinois University © 2012 Rey Ty
  2. 2. © 2012 Rey Ty
  3. 3. CivilSociety © 2012 Rey Ty
  4. 4. I. Civil Society Classical Political Economy A. Ferguson B. Adam SmithII. Political Philosophy A. Hobbes B. Locke C. RousseauIII. Sociology A. Hegel B. Young Marx C. Mature Marx & Engels D. AlthusserIV. Popular Usage A. Civil Society B. Global Civil Society © 2012 Rey Ty
  5. 5. Civil Society Aristotle DichotomyBeasts & Humansgods live live in polis outside = state = civil society!the state © 2012 Rey Ty
  6. 6. Civil SocietyHobbes, Locke & Rousseau Dichotomy “State of Civil society nature” = = civil natural government society = the state! © 2012 Rey Ty
  7. 7. Civil SocietyA. Ferguson & A. Smith DichotomyBarbarism& “Asiatic” Property- mode of owning “civilized” Oriental civil societydespotism © 2012 Rey Ty
  8. 8. Civil Society Dichotomy For Smith, Hobbes, For Hegel: Locke & The state isRousseau: rational & isCivil society not civil is rational. society. © 2012 Rey Ty
  9. 9. Bourgeois Society Hegel CivilIndividuals State Society © 2012 Rey Ty
  10. 10. Civil Society•Civil society“encompasses the socialgroups & institutionsbetween the individual &the state” (Miller, 1999, p.257). © 2012 Rey Ty
  11. 11. Civil Society•Civil society “stands ona subtle & fragiledialectic betweenindividualism &collectivity” (Milani,2005, p. 27). © 2012 Rey Ty
  12. 12. Civil Society•Civil society & thestate interact withone another (Migdal,1988 & 2001). © 2012 Rey Ty
  13. 13. Civil Society•Civil society includes“religious organizations,professional organizations,producers, unions…,enterprises, and… farmers(Milani, 2005, p. 27). © 2012 Rey Ty
  14. 14. (Milani, 2005, p. 27) © 2012 Rey Ty
  15. 15. Civil Society• “It has a long history in Western philosophy, with many different thinkers such as John Locke, Thomas Paine, Adam Smith & Karl Marx” (Kumar, 1996, p. 89 as cited in Miller, 1999, p. 257). © 2012 Rey Ty
  16. 16. Civil Society• For Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau: – The natural society or the original state of nature is the opposite of – Civil society which is the political state or civil government © 2012 Rey Ty
  17. 17. Hobbes, Locke & Rousseau Civil society State = of political Nature state © 2012 Rey Ty
  18. 18. Civil Society•For Hobbes, the stateor civil society is where“the war of every managainst every man” inthe original state ofnature ends. © 2012 Rey Ty
  19. 19. Civil Society•Locke stated thatthe original state ofnature was fine buthad inconveniences. © 2012 Rey Ty
  20. 20. Civil Society•Locke stated thathumans are born freebut gave up naturalfreedom to avoidinconveniences. © 2012 Rey Ty
  21. 21. Civil Society•Locke said that humansassumed “the bonds of civilsociety” when they agree toenter a Commonwealth “fortheir comfortable, safe &peaceable living oneamongst the other.” © 2012 Rey Ty
  22. 22. Civil Society•Locke said thatwhen humansenter civil society,they abide by themajority rule. © 2012 Rey Ty
  23. 23. Civil Society•Rousseau saidthat humans are“born free buteverywhere” theyare “in chains.” © 2012 Rey Ty
  24. 24. Civil Society•Rousseau said that ashumans lost their naturalinnocence as “noblesavage,” they had toorganize themselves intocivil society. © 2012 Rey Ty
  25. 25. Civil Society•For Locke, Rousseau& Adam Smith, there isinherent rationality incivil society which willlead to the generalgood. © 2012 Rey Ty
  26. 26. Civil Society• Early Marx’sconcept of civilsociety camefrom Hegel. © 2012 Rey Ty
  27. 27. Civil Society•“According to… Hegel,civil society encompassesthe social groups &institutions between theindividual & the state.(Miller, 1999, p. 257).” © 2012 Rey Ty
  28. 28. Civil Society•For Hegel, civil society is amarket where individuals enterinto “infinitely complex criss-cross movements of reciprocalproduction & exchange” &where property rights are set upby legally binding contracts. © 2012 Rey Ty
  29. 29. Civil Society•For Hegel, civil society isthe domain of particularneeds, self-interest, &divisiveness, potentiallyleading to self-destruction. © 2012 Rey Ty
  30. 30. Civil Society•For Hegel, universalinterest can prevailin the state, not civilsociety. © 2012 Rey Ty
  31. 31. Civil Society•For Hegel, there isno inherentrationality in civilsociety leading tothe general good.© 2012 Rey Ty
  32. 32. Civil Society•For Hegel, the stateembodies rationality& reconcilesconflicting interestsin society. © 2012 Rey Ty
  33. 33. Civil Society•For Hegel, the state existsabove & outside civil society.•State agents (or civilservants) are a universalclass serving the interests ofsociety as a whole. © 2012 Rey Ty
  34. 34. Civil SocietyDifferent Views © 2012 Rey Ty
  35. 35. Civil Society•Marx & Engels almostnever used the word“society” by itself, butalmost always used“civil society.” © 2012 Rey Ty
  36. 36. Civil Society•Early Marx used theword “civil society” tocritique Hegel &German idealistphilosophy. © 2012 Rey Ty
  37. 37. • Civil Society Early Marx argued thatunder feudalism,individuals were membersof many societies (e.g.estates or guilds), each witha political role. Hence, therewas no separate civil realm. © 2012 Rey Ty
  38. 38. • Civil Society Early Marx argued that asthese partial societies (e.g.estates or guilds) brokedown, civil society arose inwhich the individualsbecame all important. © 2012 Rey Ty
  39. 39. • Civil Society Early Marx argued that incivil society, the selfishneeds of individuals —separated from each other& from the community—replaced the old ties ofprivilege. © 2012 Rey Ty
  40. 40. Civil Society•Early Marx assertedthat bourgeois “civilsociety” arose aftermedieval societyended. © 2012 Rey Ty
  41. 41. Civil Society Early Marx DichotomyIndividuals & groupsCivil Society State © 2012 Rey Ty
  42. 42. Civil Society Early Marx Dichotomy Civil State SocietyPrivate Domain Public Domain © 2012 Rey Ty
  43. 43. Civil Society Early Marx Bourgeois society is civil Society! © 2012 Rey Ty
  44. 44. Civil Society•Marx used the word in 1. On the Jewish Question 2. Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 3. German Ideology © 2012 Rey Ty
  45. 45. Civil Society• Early Marx defined “civilsociety” as the site ofcrass materialism, modernproperty relations, struggleof each against all &egotism. © 2012 Rey Ty
  46. 46. Civil Society• Early Marx argued that in civilsociety, the law (which is not thecreation of their will & does notmatch their nature but directshuman relationships due to thethreat of punishment) is the onlylink between individuals. © 2012 Rey Ty
  47. 47. Civil Society• Early Marx argued that thefragmentation of civil societyescape the control of the state,which is restricted to formal,negative activities & is madepowerless by the conflict whichis the core of economic life. © 2012 Rey Ty
  48. 48. Civil Society• Early Marx argued that thepolitical identify of individuals ascitizens in modern society is cutoff from their civil identity & fromtheir activity in the productivesphere as economic beings. © 2012 Rey Ty
  49. 49. Civil Society• Early Marx argued that there is a dichotomy in civil society 1. Between individuals in their privacy 2. Between public (state) & private domains (society) © 2012 Rey Ty
  50. 50. Civil Society• Early Marx contrasted 1. The modern state which represents the idealism of universal interests & 2. The abstract concept of a citizen who is moral, going beyond one’s narrow interest, with the materialism of real, sensuous people in civil society. © 2012 Rey Ty
  51. 51. Civil Society• Early Marx critiqued the irony in modern society that 1. The most universal, moral, social aims are represented in the ideal of the modern state which serves… 2. Human beings in a partial, depraved state of individual egotistical desires —of economic necessity. © 2012 Rey Ty
  52. 52. Civil Society• Early Marx argued theessence of the modernstate is to be found in thecharacteristics of civilsociety—in economicrelations. © 2012 Rey Ty
  53. 53. Civil Society• For Marx, the stateguarantees the propertyrights that reproduces classdivision & simultaneouslycreates the proletariat (thatexists outside civil society &has no claim to make on it). © 2012 Rey Ty
  54. 54. Civil Society• Mature Marxdropped the useof the word “civilsociety.” © 2012 Rey Ty
  55. 55. Civil Society Mature Marx Need to go beyond the state & civil society. © 2012 Rey Ty
  56. 56. Civil Society Mature Marx Civil society was renamed as economic structure of society, economic base & mode of production. © 2012 Rey Ty
  57. 57. Civil SocietyMarx & Engels © 2012 Rey Ty
  58. 58. Civil Society•Marx & Engels in GermanIdeology: “civil society is the truesource & theater of all history.”•Translation: The development ofcivil society explains politicalevents, legal changes & culturaldevelopment. © 2012 Rey Ty
  59. 59. Civil Society• Mature Marx saw thewithering away of the state toachieve full human potential,cooperation & liberation in aclassless society based onfree associations amongindividuals. © 2012 Rey Ty
  60. 60. Civil Society• But Gramsci redefinedthe withering away of thestate as the developmentof the self-regulatingcharacteristics of civilsociety. © 2012 Rey Ty
  61. 61. Civil Society•Gramsci used the termdifferently from Marx.•But Gramsci still usedthe term to mean theprivate or non-statesphere. © 2012 Rey Ty
  62. 62. • Civil Society Gramsci said that the state isnot only the governmentapparatus but also the “private”sphere or the complex ofstructures where the battle iswaged for hegemony or forcultural or ideologicaldomination. © 2012 Rey Ty
  63. 63. Civil Society•Gramsci said that thesuperstructures of civilsociety are the sites forstruggle of positions betweenclashing classes brought intoexistence by capitalism. © 2012 Rey Ty
  64. 64. Civil Society•Gramsci said that the civilsociety lies between the coerciverelations of the state & theeconomic sphere of production:that realm of social life whichappears as the realm of theprivate citizen & individualconsent. © 2012 Rey Ty
  65. 65. Civil Society Gramsci Dichotomy © 2012 Rey Ty
  66. 66. Civil Society Gramsci © 2012 Rey Ty
  67. 67. Civil Society Gramsci © 2012 Rey Ty
  68. 68. Civil SocietyGramsci said the proletariat will set up a free & self-governing society. © 2012 Rey Ty
  69. 69. Civil SocietyGramsci influenced Althusser © 2012 Rey Ty
  70. 70. Civil SocietyGramsci (1971, p. 160) said the distinction is only methodological, because laissez-faire policy is set up by the state. Civil State society © 2012 Rey Ty
  71. 71. Civil SocietyGramsci on civic institutions © 2012 Rey Ty
  72. 72. Civil Society• Popular Usage: everything thatis not related tothe state. © 2012 Rey Ty
  73. 73. © 2012 Rey Ty
  74. 74. Global Civil Society•“While global civil societymust interact with states,the code of civil societydenies the primacy of statesor their sovereign rights”(Mingst, 2004, p. 311). © 2012 Rey Ty
  75. 75. Global Civil Society•“This civil society is ‘global’not only because of thoseconnections that crossnational boundaries andoperate within the ‘global,nonterritorial region’… ”(Mingst, 2004, p. 311). © 2012 Rey Ty
  76. 76. Global Civil Society•“…but also as a result of agrowing element of globalconsciousness in the waythe members of global civilsociety act” (Mingst, 2004,p. 311). © 2012 Rey Ty
  77. 77. Non-GovernmentalOrganizations (NGOs) © 2012 Rey Ty
  78. 78. Non-Governmental Organization • NGOs “are generally private, voluntary organizations whose members are individuals or associations that come together to achieve a common purpose (Mingst, 2004, p. 180). © 2012 Rey Ty
  79. 79. Non-Governmental Organization• NGOs “are incrediblydiverse entities, rangingfrom local and/orgrassroots organizations tothose organized nationally& internationally (Mingst,2004, p. 180). © 2012 Rey Ty
  80. 80. Non-Governmental Organization• “These privateorganizations, some ofconsiderable size &resources, interact withstates, MNCs, & otherNGOs (Goldstein, 2004, p.13).” © 2012 Rey Ty
  81. 81. Non-Governmental Organization © 2012 Rey Ty
  82. 82. Non-Governmental Organization © 2012Rey Ty 2012 Rey Ty
  83. 83. © 2012 Rey Ty
  84. 84. SocialMovements © 2012 Rey Ty
  85. 85. Social Movement © 2012 Rey Ty
  86. 86. © 2012 Rey Ty
  87. 87. SocialMovements as Learning Sites © 2012 Rey Ty
  88. 88. Social Movements as Learning Sites © 2012 Rey Ty
  89. 89. Differences © 2012 Rey Ty
  90. 90. © 2012 Rey Ty
  91. 91. © 2012 Rey Ty
  92. 92. © 2012 Rey Ty
  93. 93. Historical Types © 2012 Rey Ty
  94. 94. Social Movement in Capitalist Society © 2012 Rey Ty
  95. 95. © 2012 Rey Ty
  96. 96. Social Movement in Capitalist Society © 2012 Rey Ty
  97. 97. Social Movement in Capitalist SocietyMore Recent Movements Anti-Fast Food Movement, Anti-Globalization, Anti-GMO Movement Fair Trade Movement, Democracy Movement © 2012 Rey Ty
  98. 98. Bourgeois Society Business, NGOs & Individuals Social MovementFamilies Civil Society State © 2012 Rey Ty
  99. 99. Inside & Outside the State © 2012 Rey Ty
  100. 100. Social Movement under Capitalism © 2012 Rey Ty
  101. 101. © 2012 Rey Ty
  102. 102. Recent or “New” Social Movements © 2012 Rey Ty
  103. 103. Examples:African National Congress (ANC) BolsheviksCivil Rights Green Party Neo-Nazism Pro-ChoiceSandinistas Solidarność Taliban Undocumented © 2012 Rey Ty
  104. 104. © 2012 Rey Ty
  105. 105. © 2012 Rey Ty
  106. 106. © 2012 Rey Ty
  107. 107. Dissent SocialIndividuals Movements Coercion & Repression NGOs Ideology & Consent Business & Religious Support Civil Society 2012 Rey Ty State © 2012 Rey Ty
  108. 108. Literature Review•The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society,Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and SocialMovements Engaged in Work for Social Change Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) © 2012 Rey Ty
  109. 109. Literature Review• The Context of Popular Educators in Civil Society, Human Rights and Peace NGOs, and Social Movements Engaged in Work for Social Change Clark (1991); Finger (1989); Foley (1999); Gramsci (1993); Habermas (1976); Holford (1995); Holst (2002); Korten (1990) 2012 Rey Ty © 2012 Rey Ty
  110. 110. © 2012 Rey Ty
  111. 111. Welton, M. (1993) © 2012 Rey Ty
  112. 112. Holford, J. (1995)• “First, there is the appreciation of social movements as socially important sources of knowledge as well as profound sites of learning … Moreover, it suggests that we can begin to understand these characteristic forms of knowledge through analyzing the social movements which have shaped a given society (p. 104).” © 2012 Rey Ty
  113. 113. Foley (1999)“It has been argued, correctly I think, that social movements are important sites of emancipatory adult learning and that more attention needs to be paid to this dimension of their activity. But much of this discussion has been abstract and exhortatory. A lot of energy has gone into debating the distinction between ‘old’ and ‘new’ social movements. Social movements have been discussed in general terms- there had been almost no extended analysis of specific social movements or instances of social action (p. 134).” © 2012 Rey Ty
  114. 114. © 2012 Rey Ty
  115. 115. Change © 2012 Rey Ty
  116. 116. © 2012 Rey Ty
  117. 117. Civil Society,Social Movements & the State Rey TyInternational Training Office Northern Illinois University © 2012 Rey Ty

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