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1reyty Doctoral Candidacy Exam Ppt


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1reyty Doctoral Candidacy Exam Ppt

  1. 1. Basic Questions of Philosophy: Ontology, Epistemology (Gnosiology), Paradigms, Ideology, Axiology, Education & Case Study Rey Ty
  2. 2. Question <ul><li>In today’s discussion on human rights, peace, and conflict resolution, different theoretical views are used for developing educational practice. What philosophical models are prevalent today in this discussion and how do their affect practice? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Teleology : Past, Present, & Future <ul><li>1. What inspired me? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How is this related to my current work? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How will I take this research into the future? </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Terms will be explained in their appropriate sections </li></ul>
  4. 4. Freire on Philosophy <ul><li>“ to overcome historical, philosophical & epistemological errors” (Letters to Cristina (1996, p. 188) </li></ul><ul><li>“ a philosophical, historical, epistemological , political and pedagogical problem…” (Letters to Cristina (1996, p. 188) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Third World, “…discussion turned preponderantly on political questions , and these led us to philosophical, ethical, ideological, and epistemological questions ” (Hope, 1996, p. 127) </li></ul><ul><li>“ the historical, economic, and social reasons that explain…” (Hope, 1996, p. 8) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Concern for humanization leads at once to the recognition of dehumanization, not only as an ontological possibility but as an historical reality ” (Oppressed, 1997, p. 26) </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is impossible to make education both a political practice and a gnosiological one, fully, without the constant stimulus of these questions, or without our constantly answering them” (Hope, 1996, p. 135) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Abstract <ul><li>Based on a survey of the different ontological and epistemological philosophical perspectives , this paper argued for education interventions which are suited in bringing about peace in war-torn communities in the Southern Philippines. Following the study of the said philosophical perspectives in general, functionalist, interpretive, critical, and post-modern paradigms in particular are explored. Based on the selected philosophical, paradigmatic, and ideological lenses as well as best practices , this paper provided practical implications for educators in using educational tools to promote peace. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research Questions <ul><li>1. In general, what are implications in using the major ontological and epistemological perspectives in philosophy in developing educational practice for human rights, conflict resolution and peace? </li></ul><ul><li>2. In particular, what are the implications in using the major paradigms , which flows from the philosophical perspectives, in developing education practice for human rights, conflict resolution, and peace? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research Goal <ul><li>To find and use the appropriate philosophical, paradigmatic, and ideological perspectives in peace education programs to benefit the war-torn Philippines. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Limitations! <ul><li>I cannot include everything in this paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be selective . </li></ul><ul><li>I chose few basic questions & major trends esp. potentially applicable to the Philippines & left out many other trends & sub-trends. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Critique of Elias & Merriam (2005) <ul><li>Liberal, Progressive, Humanistic, Radical, and Critical, Analytic (Conceptual and Linguistic), Postmodernism </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed apples and oranges </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Ideology (not Philosophy as such): Liberal, Progressive, Humanistic, Radical </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Paradigm (not Philosophy as such): Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily examples of Sub-Categories of Paradigm : Linguistic/Analytic & Postmodernism </li></ul><ul><li>NONE ARE DIRECTLY PHILOSOPHICAL! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Plus Critique of Gilley, Dean & Bierema (2001) <ul><li>Books on the state of the art in the philosophy of education have used ideology as an organizing framework, confusing ideology with philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology is wrongly understood and explained as philosophy . </li></ul><ul><li>They (Elias & Merriam, 2005; Gilley, Dean & Bierema, 2001; Zinn, 1990) have mixed apples & oranges in their analysis of the philosophical foundations of AHE. </li></ul><ul><li>They use and mix up categories, which is confusing: “ liberal ” and “ progressive ” can mean different things to different people. Also, in one book, an author (Bierema in Gilley, Dean & Bierema, 2001) classified Rousseau as “ liberal ” (p. 18) but placed Rousseau under “romantic idealism” on another page (p. 37). They (Bierema in Gilley, Dean & Bierema, 2001) made a sharp distinction between liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanistic and radical adult education on one page (p. 18) but lumped together (1) humanism, romantic idealism, and existentialism, (2) behaviorism and libertarianism, and (3) cognitive developmentalism, pragmatism, radical humanism, and post-modernism on another page (p. 37). Something is very wrong: Bierema’s use of Zinn’s categorization on her page 17 had nothing to do with her categorization on her page 37 (in Gilley, Dean & Bierema, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Even then, they lacked sections on (1) reactionary and (2) conservative on the right and (3) revolutionary on the left adult education ideology to present a more complete picture of the whole ideological (not philosophical) spectrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Other organizing frameworks could also be included. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One , a matter-vis-à-vis-idea framework could be used to develop (1) materialist and (2) idealist AHE philosophy . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two , a historical framework could be used to develop (1) ancient or classical, (2) modern, & (2) post-modern adult education philosophy, although there is discussion on post-modern philosophy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three , works can be organized based on specific types of philosophy, such as (1) humanism, (2) existentialism, and (3) pragmatism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In many AHE textbooks (Elias & Merriam, 2005; Gilley, Dean & Bierema, 2001; Zinn, 1990), behaviorism , which properly belongs to educational psychology or research methods or both , was also erroneously included as part of philosophy of education. Behaviorism is more of a paradigm than a philosophy or ideology. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Not Philosophy (But Primarily Educational Psychology) Primarily Psychology- Based Theories Behaviorism (Remember) Cognitivism (Understand, Analyze) Constructivism (Apply, Create ) Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike, Watson Dewey, Piaget Mezirow, Self- Directed Learning, Postmodernism Humanism (Evaluate) Rogers, Maslow, Knowles
  12. 12. WHAT TO INCLUDE? 1) From Bigger Picture (Higher Level of Abstraction) 2) to Lower Level Analysis & Concrete Application
  13. 13. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context of Education 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology Analytic Logic of the Research Macro-Level Meso-Level Micro-Level
  14. 14. 1 Philosophy
  15. 15. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context of Education 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  16. 16. Philosophy Ontology Epistemology (Gnosiology or Gnoseology) Axiology (or the Study of Values and Ethics)
  17. 17. Ontology
  18. 18. Thinking Being Ontology (Guryev, 1990, p. 8)
  19. 19. Harris & Johnson (2007, p. 23) (Miller, 2007, p. 12) Scupin (2000, p. 126) Schultz & Lavenda (2005, p. 20) Relationship Between Thinking & Being Thinking, Ideas & Consciousness First Being, Matter & Practice First Idealism Materialism
  20. 20. Idealism Subjective Idealism Objective Idealism
  21. 21. Idealism Objective Idealism Subjective Idealism World Mind or Spirit is the basis of all Phenomena Objects are a Combo of Sensations Plato, Aquinas, Hegel Berkeley, Hume
  22. 22. Mutability & Connections Dialectics Metaphysics
  23. 23. Dialectics 1 Ancient Greek Spontaneous Materialist Dialectics 2 German Idealist Dialectics 3 Marxist Materialist Dialectics Heraclitus, Aristotle Kant, Hegel Marx, Engels, Lenin, Mao
  24. 24. Resolving Contradictions Giddens, Duneier, & Appelbaum (2005, p. 15) Materialist Philosophy Changing Space Time Historical Dialectical Context Partisan- ship Class, Gender, Ethnicity…
  25. 25. Time Diachronic History Synchronic Snapshot Giddens, Duneier, & Appelbaum (2005, p. 15)
  26. 26. Epistemology
  27. 27. (Trochim & Donnelly, 2007, p. 18) (Feder, in Rafferty & Ukaebgu, 1999, p. 29) Epistemology (Gnosiology or Gnoseology) The world is knowable The world is not knowable
  28. 28. Epistemology Knowable Not Knowable Materialism Idealism
  29. 29. Epistemology (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2) <ul><li>Freire: The “world [is] an objective reality , independent of oneself, capable of being known .” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Idealism vs. Materialism <ul><li>Idealism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth is subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All talk is good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth is objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need scientific verification </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Freire on Anti-Subjectivism (Oppressed, 1997, p. 34) <ul><li>Critique of Subjectivist view : “…the oppressed must confront reality critically, simultaneously objectifying and acting upon that reality. A mere perception of reality not followed by this critical intervention will not lead to a transformation of objective reality —precisely because it is not a true perception .” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Freire on Objectivity (Consciousness, 2002, p. 2) <ul><li>Materialism : “To be human is to engage in relationships with others and with the world . It is to experience that world as an objective reality , independent of oneself, capable of being known .” </li></ul>
  33. 33. 2 Paradigms
  34. 34. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context of Education 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  35. 35. Original Research Paradigm 3 Critical Theory 2 Interpretivism 1 Positivism
  36. 36. Storberg-Walker’s Typology (2007). Advances in Developing HR , AHRD, p. 319
  37. 37. My Revision! Research Paradigm 4 Objective Dialectical Critical Theory 3 Subjective Critical Theory 2 Interpretivism 1 Positivism
  39. 40. Reality Objectivity Subjectivity Materialism Idealism
  40. 41. Holistic Analysis Material Reality Reflection
  41. 42. 3 Ideology
  42. 43. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context of Education 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  43. 45. Left Center Right Generalized Ideological Divide
  44. 46. Revo. Third Soc. Dem Libertarian Conservative Reactionary Marxist World & Critical Specific Ideological Divide Plus Third World Hitherto Invisible
  45. 47. Human Beings Contradictions & Dialectical Historical Development in Time & Space Necessity, Oppressive Consciousness & Structure Economic Basis Politics Culture Ideology Freedom, Liberating Consciousness & Agency Class Gender Color Abilities Society Nature Philo Ethics Difference Uniqueness Age Psych 1 2 3 Ethnicity Centrifugal Forces Centripe t al Forces Rey Ty Past Future Present
  46. 48. 4 Philippine Context
  47. 49. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context of Education 5 Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  48. 50. Historical Stages <ul><li>1. Pre-Colonial Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative equality of women & men, communitarianism, respect elders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Colonial Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain, U.S., Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource extraction, labor, capital, export </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Post-Colonial Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. foreign domination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. feudalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. corruption & state repression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Conflicts <ul><li>1. Criminality & Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abu Sayyaf terrorist group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al Qaeda cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Philippine-wide revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Democratic Front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New People’s Army (NPA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Mindanao-wide conflict (Southern Philippines) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Bangsa Moro Army (BMA) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. 5 Axiology & Peace Education
  51. 53. 1 Philosophy & Education 2 Paradigm in Education 4 Context of Education 5 Peace Education 6 Social Transformation 3 Ideology
  52. 54. Education <ul><li>Freire, “the basic importance of education as an act of cognition , not only of the content , but of the “why” of economic, social, political, ideological, and historical facts , which explain…our conscious body, under which we find ourselves placed” (Hope, 1996, p. 102) </li></ul>
  53. 55. Social Sciences Anthropology Law Economics Politics Psychology Sociology
  54. 56. Educational Agenda for Social Change Conflict Resolution Education Peace Education More Psychological More Social Human Rights Education Civil & Political Rts : More Individual Econ, Soc, & Cult Rts: More Collective
  55. 57. Rauch & Steiner, 2006 Peace Education Development Education/ Global Learning Environmental Education Convergence
  56. 58. Johnson & Johnson, 2005 Civic Values Negotiations & Mediation Constructive Controversy Discourse Common Goals & Fate Integrated School Peace Education
  57. 59. University for Peace Personal Care Environmental Care Intercultural Solidarity & Common Humanity Human Rights & Responsibilities Justice & Compassion Conflict Resolution Peace
  58. 61. Anthropology, International Law, Law, Politics, Psychology & Sociology Conflict Resolution
  59. 62. Conflict Resolution Pro- Active Reactive
  60. 63. Conflict Resolution Non- Judicial Quasi- Judicial Judicial
  61. 64. Apology, Forgiveness, Amnesty, Seeking Justice & All Other CR Methods Cited in Previous Slide Dialogue & Debate Living & Doing Things Together Doing Social Work Together 1 2 3 Reading, Workshops & Learning about the Other Communities 4 5 Conflict Resolution Rey Ty Proactive: Reactive:
  62. 66. Gross Violations Debates History Rights Human Rights
  63. 67. 3 Views (Bull, 1997) 3 Grotian Internationalist 2 Kantian Universalist 1 “ Realist” Conservative Nationalist
  64. 68. Human Rights Debates 1 “ Asian Values” Vs. “ Western Values” 2 Universal or Culturally Relative? 3 Conservatives & Liberals Have Different Views Constructivists vs. Essentialists
  65. 69. Summary & Conclusion
  66. 70. Philosophy & Education Paradigm in Education Context of Education Education Social Transformation Ideology Thinking: Original Logical Analysis of the Research
  67. 71. Materialist Philosophy Critical Paradigm Historical Philippine Context Philippine Peace Education Programs Social Transformation in the Philippines Third World Ideology Implications Doing: Applied Synthesis of the Research
  68. 72. Materialism, Idealism, Metaphysics, Dialectics, Synchronic, & Diachronic Fatalism Dogmatism Universalizing the Particular Pragmatism Nihilism Extreme Subjectivism Solipsism Subjectivism Adventurism Romanticism Voluntarism Mechanistic Objectivism Implications
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