Organic Introduction - Saturated Compounds and Naming


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Organic Introduction - Saturated Compounds and Naming

  1. 1. Organic Chemistry Chapter 21, 22 (parts)
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry - is the study of compounds that contain carbon.There are lots of them.90% + of known compounds are OrganicWhy?Because carbon forms chains
  3. 3. HydrocarbonsOrganic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon.
  4. 4. AlkanesHydrocarbons containing only single covalent bondsEx: CH4 – methane – natural gasDot diagramDashes
  5. 5. Reminders about dot diagramsOnly show 2 D shapeCarbon likes to bond in ____ placesHydrogen likes to bond in ____ place
  6. 6. Dot diagram for C2H6
  7. 7. Straight-chain alkanesContain any number of C atoms, one after the other, in a chain.You should know the names of these next alkanes
  8. 8. First 10 straight-chained alkanesMethane CH4 CH4Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3Butane C4H10 CH3CH2CH2CH3Pentane C5H12 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3Hexane C6H14 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Heptane C7H16 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Octane C8H18 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Nonane C9H20 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3Decane C10H22 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
  9. 9. Homologous seriesA group of compounds in which there is a constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound in the series to the next.The alkanes differ by one CH2 group each timeCnH2n+2
  10. 10. Types of formulasMolecular formula – C4H10Complete structural formulaCondensed structural formula – C – H bonds are understood.Condensed structural formula – C-H and C-C bonds understoodCarbon skeleton; hydrogens understood
  11. 11. Draw a complete structural formula for thestraight-chained alkane having 3 carbons
  12. 12. Branched-chain AlkanesSubstituent – an atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule.Parent chain – the longest carbon chain. May not always be written in a straight line on paper.
  13. 13. Alkyl group – a hydrocarbon substituentCH3 – methylCH3CH2 – ethylCH3CH2CH2 – propylAlkyl group = alkane – 1 HName = -ane + ylWhat would CH3CH2CH2 CH2be called?
  14. 14. Branched-chain alkaneAn alkane with one or more alkyl groups attached.
  15. 15. Naming a branched-chain alkane1. Find the longest chain of carbons. This is the parent chain2. # the carbons on the parent chain. Starting with the end that will give the substituents the smallest numbers3. Add #s to the names of the substituent groups to identify their positions on the chain.
  16. 16.  4. Use prefixes to indicate if a group appears more than once. Di – 2 Tri – 3 Tetra – 4 Penta – 5 5. List the names of the alkyl substituents in alphabetical order (ignore prefixes when alphabetizing.) 6. Use proper punctuation Commas separate #s from #s Hyphens separate #s from words
  17. 17. Properties of alkanesNonpolar – electrons are shared about equallyVery weak van der Walls forces (dispersion)Have a low mass, low boiling pointDo not dissolve in water.Flammable
  18. 18. Unsaturated hydrocarbons Alkenes – hydrocarbons containing carbon- carbon double covalent bonds Unsaturated compounds – organic compounds that contain double or triple C-C bonds They have fewer than the number possible of H in their structure. Saturated hydrocarbons – alkanes – all single bonds. Have the maximum number of hydrogens possible.
  19. 19. Naming alkenes1. Find the longest chain in the molecule THAT CONTAINS the double bond. (parent)2. Root name from alkane -ane +ene3. # the chain so that the double bond gets the lowest possible #. (# is listed in the name)Subsituents named just like alkanes.
  20. 20. Naming alkynesAlkynes – hydrocarbons containing C-C triple bondsNamed just like alkenes, -yne instead of –ene
  21. 21. Hydrocarbon ringsCyclic hydrocarbons – compounds that contain a hydrocarbon ring.Aliphatic compounds – do not contain ringsAromatic compounds – compounds in which the bonding is like that of benzene.
  22. 22. Naming cyclic compoundsUse the prefix cyclo before the parent name
  23. 23. Benzene3 ways to drawPhenyl – a benzene substituent
  24. 24. IsomerismStructural isomers – compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures.
  25. 25. Isomers of C4H10
  26. 26. Isomers of C5H12
  27. 27. Isomers of C6H14
  28. 28. Mini Lab- Isomers of Heptane
  29. 29. Chapter 22 Functional Groups Most organic compounds contain things other than just C and H. Often contain O, N, S, P Functional group – a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions Organic compounds can be classified according to their functional group R – represents any carbon chains or rings attached to the functional group.
  30. 30. Organic Compounds Classified byFunctional GroupCompound type Compound structure Functional groupHalocarbon R – X (X =F,Cl,Br,I) HalogenAlcohol R – OH HydroxylEther R – O – R’ Ether
  31. 31. Organic Compounds Classified byFunctional GroupCompound type Compound structure Functional GroupAldehyde CarbonylKetone CarbonylCarboxylic Acid Carbonyl, hydroxyl
  32. 32. Organic Compounds Classified byFunctional GroupCompound type Compound structure Functional GroupEster EsterAmine AminoAmide Amido
  33. 33. Organic Compounds Classified byFunctional GroupCompound type Compound structure Functional GroupAmino Acid