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Pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction

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Pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction

Published in: Health & Medicine

Pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction

  1. 1. Pathophysiology of Intestinal Obstruction Adhesions- loops of intestine become adherent to  SCI, vertebral fractures areas that heal slowly or scar after abdominal surgery;  Abdominal surgery produce kinking of an intestinal loop  Peritonitis  Wound dehiscence Intussusception- one part of the intestine slips into  GI tract surgery another part located below it; intestinal lumen  Thrombosis, embolism becomes narrowed Volvulus- bowel twists and turns on itself; intestinal lumen becomes obstructed. Gas and fluid accumulate in the trapped bowel Hernia- protrusion of intestine through a weakened area in the abdominal muscle or wall; intestinal flow may be completely obstructed. blood flow to the area may be obstructed FUNCTIONAL ADYNAMIC NEUROGENIC Tumor- within the intestine, extends into the intestinal PARALYTIC ILEUS lumen; outside the intestine, pressure on the wall of the intestine; intestinal lumen becomes partially or completely obstructed. Cessation of peristalsis MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION Gases and fluids Bacterial Borborygmi accumulate in the activity area Inc contractions of Distension of proximal intestine intestine Inc intraluminal Persistent vomiting pressure Severe colicky abdominal pain Inc secretions into the intestine Loss of hydrogen ions, potassium Compression of veins Metabolic alkalosis Inc venous pressure Dec absorptionReynel Dan L. Galicinao BSN-IV, CCC MSU-IIT 13/07/09
  2. 2. Pathophysiology of Intestinal Obstruction Edema of the intestine Dec arterial Compression of blood supply terminal branches of mesenteric artery Ischemia, Anoxia Necrosis Perforation of necrotic Bacteria or segments toxins leak into: Gangrenous intestinal wall Peritoneal Blood cavity supply Dec Cessation of bowel peristalsis Peritonitis Bacteremia sounds Septicemia COMPLICATIONS  Dehydration due to loss of water, sodium, and chloride  Peritonitis  Shock due to loss of electrolytes and dehydration  Death due to shockReynel Dan L. Galicinao BSN-IV, CCC MSU-IIT 13/07/09

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